Parliament in GB begins to investigate! They hold hearings, calling in witnesses.
Primary Document Reading
Charles Dickens Play itunes Dickens
Turn to p. 716 in your textbook. Read the top under “What are Fair Working Conditions?” With your partner, discuss the two questions in the blue box
New Technology Divide your entire paper into six large boxes At the top of each box, label them accordingly : 1. Electricity and Power 2. Transportation 3. Products 4. Communication 5. Medicine 6. Other As you view the following slides and films, record all the new inventions in the appropriate boxes! 6. Other 5. Medicine 4. Communication 3. Products 2. Transportation 1. Electricity/Power
Into the 20th Century
Eli Whitney’s cotton gin removed the seeds out of raw cotton.
The steam engine was not just a transportation device. It ran entire factories the way rivers used to.
The transcontinental railroad made travel across the country faster, cheaper and more efficient.
The transcontinental RR met in Utah
Canals are manmade waterways dug between 2 large bodies of water.
The Erie Canal was a short cut from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes.
Erie Canal 1825
The Panama Canal was a shortcut from the Atlantic to the Pacific (or backwards).
Samuel Morse invented the telegraph. It communicated using a series of beeps (Morse code).
Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.
Andrew Carnegie owned US Steel.
Steel Mill at night.
John D. Rockefeller owned the railroads and the oil industries
Carnegie and Rockefeller ran their competition out of business.
A monopoly is when one company controls the entire industry.
The light bulb allowed factories to work at night.
1869-Dmitri Mendeleyev grouped elements according to weight (periodic table)
Earth formed over millions of years
Charles Darwin (On the Origin of Species)-evolution
1870-Louis Pasteur showed link between germs and disease, developed a vaccine for rabies and developed pasteurization
1914- knew yellow fever and malaria were caused by mosquitoes
People bathed more
Joseph Lister-insisted surgeons sterilize instruments and wash hands
Motion picture camera
While some progressives fought industry with labor unions and government regulation, others helped industry by using science in the workplace.
Ford’s assembly line
Henry Ford learned that the less people had to move, the faster they would work.
The first cars were very expensive.
The Model T was the first car that middle class people could afford.
The assembly line lowered the cost of the Model T from $825 to $300.
Philosophical Reactions to Industrialization Adam Smith Thomas Malthus David Ricardo Charles Darwin Social Darwinism John Stuart Mills Unions Women’s Suffrage Slavery Abolition
Adam Smith- CAPITALISM
Free market- Laissez- Faire
S elf interest
S upply and
Population increases faster than the food supply!
Is this true? When?
“Iron law of wages”
Believed that workers should only be paid enough to survive
If they make more, they will only have more children and therefore become poor again or die off from starvation
Permanent Underclass (like Malthus)
“Iron law of wages”
Workers should be satisfied with their wages because they are maintained at a natural level
Leads to the idea that poverty is caused by character flaws in an individual
Natural selection of the fittest
Species develop specialized traits to fit their environment
Separate notion from the biological argument. Not something Charles Darwin would have likely advocated!
Society should allow the weak and less fit to fail and die.
Pre-existing prejudices were rationalized by the notion that colonized nations, poor people, or disadvantaged minorities must have deserved their situations because they were “less fit” than those who were better off. (rationalized colonies and eugenics)
REFORM Brought by the IR
Invention of the steam engine in 1763 by James Watt shifts labor from humans and animals to machines
Inventions continue to make life, manufacturing, and farming easier and better
Continuous reinvestment of profits fuel even greater growth
Inventions in one area often led to inventions in others
Transportation and communication systems are greatly enhanced
Changes Brought by the Industrial Revolution
Cities begin to dominate the western world
Creates a new social order with the rise of an influential middle class
Poor working conditions for lower classes eventually lead to new social and political movements-Getting organized for reforms!
Need for markets and resources force Europeans to take over foreign lands ( imperialism )
By late 1800’s most European countries granted all men right to vote
Child labor laws
1909-8 hour work day for miners
Public schools set up- kids required to have basic education
Women’s Suffrage and Slavery Abolition
We hold these truths to be self evident that all men and women are created
Elizabeth Cady Stanton was the grandmother of the movement
Open up the text to p. R 57 in the back.
Stanton Group reading
Women all over the USA and Britain paraded and protested for suffrage.
Stanton and Susan B. Anthony fought for women’s rights.
Suffering Til Suffrage
WWI helped women get the vote because they worked so hard during WWI.
The Nineteenth Amendment gave women’s suffrage.
Labor unions struggled in the 1800s to fight for better working conditions (shorter work day, workers’ comp).
Unions went on strike, and they turned violent most of the time.
Skilled labor unions were more successful because they were harder to replace.
Progressives got laws passed that prohibited child labor.
Progressives passed laws limiting hours women worked.
Critics of the Industrial Revolution began advocating for a more even distribution of the wealth.
Utilitarianism- government needed only to create greatest good for greatest number of people.
John Stuart Mills- Questioned unregulated capitalism
More reforms in legal system and education
Rise of Socialism
Robert Owen set up an utopian system in his factories, creating an ideal working community – workers worked less, children were taken care of while parents worked, productivity and profit increased
Two Conflicting Economic Systems
(Marx and Engels)
Marx and Engles
Karl Marx and Frederick Engels witness the horrors of industrialization.
Together they write the Communist Manifesto
Believed capitalism would fail.
Took socialism to a new level
Proletariat will rise up against Bourgeoisie
Marx and Engels Proletarian cry for justice against the growing bourgeoisie: “ The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Workingmen of all countries, unite !”
Founders and their Works The Communist Manifesto Wealth of Nations Karl Marx/ Frederick Engels Adam Smith Communism Capitalism
Views on Government Communism Capitalism
Everything owned by government
Government closely regulates economy (sets prices, etc.)
Government should not interfere with economy – laissez faire
View on people
People should cooperate to obtain success, eliminating competition
Everyone should have an equal share of the available wealth/property
People become wealthy because they offer something – a product or service, that others want
Everyone has the opportunity to succeed
Government ownership of the economy will end unemployment, poverty, hunger, and slave-like working conditions
Through hard work people can lift themselves out of poverty
Government determines job placement
Religion considered a burden
Sacrifice freedom for security
People are free to choose their own careers
Freedom of religion
Freedom is more important than security
Capitalism is self-destructive
Workers will eventually rise up in a violent revolution and take power