8.4 (History) Understand significant political and economical issues of the revolutionary era.
Summary: Why Colonist Went to War
“ For over two centuries, the occupants of the American colonies lived peacefully under the rule of the English government. But, by 1775 the colonists had grown tired of being unfairly controlled by King George III and his parliament.”
“ Colonists wished to be treated like adults, not children. Each side refused to give in, which led to an all out war and eventual independence for the colonies.”
Timeline of Events Leading up to American Revolution Proclamation of 1763 1765 Quartering Act 1765 Stamp Act Townshend Act 1770 Boston Massacre Boston Tea Party 1773 1774 Intolerable Acts 1763 1767 *Click on the event name to learn more!*
Proclamation of 1763 Click flag for timeline
The colonists helped the British win the French and Indian war.
This victory gave England the land west of the Appalachian Mountains, all the way to the Mississippi River.
The King made a PROCLAMATION or an announcement in 1763 that the colonists could not go past the Appalachian Mountains.
This Proclamation angered the colonists since they also helped fight for that land!
Quartering Act 1765 Click flag for timeline King George III sent British soldiers to the colonies to “protect” the colonists from the French. To pay for the protection that the colonists were receiving, they were required to provide supplies and barracks (housing) for the British troops. The colonists were ordered to provide housing, food and transportation. This was a way for the King to put an indirect tax on the colonists. *Quartering* Act 1765 Click here to read the Quartering Act
The Stamp Act-1765
The Stamp Act was a law passed which imposed a tax on all American colonists. It required them to pay a tax on every piece of printed paper they used.
The Stamp Act required all legal documents, licenses, commercial contracts, newspapers, pamphlets and playing cards to carry a tax.
The money collected by the Stamp Act was to be used to help pay the costs of the British soldiers who were in America protecting the frontier.
Colonists boycotted British goods in order to get the Stamp Act repealed.
Click flag for timeline Example of a stamp showing that a colonist paid the stamp tax. Click the stamp to learn more and to see other examples!
Townshend Act-1767 Click flag for timeline
After the Stamp Act was repealed, a man by the name of Charles Townshend imposed an indirect tax on items such as lead, glass, paper and tea.
Townshend hoped that the colonists would not notice the price increase.
This indirect tax was collected at the sea ports before items reached colonial stores. Therefore, when the colonists went to buy these items, the tax was already included in the price. (Unlike the Stamp Act, where the colonists were aware of the added tax)
The colonists did recognize the indirect tax and once again boycotted British goods. Colonists were extremely upset with the unjust form of “Taxation without Representation!”
Click the tape to watch a clip on the Townshend Act!
Boston Massacre-1770 Engraving by: Paul Revere Click flag for timeline Click the newspaper to read the March 12, 1770 edition of the Boston Gazette reporting the Boston Massacre.
Tensions were growing higher between the colonists and the British soldiers.
On March 5, 1770 a crowd of people gathered in front of the Customs House and began harassing a British soldier.
The soldier called for helped and nine more soldiers were sent.
Insults and snowballs were thrown at the soldiers and in the commotion someone yelled, “Fire!.”
Many shots were fired and when the smoke cleared a total of 5 townspeople had been killed.
The people of Boston were furious and demanded that the soldiers be tried and executed for the killings.
Boston Tea Party 1773 Click flag for timeline
On December 16, 1773 the Sons of Liberty, who were led by Samuel Adams, dressed up as Mohawk Indians and headed to the Boston Harbor.
These Radical Patriots quickly and quietly boarded three different ships arming themselves with axes and hatchets.
The group disguised as Native Americans threw 342 crates of tea overboard, destroying the precious British tea.
This act of defiance made King George III furious and he told the Patriots they would be punished!
Intolerable Acts ~ 1774
*Due to Massachusetts’ constant resistance to parliamentary rule and as punishment for the Boston Tea Party, the King and his Parliament passed a series of laws to limit political and geographical freedoms. These laws were called the Coercive Acts or Intolerable Acts.
1. The Boston Harbor would be closed until the East India Tea Company was repaid fully for the tea lost at the “Tea Party.”
2. Quartering Act was extended to publicly occupied buildings.
3. British Officials could not be tried in colonial courts for their crimes; instead, they would be sent back to Britain to receive punishment.
Colonial charters, which stated rules and government set up, were annulled and British Governors were in complete control of town meetings.
The border of Canada was now extended into the western colonies of Connecticut, Massachusetts and Virginia.
First Continental Congress 1774
The American colonists banded together to fight back after the British enforced the Intolerable Acts.
Representatives met in Philadelphia to try to figure out a compromise that could be made with England.
Congress voted to cut off colonial trade with Great Britain until Parliament abolished the Intolerable Acts.
Congress also decided to being training men for war, fearing war with England was inevitable.
King George III and Parliament did not acknowledge or respect the requests of the colonists.
"The shot heard around the world" BATTLE OF LEXINGTON AND CONCORD-1774 Click on Paul Revere to learn more!
The British soldiers marched out of Boston to seize the colonists’ gunpowder and firearms in Concord, Massachusetts .
Paul Revere helped alert the Minutemen that the British were on the move by hanging lanterns in the church steeple. He also rode through the town to warn that, “The British are coming!”
Although the Minutemen were ready for the British in Lexington, Massachusetts , they were out numbered and defeated.
Messengers were able to warn colonists in Concord, Massachusetts and only a portion of the supplies were destroyed.
Test your knowledge! *Now that you have read and reviewed the reasons for the American Revolution, click on the different activities to see how much you have learned! The Road to the Revolution The American Revolution Interactive Quiz Boston Massacre Secret Agent Case Interactive Crossword Puzzle Glencoe: Causes of American Revolution Self Check Quiz
“ Test your knowledge about the American Revolution, and see if you can navigate your way to independence. Every correct answer gets you closer to liberty!”
Click the map to begin your journey to liberty! http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/road.html Back to Activity Board
The American Revolution: Interactive Quiz Lesson 4: Boston Massacre and Boston Tea Party Lesson 5: First Continental Congress Lesson 6: The Minutemen and The Battle of Lexington and Concord Click on the picture and go to QUIZ for the following lesson topics. Each event can also be reviewed by clicking LESSON on the website. Back to Activity Board
Boston Massacre FILES You are a secret agent and have been sent on a mission to find out what really happened on the evening of March 5, 1770. Click on the detective to begin the investigation! Back to Activity Board
Interactive Crossword Puzzle
Take the crossword puzzle challenge!
Fill out the puzzle using the terms from the word list. If you need help, click on the box labeled “INSTRUCTIONS.”
When you finish, click the “CHECK” box and see if you met the challenge!
Click the crossword puzzle to begin! Back to Activity Board
Microsoft Clip Art: http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/default.aspx
Picture of British flag: www.thebattlezone.com/.../ fpa015.jpg
Picture of Colonial flag: www.betsyrosshouse.org/ gifts.html
Proclamation of 1763 Map: www.glencoe.com/ qe/qe96.php?qi=2482
American Revolution pictures : http://www.americanrevolution.com/PicturesoftheRevolutionaryWar.htm
Waving flag and Causes of Revolution:http://www.harlingen.isd.tenet.edu/coakhist/amrev.html#PRE
Reasons for war: http://www.usfca.edu/fac-staff/conwell/revolution/openingpage.htm