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Lecture 10
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  • 1. Designing Static and Dynamic Web Sites Copyright © BSIT-GMU. All rights reserved.
  • 2. Static Web Site vs. Dynamic Web Site  Static Site  Each page generally stays the same, changing neither content nor appearance in response to users’ actions.  Dynamic Site  Pages with appearance and content that change based on users input.  Pages could do fancy things:  Saving information to a file on a server  Selling something online  Interacting with your users  Providing personalized content 2
  • 3. HTML (HyperText Markup Language)   HTML is a markup language used to create Web pages.  HTML documents must be saved in ASCII format and include the file extension .html or .htm.  Example of basic HTML document Structure 3 <HTML> <HEAD> <TITLE> IT 213: Multimedia and Computer Graphics, 3 units </TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> IT 213 is a fun class! </BODY> </HTML>
  • 4. XML (EXtensible Markup Language)   XML is a markup language that uses both predefined and customized tags to facilitate the consistent sharing of information.  XML was designed to describe data by tags.  Most XML tags are not predefined in XML. You must define your own tags (using a DTD). See example 4
  • 5. XHTML (EXtensible HyperText Markup Language)   XML is the basis for the latest W3C recommendations (XHTML 1.1).  A W3C Recommendation means that the specification is stable, that it has been reviewed by the W3C members, and that the specification is now a Web standard.  XHTML is aimed to replace HTML. It provides more robust, assessable and extensible features than HTML. 5
  • 6. WML (Wireless Markup Language)   WML is an XML-based markup language used to design Web pages specifically for wireless devices.  WML uses Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) to allow Internet access by wireless devices. 6
  • 7. CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)   CSS allows developers to create style rules for elements and express them externally in a document called style sheets.  Styles define how to display (X)HTML elements.  Developers can control the presentation and layout of multiple Web pages all at once. 7
  • 8. JavaScript  JavaScript is a client-side scripting language  Embedded directly into HTML/XHTML  Supported by all major browsers, such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Firefox, and Opera.  JavaScript was designed to add interactivity to HTML/XHTML pages  Animation, Calculations, Check forms, Write interactive games, Add special effects, and Create security passwords, etc. See example1, example2 8
  • 9. AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)  AJAX is NOT a standard defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).  AJAX  XHTML and CSS  JavaScript  The Document Object Model (DOM)  XML (XSLT and XPath)  The XMLHttpRequest object (XHR)  AJAX allows a web developer to create interactive and dynamic Web applications. 9
  • 10. Server-side Scripting / Programming 10
  • 11. Web Server  A program or computer that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients (e.g., Web browsers) and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents (e.g., HTML documents) and linked objects (e.g., images).  Popular Web servers  Apache ( – 61%  See more information here  Microsoft IIS ( – 31%  See more information here  Sun (  See more information here  Zeus (  See more information here 11
  • 12. Server Basics  Server’s Root Directory  The directory that has been configured to contain all Web pages  Does not necessarily appear in the URL  e.g., /home/u1/username/public_html  Index Files  If no specific document is identified after a slash (/):  Display the contents of a default file  Display the contents of the directory 12
  • 13. Server Basics  Directory Structures  Organized into a hierarchical “upside-down tree” structure  Pathname: the notation used to point to a particular file or directory  Absolute pathname  / : the root directory  Relative pathname  ./ : the current directory  ../one directory up 13
  • 14. Web Database  Database - An integrated collection of data.  Database Management System (DBMS) - A programs that let you deal with the data in your database  Database Server - A program that provides database services or a computer that is dedicated to running such a program  Database Driver - Helps other programs access a database  Database Interface - Provides uniform access to all database systems 14
  • 15. ASP (Active Server Pages)  ASP is a server-side scripting language used to create and run dynamic, interactive, high-performance Web server applications.  Embedded directly into HTML/XHTML  ASP file has the file extension ".asp”.  ASP runs inside IIS (Internet Information Services).  What can ASP do for you?  Dynamically edit, change or add any content of a Web page  Respond to user queries or data submitted from HTML forms  Access any data or databases and return the results to a browser  Customize a Web page to make it more useful for individual users See example 15
  • 16. PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor)  PHP is a open source, server-side, cross-platform scripting language for creating dynamic Web pages.  Embedded directly into HTML/XHTML  PHP file has the file extension ".php", ".php3", or ".phtml"  Why PHP?  PHP runs on different platforms (Windows, Linux, Unix, etc.)  PHP is compatible with almost all servers used today (Apache, IIS, etc.)  PHP supports many databases (MySQL, Informix, Oracle, Sybase, Solid, PostgreSQL, Generic ODBC, etc.)  FREE to download from the official PHP resource: 16
  • 17. CGI and Perl  CGI (Common Gateway Interface) is a standard protocol (a set of rules and definitions) that allows a program and a web server to interact with each other.  CGI scripts can be written in any programming language, including C, C++, Perl, etc.  Perl is most commonly used for writing CGI scripts  Perl (Practical Extraction and Report Language)  It is powerful and available free of charge.  CGI file has the file extension ".cgi", or ".pl" 17
  • 18. ColdFusion  ColdFusion is a web server & development framework  Enable quick and easy development of data-driven and dynamic Web sites  ColdFusion is a cross-platform Web server (e.g., Windows, Mac, Linux, Solaris, etc.)  Pages are written in its server-side, tag-based ColdFusion Markup Language (CFML)  ColdFusion integrates with databases, e-mail servers, and other enterprise systems  CFML file has file extension “.cfm” See examples 18
  • 19. Ruby on Rails (RoR or Rails)  RoR is an open-source framework for developing data- driven Web applications using the Ruby scripting language  Agile development methodology  Rapid Web development  Web Server: Mongrel, WEBrick, Lighttpd, Abyss, Apache  Pre-installed on Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard"  Extensive use of JavaScript libraries for Ajax 19
  • 20. Other Popular Server-Side Technologies  Java Web Technologies  Java Servlets  JavaServer Pages (JSP)  JavaServer Faces (JSF)  ASP.NET Web Technologies 20
  • 21. References Gary B. Shelly, H. Albert Napier, & Ollie Rivers. (2009) Web Design: Introductory Concepts and Techniques, Course Technology, Boston, MA. (Third Edition.) Terry Felke-Morris. (2006) Web Development & Design Foundations with XHTML, Pearson Education, Boston, MA. (Third Edition). Jennifer Niederst Robbins. (2006) Web Design in a Nutshell, O’Reilly, Sebastopol, CA. (Third Edition). H. M. Deitel, P. J. Deitel, and A. B. Goldberg. (2004) Internet & World Wide Web How To Program. Pearson Eduation, Upper Saddle River, NJ. (Third Edition).