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Course overview: php, MySql, diagrams. Requirements - PowerPoint ...

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  • Some content, in the form of a whirlwind tour overview, some administration. We will have orientation to Moodle. Generally, I will begin classes with overview and indication of the homework, more detail to follow.
  • We will stop what we are doing and do the Courseinfo/Blackboard orientation when they get here.
  • Will show some textbooks. These will be available to borrow.
  • Course involves programming. The aesthetic attributes are not focus of this course. We will discuss some user-interface issues. A key principle is that you do not require your user to be perfect, but you check what is put in
  • Data bases have very fixed forms and terminology due to successful standardization (and still many competitors).
  • Example of standardization.
  • The ‘relational’ in relational database refers to the links done by the foreign keys.
  • question, answer, points are fields in the questions table. chosencategory is also a field in the questions database. There are other SQL statements. In particular, there are more complex Select statements involving more than one table. These are called ‘joins’.
  • We will do an exercise if the lab computers are ready.
  • The course has enough in it already without teaching these tools.
  • ER diagram for quiz show. Note: the history table has relations with each of the other two tables. The primary key of the history table is the pair: question_id and player_id.
  • Data flow diagram (process diagram) for quiz show
  • Story board. Thicker Links with round bases represent handling of form. Names are readable versions of file names.
  • ER diagram for on-line store. The connectors, often called crow’s feet, indicate the cardinality, the possible numbers of the relationships: each ordered item relates to exactly 1 product and exactly one order. Each order is for exactly one customer. However, a customer can have zero or more orders. An order includes at least one ordered item (the 1 is indicated by the vertical line.)
  • Data flow (process) diagram for on-line store. Note that this is the information/data flow, not the flow of goods. The orange indicates processes and associated agents NOT implemented in the example I will present.
  • Story board. Thicker Links with round bases represent handling of form. Names are readable versions of file names.
  • Return to the practical (implementation): standard Web.
  • This is new stuff and is evolving. But there already are many applications and much on-line support available.
  • There are other languages for server-side aka middleware
  • You will learn more about this in CS programming courses, especially Processing and Java. We also make use of objects in ActionScript in the Programming Games course.
  • Open Source code is open for comments and suggestions. It is free (though some companies charge for service of installing and maintaining it). Linux is an open source operating system.
  • Sample php
  • Some purists will argue with this summary.
  • PLEASE take survey. Study charts. We will go over everything again.


  • 1. Creating Databases for Web applications Introductions & overview Administration Moodle HW: Sign on & register for course on Moodle. Take survey. Review HTML (esp. forms). Review Flash/ActionScript.
  • 2. Introductions
    • Jeanine Meyer, Math/Computer Science & New Media.
      • Ph.D. in Computer Science
      • IBM Research, IBM EduQuest (corporate grants). Pace University. Consulting/k-12 Faculty development
      • books: Multimedia in the Classroom, Programming Games using Visual Basic, Creating Databases Web Applications with PHP and ASP, Beginning Scripting through Game Creation
    • Learning assistant: William Killoran
    • You
  • 3. General objectives
    • Learn how to learn
      • Practice looking up and using sources
    • Learn how to build large[r] applications
      • Make proposals, make and use diagrams
    • Work in teams
    • Make presentations
    • Practice concise writing
      • Blog entries, abstracts (1-pagers)
  • 4. Moodle
    • Instructional support tool
    • IT IS A REQUIREMENT that you check this regularly.
      • You will be required to make postings to specific Discussion Forums. Hopefully, you will make additional postings.
      • You are required to read postings.
  • 5. Books
    • There will be assignment(s) to find and describe on-line sources
    • Reference: Creating Web Databases with PHP and ASP
      • Note: Coding examples in book for old php.
      • Much is relevant: general background on middleware, HTML, SQL. Design of examples.
    • MANY other books
  • 6. Course structure
    • Each day will include lecture, demonstration, discussion, exercises
    • Postings, homework
    • team presentations (explanation and enhancements of sample projects)
    • midterm & final quiz, plus
    • one original project (can be team)
      • initial presentation, with diagrams
      • Final presentation, including demonstration, showing of working code
    • Extra credit: talks on suggested topics (for example, alternatives to php such as ASP.net, Ruby on Rails, etc.)
  • 7. Course content
    • Course content: practical and (some) theoretical tools for creating Web applications involving databases.
    • (Systems design) Describe (logical) function using diagrams
      • Entity relationship
      • Data Flow diagrams
      • Storyboard
    • (Systems build) Requires middleware=server-side tools. We will use Open Source software (PHP and MySQL)
  • 8. What is a data base?
    • A data base is organized information. A data base management system is a product that supports implementation & use of databases.
    • HOWEVER, generally, the term database is reserved for something using a standard DBMS product
      • DBMS is the product/tool: MySQL, Access, (Oracle, DBII, etc.)
      • The specific database, for example, the [toy] database examples for this course, are implemented using a particular DBMS
  • 9. Database as distinct from:
    • Flat file
      • For example, will show php code used for the state capital quiz. This is an example of parallel structures : two arrays, one for the names of the states and one for the names of the capitals.
    • XML file
    • Linked lists
    • Hash table
    • ?
  • 10. A Database
    • … consists of tables
      • Tables hold records (= rows)
        • Records hold fields = attributes (= columns)
    • A relational database supports fields in a record that point to/link/refer to records in the same or other tables.
    • Database(s) most probably exist on campus
      • student table: major, gpa, address.
      • course table: section, instructor, time, location
      • enrollments: section & student, semester
  • 11. All together now
    • Database
      • Tables
        • Records
          • Fields
    • Relationships: fields that refer to records in the same or other tables.
  • 12. Database terminology
    • Primary key: field that uniquely defines a record. Often generated automatically by DBMS
    • foreign key: field in record in table that ‘is’/points to a record in another database
      • orderlist = table of orders. Each order includes as one of the fields a customer id. This customer made the order.
  • 13. Structured Query Language
    • Unlike much else in computing, databases follow standards. Everything said so far applies to MySQL, Access, etc.
    • SQL is … [a] structured query language.
      • SELECT question, answer, points FROM questions WHERE category = chosencategory
      • INSERT INTO customers VALUES (fname, lname, billing, email, pass)
      • Syntax (format & punctuation) is tricky!
  • 14. MySQL
    • Open source dbms we will use with php.
    • (some actions) done using phpmyadmin
      • May do initial definition of tables
      • May use for debugging
        • did my php script put something in my database?
    • We (our php code) create(s) SQL to access / modify the database
  • 15. Systems Design
    • …refers to functional specification of system (what it should do , not especially how it looks or how it is done)
    • Use diagrams to specify databases, processes, scripts/Web pages.
      • tools (computer aided systems engineering=CASE tools) & methodologies exist. We will be less formal. Create diagrams using PowerPoint or any drawing tool.
  • 16. Diagrams
    • Are important!
    • Will use [at least] 3 types in this course
      • Entity relationship
        • Show data and relationships
      • Data flow
        • Show agents, programs, data stores
      • Story board
        • Connections between programs (scripts)
  • 17. Question databank table question_id Question Answer (answer pattern) Value Category Players table player_id Player name Score lastplayed date history table question_id player_id whenplayed correct 0 0 ER diagram
  • 18. Player Editor Play game Edit questions Questions DB Player scores Data flow diagram (process diagram) for quiz show History DB
  • 19. Create quiz tables (php only) Input Questions (handles form input) Choose category Ask question Check answer Clear tables Include/Required file: opendbq Show scores Storyboard
  • 20. Product catalog Product id Product name Picture Cost Customer list Customer ID first name last name Billing information E-mail Password Order list Order ID Customer ID Date Status Total Ordered items Order ID Product Quantity 0 ER diagram for on-line store 0
  • 21. Customer Billing system (timed event) Browse/Order Billing Catalog Customer list Current orders Ordered items Shipping clerk Shipping Data flow (process) diagram for on-line store. Note that this is the information/data flow, not the flow of goods. The shipping operation produces a physical product: the collection of ordered items, packed and set off for delivery.
  • 22. Storyboard of partial implementation: ordering Create tables (php only) Include/require: opendbo Input products Order product makeorder Shopping cart Submit order Delete current customer cookie Include/require: displaycartfunction
  • 23. Web terminology: standard
    • Web files are stored on the server computer.
    • The browser (IE, Firefox, Opera, etc.) is on the client computer.
    • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) files are requested by the browser from the server and interpreted by the browser. This could include display of image files, FLASH, etc.
    • Stateless system: server does not ‘remember’ anything between requests.
  • 24. but, stateless-ness wasn’t good enough
    • … to support real, practical applications involving
      • files and databases
      • state information—information valid across multiple pages
    • Need for so-called middleware / server-side
    • Alternatives were/are Common Gateway Interface (cgi) programming and Java applets.
  • 25. Three-tier implementation model
    • Code to be run on the client (by browser)
      • HTML and JavaScript
    • Code to be run on the server
      • php
    • Code (queries) executed by the DBMS
      • SQL queries constructed by php code
  • 26. Three tier logic model
    • Presentation
    • Business logic
    • Information
  • 27. Server-side / Middleware
    • Files (aka scripts) ‘in’ PHP (, ASP, cold fusion , etc.) are requested by browser. However, the server processes the PHP instructions in the files to
      • produce an HTML file for interpretation by the browser and
      • access & modify data (files, databases) on the server. NOTE: database(s) are on the server!
      • store & access so-called cookies on the client computer. Cookie is a special, small file.
    extra credit opportunity
  • 28. Development / testing for class
    • Create / register to have MySql database
    • We/you will create html files, swf files PLUS php files
    • Upload all files to your site (account)
    • Some php files (aka scripts) will create tables
    • Some html and php files will populate (put data into) tables
    • Some html and php files will implement working applications
  • 29. Contrast
    • This is not like general practice of testing on your computer and later uploading complete tested application!
  • 30. Objects
    • General computer science concept
    • An object (object instance) contains data (attributes, properties) and programs (methods, operations)
    • Object oriented programming system = OOPS
  • 31. PHP
    • Personal Home Page  PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor
    • Language plus a set of built-in procedures and properties
      • language includes support for user-defined objects.
    • Open Source
  • 32. Warnings
    • SQL is a very powerful language.
      • It may take time to produce 1 SQL statement
        • The equivalent of many lines of code in another programming language.
    • Writing php code, including code generating SQL statements, can involve complex syntax
      • For example, single quotes within double quotes
      • References to variables within quoted strings.
  • 33. General format of SELECT
    • SELECT [modifier such as DISTINCT] field1, field2, expression [COUNT(field)] FROM tablea, tableb, … WHERE condition(s)
    • GROUP BY fieldx ORDER BY fieldy HAVING condition LIMIT n, m
  • 34. $sel="SELECT question_id, question, ans, value from questions "; $sel= $sel . " WHERE category= '" . $pickedcategory. "'"; $result=mysql_db_query($DBname, $sel, $link); $NoR=mysql_num_rows($result); Single quote within double quotes
  • 35. Reprise
    • When we write php, we write
      • plain HTML
      • php that uses functions that use operating system on server
        • read/write files
        • send email
      • php that produces HTML
      • php that sends SQL to MySQL and gets results back that php uses to produce HTML
  • 36. Preview
    • We may use Microsoft Access (and Open Office Base) to demonstrate stand-alone use of a DBMS
    • Note: previous classes uses Access and asp on the server
  • 37. Homework
    • Visit Moodle course site.
      • Take First Day survey
    • Find, briefly review and post assessment of on-line source for PHP NOTE: will repeat this for other topics
    • Review HTML forms and Flash ActionScript
      • See my on-line examples
  • 38. Homework, cont.
    • New procedures for obtaining web publishing space AND MySQL accounts.
    • Sign up for this and save all information.