The IP address is used to determine the exact location of the
destination network where the device exists.
TCP is a Transport layer protocol whose primary function is
to provide reliable delivery of data through a connection
Sending data through TCP is a two-part process
The sender and receiver exchange a ‘handshake’ to
establish communication, and then acknowledgements
are sent to verify that data was received.
Acknowledgements are being sent throughout the
TCP / IP
Benefits of TCP/IP: TCP/IP is commonly used as the Transport and Network layer protocol for these reasons: 1. It support almost all network operating systems. It is the required protocol for communicating over the Internet. if you want to connect to the Internet your computer has to use TCP/IP. 2. The protocol is designed to be fault tolerant and is able to dynamically reroute packets if network links become unavailable (assuming alternate paths exist). TCP / IP
Benefits of TCP/IP: 3. Protocol companions such as Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) simplify IP address management. 4. Domain Name System (DNS) is used with TCP/IP to resolve a fully qualified domain name (FQDN), such as sybex.com with its corresponding IP address. 5. TCP/IP is scalable to small and large networks. TCP / IP
Disadvantages of TCP/IP Although TCP/IP and the Internet have been wildly successful, using this protocol has disadvantages. 1. Managing IP addresses is complicated and cumbersome. IP address errors are usually due to administrative error. 2. Troubleshooting TCP/IP problems on your network requires an understanding of how TCP/IP works and of the more than a dozen protocols that are included in the suite. TCP / IP
Disadvantages of TCP/IP 3. Taking advantage of some of the best features of the TCP/IP suite requires considerable skill and knowledge. Depending on your type of business, mastering TCP/IP will require a significant amount of education for you or necessitate the hiring of an expert. TCP / IP
Class B networks are identified by the first two octets, the first
of which ranges from 128 to 191.
Class C networks (the smallest) are identified by the first three
octets, the first of which ranges from 192 to 223.
254 = (2 8 - 2) 2,097,152 = (2 21 ) d a.b.c 192 - 223 C 65,534 = (2 16 - 2) 16,384 = (2 14 ) c.d a.b 128 – 191 B 16,777,214 = (2 24 - 2) 128 = (2 7 ) b.c.d a 0 – 127 A Possible number of hosts Possible number of networks Host ID Network ID Range of first octet Class
A large company is assigned a class A network, and
segregates it further into smaller sub-nets using Classless
Machines not connected to the outside world (e.g. factory
machines that communicate with each other via TCP/IP)
need not have globally-unique IP addresses.
Three ranges of IPv4 addresses for private networks, one
per class, were standardized by RFC 1918; these
addresses will not be routed, and thus need not be
coordinated with any IP address registrars.
TCP / IP 192.168.255.255 192.168.0.0 The 16-bit Block 172.31.255.255 172.16.0.0 The 20-bit Block 10.255.255.255 10.0.0.0 The 24-bit Block End of range Start of range IANA Reserved Private Network Ranges
Currently, only Class C addresses are available. The supply
of IP addresses has dwindled to the point that all addresses
are almost allocated.
A new IP addressing scheme with 6 octets, 48 bits is in the
works. “Known as IPv6, this standard will supply billions of
new IP addresses.
When you configure a network device with TCP/IP, you
typically need three pieces of information:
i ) IP address
ii) Subnet mask
iii) Default gateway
TCP / IP IP ADDRESS Each network device needs a unique IP address. The system administrator, or someone who coordinates IP address assignment and configuration, should assign this address from the pool of addresses assigned by Inter-NIC or your ISP.
TCP / IP SUBNET MASK A subnet mask defines which part of the IP address is the network address and which is the host address. By defining subnet masks, you specify which network your node belongs to. With this information and the destination address for your data, TCP/IP can determine whether source and destination nodes are on the same network segment. If they are on different segments, routing will be needed.
TCP / IP DEFAULT ROUTER OR GATEWAY You need a default router, or gateway, configured on your workstations if you want your packets routed over an internet-work. The default router is the IP address of the local router that you use to connect your network to the internet. The workstation needs to have this information if it wants to send packets out to the Internet. Without it, the workstation is clueless about where to send packets destined for external networks.
TCP/IP REFERENCE MODEL TCP/IP reference model originates from the grandparent of all computer networks, the ARPANET and now is used in its successor, the worldwide Internet. The name TCP/IP of the reference model is derived from two primary protocols of the corresponding network architecture.
The application layer is on the top of the transport layer.
It contains all the higher level protocols. Some of them are:
Virtual terminal (TELNET) - allows a user on one
machine to log into a distant machine and work there.
File transfer protocol (FTP) - provides a way to move
data efficiently from one machine to another.
Electronic mail (SMTP) - specialized protocol for
Domain name service (DNS) - for mapping host names
onto their network addresses.
TCP/IP REFERENCE MODEL
HOST-TO-NETWORK LAYER Bellow the internet layer there is a great void. The TCP/IP reference model does not really say much about what happens here, except to point out that the host has to connect to the network using some protocol so it can send IP packet over it. This protocol is not defined and varies from host to host and network to network. TCP/IP REFERENCE MODEL