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• 1. NETWORK TOPOLOGY
• 2.
• PHYSICAL TOPOLOGY
• What is a Topology?
• Network topology defines the structure of the network.
• One part of the topology definition is the physical topology,
• which is the actual layout of the wire or media.
• The other part is the logical topology, which defines how the
• media is accessed by the hosts for sending data.
• The following sections discuss the physical topologies used
• in networks.
• 3. TYPES OF PHYSICAL TOPOLOGIES
• BUS TOPOLOGY
• RING TOPOLOGY
• STAR TOPOLOGY
• MESH TREE TOPOLOGY
• EXTENDED STAR TOPOLOGY
• HIERARCHIAL TOPLOGY
• 4. TYPES OF PHYSICAL TOPOLOGIES
• 5. BUS TOPOLOGY A bus topology uses a single backbone cable that is terminated at both ends. All the hosts connect directly to this backbone.
• 6.
• A bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a
• terminator at each end.
• All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are
• connected to the linear cable.
• Ethernet and Local Talk networks use a linear bus topology.
BUS TOPOLOGY
• 7.
• COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR BUS TOPOLOGY:
• CO-AXIAL CABLE
• BNC CONNECTOR
• T-CONNECTOR
• TERMINATE RESISITOR
• ETHERNET CARD
• Terminate Resistor - A device that provides electrical
• resistance at the end of a transmission line. Its function
• is to absorb signals on the line, thereby keeping them
• from bouncing back and being received again by the network.
• 8.
• Advantages of a Bus Topology
• Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a bus Topology.
• Requires less cable length than a star topology.
• Disadvantages of a Bus Topology
• Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
• Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
• Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.
• Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large
• building.
• 9. RING TOPOLOGY A ring topology connects one host to the next and the last host to the first. This creates a physical ring of cable.
• 10.
• A bus topology consists of a main run of cable with a
• terminator at each end.
• All nodes (file server, workstations, and peripherals) are
• connected to the linear cable.
• Ethernet and Local Talk networks use a linear bus topology.
RING TOPOLOGY
• 11.
• COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR RING TOPOLOGY:
• CO-AXIAL CABLE
• BNC CONNECTOR
• T-CONNECTOR
• ETHERNET CARD
• 12.
• Advantages of a Ring Topology
• Easy to connect a computer or peripheral to a bus Topology.
• Requires less cable length than a star topology.
• Disadvantages of a Ring Topology
• Entire network shuts down if there is a break in the main cable.
• Terminators are required at both ends of the backbone cable.
• Difficult to identify the problem if the entire network shuts down.
• Not meant to be used as a stand-alone solution in a large
• building.
• 13. STAR TOPOLOGY A star topology connects all cables to a central point of concentration.
• 14. STAR TOPOLOGY
• A star topology is designed with each node (file server,
• workstations, and peripherals) connected directly to a
• central network hub or switch.
• Data on a star network passes through the hub or switch
• before continuing to its destination.
• The hub or switch manages and controls all functions of
• the network. It also acts as a repeater for the data flow.
• This configuration is common with twisted pair cable,
• it can also be used with fiber optic cable also.
• 15. STAR TOPOLOGY
• 16.
• COMPONENTS REQUIRED FOR STAR TOPOLOGY:
• TWISTED PAIR CABLE
• RJ45 CONNECTOR
• ETHERNET CATD
• HUB OR SWITCH
• Advantages of a Star Topology
• Easy to install and wire.
• No disruptions to the network while connecting
• or removing devices.
• Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.
• 17.
• Disadvantages of a Star Topology
• Requires more cable length than a bus topology.
• If the hub or switch fails, nodes attached are disabled.
• More expensive than bus topologies because of the cost
• of the concentrators.
• The protocols used with star configurations are usually
• Ethernet or Local Talk. Token Ring uses a similar topology
• called the star-wired ring.
• 18.
• MESH / TREE TOPOLOGY
• A tree topology combines characteristics of linear bus
• and star topologies. It consists of groups of star-configured
• workstations connected to a linear bus backbone cable.
• Tree topologies allow for the expansion of an existing
• network and enable schools to configure a network to
• meet their needs.
• 19.
• 20.
• Advantages of a Mesh / Tree Topology
• Point-to-point wiring for individual segments.
• Supported by several hardware and software venders.
• Disadvantages of a Mesh / Tree Topology
• Overall length of each segment is limited by the type of
• cabling used.
• If the backbone line breaks, the entire segment goes down.
• More difficult to configure and wire than other topologies.
• 21. Extended Star Topology An extended star topology links individual stars together by connecting the hubs and/or switches.This topology can extend the scope and coverage of the network.
• 22. Hierarchical Topology A hierarchical topology is similar to an extended star.
• 23.
• CONSIDERATIONS WHEN CHOOSING A TOPOLOGY
• Money
• A linear bus network may be the least expensive
• way to install a network.
• 2. Length of cable needed
• The linear bus network uses shorter lengths of cable.
• 3. Future growth
• With a star topology, expanding a network is easily
• done by adding another concentrator.
• 4. Cable type
• The most common cable using in LAN is unshielded
• twisted pair, which is most often used with star topologies.
• 24.