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Orientation to Serious Games

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  • 1.  AN  ORIENTATION  TO  SERIOUS  GAMES    Fall  2011    by  Anne  Derryberry  Analyst,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons  Producer/Designer,  I’m  Serious  
  • 2. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   2  Table  of  Contents  Sec@on  1:    What  Is  a  Game?  Sec@on  2:    The  Serious  Side  of  Games  Sec@on  3:    Examples  of  Serious  Games    Sec@on  3:    Essen@al  Terminology  
  • 3. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   3   WHAT  IS  A  GAME?   Sec@on  1  
  • 4. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   4  Common  Game  ARributes  •  No  single,  unified  defini@on  of  “game”  •  Essen@al  elements  include:   •  Bounded  game  space,  including  ar@facts   •  End-­‐state  goal  =  winning   •  Conflict(s)  or  challenge(s)   •  Rules   •  Player(s)  •  No  technology  requirement.  Most  game-­‐oriented  learning   ini@a@ves  are  technology-­‐based.  
  • 5. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   5  A  Game  Is  a  Complex  System  •  Rules  •  Variable  and  quan@fiable  outcomes   •  Content,  context,  goals  are  factors  each  @me  game  is  played  •  Outcomes  “economy”   •  Both  posi@ve  (harder  to  reach)  and  nega@ve  (easier  to  reach)   •  Reflected  through  levels,  points,  badges,  grades  •  Player(s)  and  player  work/effort/investment   •  Players  must  do  things  (e.g.  complete  tasks),  cannot  be  passive  •  Player  aRached  to/invested  in  outcome   •  What  the  player  does  influences  outcome,  not  just  chance  •  Nego@able  consequences  Adapted  from  Jesper  Juul  hRp://www.@sch.nyu.edu/object/juul_gamectr.html  Danish  School  of  Design  and  NYU    
  • 6. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   6  A  Game  Is  a  Closed  System  •  A  game  is  self-­‐contained  •  It  doesn’t  require  or  rely  on  external  input  •  It  doesn’t  provide  output  (e.g.,  a  student  record)  to  external   systems      
  • 7. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   7  Games  Are  Classified  by:   Approach   Purpose   Genre   Technology   to  Play  •  Entertainment   •  Role-­‐playing   •  Solo   •  Plaiorm  •  Serious,  i.e.,  all   •  Strategy   •  Parallel   •  Hardware   non-­‐ •  Puzzle   •  Social   •  Sojware   entertainment   •  Simula@on   •  Coopera@ve/   •  Hybrid   purposes,  e.g.,   collabora@ve   •  First-­‐person   •  Augmented   •  Learning   shooter   •  Compe@@ve   reality   (educa@on,   •  Hidden  objects   •  Alterna@ve   training,   reality   lifelong)   •  Transmedia     •  Advocacy   •  Collabora@on   and  problem-­‐ solving   •  Physical  fitness  
  • 8. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   8  Entertainment  Games  Are    Changing  Our  Lives  and  Culture  in  the  US   250" 145   47   215   29   21.6   26   200" 150" 100" 50" 0" %"who"spend"money"on"games" %"game"players"over"50"y.o." Ac(ve"gamers,"in"millions" Total"hours"played"per"day,"in"millions" %"Internet"(me"playing"online"games" Total"es(mated"spend"in"2011,"in"billions" Sources:  US  Na6onal   Gamers  Survey,   conducted  June  2011  by   Newzoo     (www.newzoo.com/ ENG/1589-­‐Infograph_   US.html),  and  Humana   Games   (www.humana.com).    
  • 9. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   9   THE  SERIOUS  SIDE  OF  GAMES   Sec@on  2  
  • 10. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   10  “Entertainment  Games”  Make  Sense.    What  Are  Serious  Games?  •  “Serious  games”  first  introduced  by  Clark  Abt  in  1970  in  book  of   same  name.  (hRp://www.abtassociates.com/page.cfm?PageID=452)      •  Brought  to  wider  use  by  Woodrow  Wilson  Int’l  Center  for  Scholars   with  2002  launch  of  “Serious  Game  Ini@a@ve”  to  encourage   development  of  games  that  address  policy  and  management  issues.   Subsequently,  included  Games  for  Change  and  Games  for  Health.   (www.seriousgames.org)  
  • 11. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   11  Serious  Games  Meet  Computers  •  Updated  defini@on  by  Mike  Zyda  in  2005*:     •  a  mental  contest,  played  with  a  computer  in  accordance  with   specific  rules,  that  uses  entertainment  to  further   government  or  corporate  training,  educa@on,  health,  public   policy,  and  strategic  communica@on  objec@ves.  •  NOTE:  Computers  were  “necessary”  because  this  defini@on   was  derived  for  use  by  the  Ins@tute  of  Electrical  and  Electronics   Engineers.   *  Zyda,  M.  2005,  From  visual  simula@on  to  virtual  reality  to  games.  IEEE   Computer,  Sept  2005.      
  • 12. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   12  Gartner  Hype  Cycle  for  Emerging  Technologies    Includes  Games   hRp://www.gartner.com/hc/images/215650_0001.gif    
  • 13. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   13  Many  Industries  and  Disciplines  Use  Serious  Games  to  Reach  Audiences   Marke@n g  & Adver@si   Govern The  Apply  Group   ng   ment   predicts  that  between   ate   100  and  135  of  the   C orpor g   Train in Educa@on   Global  Fortune  500   s   Poli@c Work will  have  adopted   pla Perso ce/     games  for  learning  by   od Produ nal   a l  Go the  end  of  2012,  with   Health c@vit y   Soci care   the  United  States,   United  Kingdom  and   Journalism   Germany  leading  the   y   Emergency   Militar way.   Services  
  • 14. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   14  Many  Forms/Formats  for  Serious  Games    -­‐      Known  by  Many  Names  •  Learning  Games   •  Newsgames   •  Educa@on  games   •  Immersive  Learning   •  Training  games   Simula@ons  •  Simula@on  games   •  Social  Impact  games  •  Virtual  Reality  Games   •  Persuasive  Games  •  Alternate-­‐Reality  Games   •  Games  for  Change  •  Edutainment   •  Games  for  Good  •  Digital  Game-­‐based  Learning   •  Games  for  Health  •  Synthe@c  Learning   •  Gamifica@on   Environments   •  Gamified  [whatever]   •  Augmented  Reality  Games    
  • 15. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   15  Organiza@ons  Use  “Gamifica@on”  Techniques  to  Engage  Audiences      •  Gamifica@on  =  game  dynamics  and  reward  systems   applied  to  an  online  experience  in  order  to:   •  promote  awareness,  adop@on  and  aRachment   •  induce  par@cipa@on   •  make  tedious  content/ac@vi@es  seem  less  odious  •  Based  on  behavior  management  systems  that  give   recogni@on  for  par@cipa@on,  engagement  via:   •  Contests   •  Badges   •  Leaderboards  
  • 16. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   16   EXAMPLES  OF  SERIOUS  GAMES   Sec@on  3  
  • 17. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   17    Military   Corporate  Training           Defense  Acquisi@on  University  uses  games   Innov8,  the  IBM  Business  Process     and  simula@ons  in  three  different   Management  (BPM)  simula@on  game,  gives   ini@a@ves:  Games  in  Curriculum,  Games  in   both  IT  and  business  players  a  beRer   Con@nuous  Learning  Modules,  and  Mini-­‐ understanding  of  how  effec@ve  BPM   Games—each  of  which  was  created  with   impacts  an  en@re  business  ecosystem.   the  end  result  of  learning  in  mind.     hRp://www-­‐01.ibm.com/   hRps://clc.dau.mil/games   sojware/solu@ons/soa/innov8/index.html   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC  
  • 18. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   18  MarkeAng   Workplace/Personal  ProducAvity                                  Dunkin’  Donuts  uses  its  Facebook  page  to   Based  on  social  intelligence  research  put  up  games  to  promote  their  brand.   conducted  at  McGill  University,  MindHabits  Winners  win  coupons  to  purchase...  Dunkin’   presents  stress  bus@ng,  confidence  boos@ng  Donuts  food  items.   games  designed  to  help  players  develop  and  hRp://www.facebook.com/   maintain  a  more  posi@ve  state  of  mind.  DunkinDonuts?sk=app_116533491769429     hRp://www.mindhabits.com/index.php  
  • 19. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   19  Government   Emergency  Services    As  part  of  its  outreach  efforts  to  kids,  the  CIA   With  the  services  of  the  University  of  has  included  a  number  of  games  on  its   Maryland  CATT  LAB,  the  I-­‐95  Coali@on  has  website.  Games  “test”  players’  intelligence-­‐ designed  and  developed  a  virtual  traffic-­‐gathering  abili@es.   incident  management  training  system  for  first  hRps://www.cia.gov/kids-­‐page/   responders.    games/index.html   hRp://www.caRlab.umd.edu/   index.php?page=research&a=00028  
  • 20. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   20  PoliAcs   Social  Good                      Campaign  Game  is  a  poli@cally-­‐themed  turn-­‐ EVOKE  was  developed  by  the  World  Bank  based  tac@cal  combat  game.  You  choose  a   Ins@tute  as  a  “10-­‐week  crash  course”  in  candidate,  pick  your  staff,  and  literally  fight  it   changing  the  world.  It  is  free  to  play  and  is  out  with  the  opposi@on  —  slinging  mud,   open  to  everyone,  everywhere.  The  goal  of  launching  aRack  ads,  and  holding  rallies  to   the  game  is  to  help  empower  people  all  over  capture  states  and  earn  funds.   the  world  to  come  up  with  crea@ve  solu@ons  www.kongregate.com/games/   to  our  most  urgent  social  problems.    thup/campaign-­‐game   hRp://www.urgentevoke.com/  
  • 21. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   21  Journalism   Healthcare    Budget  Hero,  produced  by  American  Public   Humana’s  Famscape  is  an  online  experience  that  Media,  provides  an  interac@ve  experience   rewards  players  for  improving  their  real  world  involving  policy  op@ons  that  have  been   health  and  lifestyle.  An  online  community  of  extensively  researched  and  veRed  with  non-­‐ family  and  friends  mo@vates,  encourages  and  par@san  government  and  think  tank  experts  to   challenges  each  other  to  strive  for  and  sustain  enable  players  to  objec@vely  evaluate   healthy  living  and  a  balanced  life.  candidates.     hRp://www.myfamscape.com/    hRp://budgethero.publicradio.org/  widget/widget.php#    
  • 22. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   22  Problem-­‐solving   Charity    Foldit,  developed  at  the  University  of   Wetopia  is  a  social  game  on  Facebook.  Players  Washington,  aRempts  to  predict  the  structure   build  a  town,  and  use  the  Joy  points  they  earn  to  of  a  protein  by  taking  advantage  of  humans’   donate  to  children’s  chari@es  around  the  world.  puzzle-­‐solving  intui@ons  and  having  people   hRps://www.facebook.com/WeTopiaOfficial  play  compe@@vely  to  fold  the  best  proteins.  hRp://fold.it/portal/  
  • 23. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   23   ESSENTIAL  TERMINOLOGY   Sec@on  4  
  • 24. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   24  Essen@al  Terminology  Alternate-­‐reality  game  –  an  interac@ve  narra@ve  that  uses  the  real  world  and  game  elements  as  a  plaiorm  to  tell  a  story  that  may  be  affected  by  par@cipants  ideas  or  ac@ons.  Ojen  involves  mul@ple  media,  in  which  case  can  be  referred  to  as  “transmedia  games”      Augmented-­‐reality  game  –  games  relying  on  a  live  direct  or  an  indirect  view  of  a  physical,  real-­‐world  environment  whose  elements  are  augmented  by  computer-­‐generated  sensory  input  such  as  sound,  video,  graphics  or  GPS  data      Casual  game  –  a  single-­‐player  game  that  can  be  completed  in  10-­‐20  minutes    Console  –  a  non-­‐PC  compu@ng  device  used  to  play  a  variety  of  games.  Can  be  handheld  using  no  Internet  connec@vity  (e.g.,  Nintendo  DS),  or  connected  to  a  TV  or  monitor  to  take  advantage  of  larger  screen  (e.g.,  PS2)  or  to  enable  Internet  access  (e.g.,  Xbox  Live).    Edutainment  –  a  game  category  that  emphasizes  fun,  yet  purports  to  offer  some  educa@on  value.  This  type  of  game  has  fallen  out  of  favor  since  there  is  typically  no  educa@onal  rigor  involved  in  the  game’s  design.      Flash  game  –  any  kind  of  game  that  is  built  in  Flash  and  is  accessed  via  web  browser.  Since  Flash  penetra@on  is  nearly  100%  in  web  browsers,  this  is  the  common  denominator  in  the  developer  community.      
  • 25. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   25  Terminology  (p.2)  Game  theory  –  an  economic  theory  to  describe  investor  decision-­‐making    Game  layer  –  alternate  term  for  gamifica@on    Game  mechanics/game  dynamics    –  the  interac@ons  between  players  and  the  game    Gamer  –  a  frequent  player  of  videogames.  Carries  some  nega@ve  stereotyping.    GamificaAon  –  the  prac@ce  of  applying  behavior  mo@va@ng  techniques  from  tradi@onal  games  to  non-­‐game  experiences    Gaming  –  gambling  (although  increasingly  used  for  nonbe~ng  games)      Immersive  environments  -­‐  characterized  by       Persistent   Mul@-­‐par@cipant   3D   Online/virtual  n.b.,  Not  all  immersive  environments  are  games,  and  not  all  games  employ  immersive  environments.      Mobile  game  –  requires  mobile  device  to  play      
  • 26. Fall  2011   Anne  Derryberry,  Sage  Road  Solu@ons,  LLC   26  Terminology  (p.3)  Mod  –  short  for  modifica@on.  Some  commercial  @tles  have  made  a  “kit”  available  to  enable  development  of  addi@onal  content  that  is  compa@ble  with  that  game’s  system.  Mods  can  be  extensions  of  the  original  game  design  or  can  take  a  game  in  an  en@rely  new  direc@on,  e.g.,  teaching/learning  purpose.    Online  game  –  a  game  that  requires  an  Internet  connec@on  to  play    Serious  game  –  a  non-­‐entertainment  game    SimulaAon  –  a  facsimile  of  RW  event(s)  without  RW  consequences.  Most  simula@ons  include  game  dynamics,  although  this  is  not  essen@al  to  the  category.    Social  game  –  a  casual  game  played  by  many  people  using  a  common  plaiorm  (e.g.,  Farmville  on  Facebook)        Videogame  –  a  non-­‐browser  based  online  game    Virtual  world  –  a  persistent,  3D,  digital  environment  (e.g.,  Second  Life).  Applica@ons  include  training/educa@on,  small-­‐  to  large-­‐group  collabora@on,  virtual  social,  pornography,  sales  and  marke@ng…  Games  may  or  may  not  be  included.