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APPENDICULARAPPENDICULAR
SKELETONSKELETON
ENDOSKELETON OFENDOSKELETON OF
VERTEBRATESVERTEBRATES
The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton
 TheThe appendicularappendicular
skeletonskeleton includes:includes:
...
Fig. 9.4
Tetrapod LimbTetrapod Limb
 Typical 4 limbsTypical 4 limbs
 Primarily a modification of the RhipidistianPrimarily a modi...
 Recall: VRecall: Vpp = V= Vgg + V+ Vee + V+ Vgxegxe
 V = variationV = variation
 p = phenotypicp = phenotypic
 g = ge...
Three main componentsThree main components
 With respect to the pectoral andWith respect to the pectoral and
pelvic girdl...
 MesopodiumMesopodium
 MetapodiumMetapodium
 PhalangesPhalanges
Fig. 9.12
Focus 9.2
Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdlePectoral (Shoulder) Girdle• TheThe pectoralpectoral oror
shoulder girdleshoulder girdle
attaches...
Clavicle (Collarbone)Clavicle (Collarbone)
 S-shaped bone with two curvesS-shaped bone with two curves
 Extends fromExte...
Anterior Surface of ScapulaAnterior Surface of Scapula
 Articulates with theArticulates with the clavicleclavicle and the...
Posterior Surface of ScapulaPosterior Surface of Scapula
 Triangular flat bone found in upper backTriangular flat bone fo...
UpperUpper
ExtremityExtremity Upper extremity consists of 30Upper extremity consists of 30
bonesbones
 HumerusHumerus wi...
Shoulder DislocationShoulder Dislocation
 Head of humerus slips out of glenoid cavityHead of humerus slips out of glenoid...
Humerus: ProximalHumerus: Proximal
EndEnd Largest and longest bone of upperLargest and longest bone of upper
extremity, p...
Humerus: Distal EndHumerus: Distal End
 Forms elbow joint withForms elbow joint with ulnaulna
andand radiusradius
 Capit...
Ulna & Radius: ProximalUlna & Radius: Proximal
EndEnd UlnaUlna (on little finger side)(on little finger side)
 Trochlear...
Ulna & Radius: ProximalUlna & Radius: Proximal
EndEnd
 RadiusRadius (on thumb(on thumb
side)side)
 HeadHead articulates ...
Elbow JointElbow Joint
 Articulation ofArticulation of humerushumerus withwith ulnaulna andand radiusradius
 UlnaUlna ar...
Ulna and Radius: Distal EndUlna and Radius: Distal End
 UlnaUlna
 Styloid processStyloid process
providesprovides
attach...
8 Carpal Bones (Wrist)8 Carpal Bones (Wrist)
 Proximal row -Proximal row -
lateral to mediallateral to medial
 ScaphoidS...
Metacarpals and PhalangesMetacarpals and Phalanges MetacarpalsMetacarpals
 5 total: #15 total: #1
proximal to thumbproxi...
Pelvic Girdle and HipPelvic Girdle and Hip
BonesBones
 Pelvic girdlePelvic girdle = two hip bones united at= two hip bone...
IliumIlium
 Iliac crestIliac crest andand iliac spinesiliac spines for muscle attachmentfor muscle attachment
 Iliac fos...
IschiumIschium
and Pubisand Pubis
 IschiumIschium
 Ischial spineIschial spine &&
tuberositytuberosity
 Lesser sciaticLe...
Female PelvisFemale Pelvis
Male PelvisMale Pelvis
 Many differencesMany differences
between the twobetween the two
 In p...
Lower ExtremityLower Extremity
 Each lower limb = 30Each lower limb = 30
bonesbones
 femurfemur andand patellapatella wi...
FemurFemur
 TheThe femurfemur or thighboneor thighbone
is the largest, heaviest,is the largest, heaviest,
and strongest b...
FemurFemur
 Fovea capitisFovea capitis in thein the
center of the headcenter of the head
 Medial epicondylesMedial epico...
PatellaPatella
 TriangulaTriangula
rr
sesamoidsesamoid
bonebone
 Apex &Apex &
basebase
 ArticularArticular
facetsfacets...
Tibia andTibia and
FibulaFibula Tibia (Shinbone)Tibia (Shinbone)
 Medial & largerMedial & larger
bone of legbone of leg
...
Tibia andTibia and
FibulaFibula
FibulaFibula
 Parallel andParallel and
lateral to thelateral to the
tibiatibia
 Smaller ...
Tarsals, Metatarsals, andTarsals, Metatarsals, and
PhalangesPhalanges SevenSeven tarsaltarsal bonesbones
constitute theco...
TarsusTarsus
(Ankle)(Ankle) ProximalProximal
region of footregion of foot
(contains 7(contains 7
tarsal bones)tarsal bone...
Metatarsus and PhalangesMetatarsus and Phalanges
 MetatarsalsMetatarsals
 Midregion of the footMidregion of the foot
 5...
Arches of the FootArches of the Foot FunctionFunction
 distribute body weight over footdistribute body weight over foot
...
HOMOLOGY OFHOMOLOGY OF
APPENDICULAR BONESAPPENDICULAR BONES
 FORELIMBFORELIMB
1.1. HumerusHumerus
2.2. RadiusRadius
3.3. ...
HOMOLOGY OF GIRDLESHOMOLOGY OF GIRDLES
PECTORAL GIRDLEPECTORAL GIRDLE
1.1. ScapulaScapula
* coracoid* coracoid
processproc...
I. GIRDLESI. GIRDLES
A.A. PECTORAL GIRDLEPECTORAL GIRDLE
- COMPOSITION:- COMPOSITION:
1. Replacement Bones1. Replacement B...
VARIATION OF PECTORALVARIATION OF PECTORAL
GIRDLEGIRDLE
1.1. CHONDRICHTHYESCHONDRICHTHYES
- ventral coracoid- ventral cora...
3. TETRAPODS3. TETRAPODS
A.A. AMPHIBIANSAMPHIBIANS
- girdle retained in dermal bones- girdle retained in dermal bones
-com...
c. AVESc. AVES
- components:- components:
a. furculaa. furcula
-2 clavicles-2 clavicles
-1 interclavicle-1 interclavicle
b...
II. PELVIC GIRDLESII. PELVIC GIRDLES
VARIATION OF PELVIC GIRDLESVARIATION OF PELVIC GIRDLES
1.1. FISHESFISHES
- fusion of ...
3. REPTILES3. REPTILES
- 2 Ilia- 2 Ilia
- sacral rib – fused with the carapace- sacral rib – fused with the carapace
- 2 i...
5. MAMMALS5. MAMMALS
- 2 Ilia- 2 Ilia
- 2 ischia- 2 ischia
- 2 pubis- 2 pubis
(os coxae, innominate bone, pelvic(os coxae,...
III. LIMBSIII. LIMBS
VARIATION OF FORELIMBSVARIATION OF FORELIMBS
1.1. AMPHIBIANSAMPHIBIANS
- 2 humerus- 2 humerus
- 2 rad...
2. REPTILES2. REPTILES
- different size and shape, diameter- different size and shape, diameter
- addition – increase in n...
4. MAMMALS4. MAMMALS
 2 humerus2 humerus
 2 radius2 radius
 2 ulna2 ulna
 8 carpals8 carpals
a. proximal rowa. proxima...
II. HINDLIMBII. HINDLIMB
 FEMUR – THIGHFEMUR – THIGH
 TIBIA AND FIBULA – SHANKTIBIA AND FIBULA – SHANK
 TARSALS - ANKLE...
VARIATION OF HINDLIMBVARIATION OF HINDLIMB
1.1. AMPHIBIANSAMPHIBIANS
- 2 Femur- 2 Femur
- 2 tibio-fibula- 2 tibio-fibula
-...
2. REPTILES2. REPTILES
- in sphenodons and lizards- tarsal- in sphenodons and lizards- tarsal
bones are fused formingbones...
3. MAMMALS3. MAMMALS
- 2 FEMUR- 2 FEMUR
- 2 TIBIA- 2 TIBIA
- 2 FIBULA- 2 FIBULA
- 7 TARSALS- 7 TARSALS
A. PROXIMALA. PROXI...
ADAPTATION OF MANUSADAPTATION OF MANUS
1.1. WRISTWRIST
2.2. PALMPALM
3.3. DIGITSDIGITS
• FUNCTIONS:FUNCTIONS:
• For graspi...
 For flight – wingsFor flight – wings
 For swimming – flippers for life in theFor swimming – flippers for life in the
oc...
TYPES OF FINSTYPES OF FINS
1.1. PAIRED FINSPAIRED FINS
1.A BONY FISH1.A BONY FISH
A. PECTORAL FINS –coracoscapulaA. PECTOR...
2. UNPAIRED FINS2. UNPAIRED FINS
A. ANAL FINSA. ANAL FINS
B.CAUDAL FINSB.CAUDAL FINS
C. MEDIAN DORSAL FINSC. MEDIAN DORSAL...
DIVERSITIES IN SKELETALDIVERSITIES IN SKELETAL
STRUCTURES OF PAIRED FINSSTRUCTURES OF PAIRED FINS
1.1. SPINY FINSSPINY FIN...
THEORIES OF THETHEORIES OF THE
ORIGIN OF FINSORIGIN OF FINS
1.1. FIN FOLD HYPOTHESISFIN FOLD HYPOTHESIS
––paired fins are ...
LOCOMOTION OF LIMBLESSLOCOMOTION OF LIMBLESS
VERTEBRATESVERTEBRATES
1.1. SERPENTINE OR LATERAL UNDULATIONSERPENTINE OR LAT...
Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
Appendicular skeleton
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Appendicular skeleton

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Appendicular skeleton by: Mr. Claver Digamon

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  • SH – Kuo and shankland 2003, Development 131. Definition – “existence of comparable pattern elements in different segmental units of the same individual.”
  • Transcript of "Appendicular skeleton"

    1. 1. APPENDICULARAPPENDICULAR SKELETONSKELETON ENDOSKELETON OFENDOSKELETON OF VERTEBRATESVERTEBRATES
    2. 2. The Appendicular SkeletonThe Appendicular Skeleton  TheThe appendicularappendicular skeletonskeleton includes:includes:  Pectoral girdlePectoral girdle  Pelvic girdlePelvic girdle  Upper extremitiesUpper extremities  Lower extremitiesLower extremities  TheThe appendicularappendicular skeletonskeleton functionsfunctions primarily to facilitateprimarily to facilitate movementmovement
    3. 3. Fig. 9.4
    4. 4. Tetrapod LimbTetrapod Limb  Typical 4 limbsTypical 4 limbs  Primarily a modification of the RhipidistianPrimarily a modification of the Rhipidistian finfin wings paddles Lost 2 Lost 4 Modified elements
    5. 5.  Recall: VRecall: Vpp = V= Vgg + V+ Vee + V+ Vgxegxe  V = variationV = variation  p = phenotypicp = phenotypic  g = genotypicg = genotypic  e = environmentale = environmental Morphology (anatomy) Behavior & Performance Resource use (ecology) Fitness
    6. 6. Three main componentsThree main components  With respect to the pectoral andWith respect to the pectoral and pelvic girdles:pelvic girdles: • Serially homologous –Serially homologous – 1.1. Propodium (= stylopodium) – upperPropodium (= stylopodium) – upper arm, upper legarm, upper leg 2.2. Epipodium (= zeugopodium) –Epipodium (= zeugopodium) – forearm, shinforearm, shin 3.3. Autopodium – manus or pes (digits,Autopodium – manus or pes (digits, and wrist and palm, or ankle and soleand wrist and palm, or ankle and sole
    7. 7.  MesopodiumMesopodium  MetapodiumMetapodium  PhalangesPhalanges
    8. 8. Fig. 9.12
    9. 9. Focus 9.2
    10. 10. Pectoral (Shoulder) GirdlePectoral (Shoulder) Girdle• TheThe pectoralpectoral oror shoulder girdleshoulder girdle attaches the bones ofattaches the bones of the upper limbs to thethe upper limbs to the axial skeletonaxial skeleton  Consists ofConsists of scapulascapula && clavicleclavicle  ClavicleClavicle articulatesarticulates withwith sternumsternum ((sternoclavicular jointsternoclavicular joint))  ClavicleClavicle articulatesarticulates withwith scapulascapula ((acromioclavicularacromioclavicular jointjoint))  ScapulaScapula held in placeheld in place by muscle onlyby muscle only  Upper limb attachedUpper limb attached toto pectoral girdlepectoral girdle atat
    11. 11. Clavicle (Collarbone)Clavicle (Collarbone)  S-shaped bone with two curvesS-shaped bone with two curves  Extends fromExtends from sternumsternum toto scapulascapula above 1st ribabove 1st rib  Sternal & acromial extremitiesSternal & acromial extremities  One of the most commonly fractured bones in theOne of the most commonly fractured bones in the human bodyhuman body  Fracture site is junction of curvesFracture site is junction of curves 
    12. 12. Anterior Surface of ScapulaAnterior Surface of Scapula  Articulates with theArticulates with the clavicleclavicle and theand the humerushumerus  Subscapular fossaSubscapular fossa filled with musclefilled with muscle  Coracoid processCoracoid process for muscle attachmentfor muscle attachment
    13. 13. Posterior Surface of ScapulaPosterior Surface of Scapula  Triangular flat bone found in upper backTriangular flat bone found in upper back regionregion  Scapular spineScapular spine ends asends as acromion processacromion process  Glenoid cavityGlenoid cavity forms shoulder joint with headforms shoulder joint with head ofof humerushumerus
    14. 14. UpperUpper ExtremityExtremity Upper extremity consists of 30Upper extremity consists of 30 bonesbones  HumerusHumerus within the armwithin the arm  UlnaUlna && radiusradius within the forearmwithin the forearm  CarpalCarpal bones within the wristbones within the wrist  MetacarpalMetacarpal bones within the palmbones within the palm  PhalangesPhalanges in the fingersin the fingers  JointsJoints  ShoulderShoulder ((glenohumeralglenohumeral),), elbowelbow,, wristwrist,, metacarpophalangealmetacarpophalangeal,, interphalangealinterphalangeal  Shoulder dislocationShoulder dislocation is separation of theis separation of the humerushumerus from thefrom the glenoid cavityglenoid cavity of theof the scapulascapula
    15. 15. Shoulder DislocationShoulder Dislocation  Head of humerus slips out of glenoid cavityHead of humerus slips out of glenoid cavity  Closed reductionClosed reduction is term for slipping humerus backis term for slipping humerus back into place without surgeryinto place without surgery 
    16. 16. Humerus: ProximalHumerus: Proximal EndEnd Largest and longest bone of upperLargest and longest bone of upper extremity, part of shoulder joint,extremity, part of shoulder joint, articulates witharticulates with scapulascapula  HeadHead  GreaterGreater && lesserlesser tuberclestubercles for muscle attachmentsfor muscle attachments  IntertubercularIntertubercular sulcussulcus oror bicipitalbicipital groovegroove  ShaftShaft oror bodybody
    17. 17. Humerus: Distal EndHumerus: Distal End  Forms elbow joint withForms elbow joint with ulnaulna andand radiusradius  CapitulumCapitulum  articulates with head ofarticulates with head of radiusradius  TrochleaTrochlea  articulation witharticulation with ulnaulna  Olecranon fossaOlecranon fossa  posterior depression forposterior depression for olecranon processolecranon process ofof ulnaulna  MedialMedial && laterallateral epicondylesepicondyles  attachment of forearm musclesattachment of forearm muscles
    18. 18. Ulna & Radius: ProximalUlna & Radius: Proximal EndEnd UlnaUlna (on little finger side)(on little finger side)  Trochlear notchTrochlear notch articulates witharticulates with humerushumerus && radial notchradial notch withwith radiusradius  Olecranon processOlecranon process forms point of elbowforms point of elbow  RadiusRadius (on thumb side)(on thumb side)  Head articulates withHead articulates with capitulumcapitulum ofof humerushumerus && radial notchradial notch ofof ulnaulna  TuberosityTuberosity for muscle attachmentfor muscle attachment
    19. 19. Ulna & Radius: ProximalUlna & Radius: Proximal EndEnd  RadiusRadius (on thumb(on thumb side)side)  HeadHead articulates witharticulates with capitulumcapitulum ofof humerushumerus && radial notchradial notch ofof ulnaulna  TuberosityTuberosity for musclefor muscle attachmentattachment  Ulnar notchUlnar notch articulatesarticulates with ulnawith ulna
    20. 20. Elbow JointElbow Joint  Articulation ofArticulation of humerushumerus withwith ulnaulna andand radiusradius  UlnaUlna articulates witharticulates with trochleatrochlea ofof humerushumerus  RadiusRadius articulates witharticulates with capitulumcapitulum ofof humerushumerus  InterosseousInterosseous membrane betweenmembrane between ulnaulna && radiusradius provides site for muscle attachmentprovides site for muscle attachment
    21. 21. Ulna and Radius: Distal EndUlna and Radius: Distal End  UlnaUlna  Styloid processStyloid process providesprovides attachment forattachment for ulnar collateralulnar collateral ligamentligament  Head separatedHead separated from wrist jointfrom wrist joint byby fibrocartilagefibrocartilage discdisc  RadiusRadius  Forms wrist jointForms wrist joint withwith scaphoidscaphoid,, lunatelunate && triquetrumtriquetrum  FormsForms distaldistal radioulnar jointradioulnar joint with head ofwith head of ulnaulna
    22. 22. 8 Carpal Bones (Wrist)8 Carpal Bones (Wrist)  Proximal row -Proximal row - lateral to mediallateral to medial  ScaphoidScaphoid: boat: boat shapedshaped  LunateLunate: moon: moon shapedshaped  TriquetrumTriquetrum: 3: 3 cornerscorners  PisiformPisiform: pea: pea shapedshaped  Distal row -Distal row - lateral to mediallateral to medial  TrapeziumTrapezium: four: four sidedsided  TrapezoidTrapezoid: four: four sidedsided  CapitateCapitate: large: large Scared Lovers Try Positions That They Can’t Handle
    23. 23. Metacarpals and PhalangesMetacarpals and Phalanges MetacarpalsMetacarpals  5 total: #15 total: #1 proximal to thumbproximal to thumb  basebase,, shaftshaft,, headhead  knucklesknuckles ((metacarpophalangmetacarpophalang ealeal joints)joints)  PhalangesPhalanges (Digits)(Digits)  14 total: each is14 total: each is calledcalled phalanxphalanx  proximalproximal,, middlemiddle,, distaldistal on eachon each finger, exceptfinger, except thumbthumb  basebase,, shaftshaft,, headhead
    24. 24. Pelvic Girdle and HipPelvic Girdle and Hip BonesBones  Pelvic girdlePelvic girdle = two hip bones united at= two hip bones united at pubic symphysispubic symphysis  articulate posteriorly witharticulate posteriorly with sacrumsacrum atat sacroiliac jointssacroiliac joints  Each hip bone (Each hip bone (os coxaos coxa) =) = iliumilium,, pubispubis, and, and ischiumischium  fuse after birth atfuse after birth at acetabulumacetabulum  Bony pelvis = 2 hip bones,Bony pelvis = 2 hip bones, sacrumsacrum andand coccyxcoccyx
    25. 25. IliumIlium  Iliac crestIliac crest andand iliac spinesiliac spines for muscle attachmentfor muscle attachment  Iliac fossaIliac fossa for muscle attachmentfor muscle attachment  Gluteal linesGluteal lines indicating muscle attachmentindicating muscle attachment  Sacroiliac jointSacroiliac joint atat auricular surfaceauricular surface && iliac tuberosityiliac tuberosity  GreaterGreater sciatic notchsciatic notch forfor sciatic nervesciatic nerve
    26. 26. IschiumIschium and Pubisand Pubis  IschiumIschium  Ischial spineIschial spine && tuberositytuberosity  Lesser sciaticLesser sciatic notchnotch  RamusRamus  PubisPubis  BodyBody  SuperiorSuperior && inferiorinferior ramusramus  Pubic symphysisPubic symphysis isis pad ofpad of fibrocartilagefibrocartilage between 2between 2 pubicpubic bonesbones
    27. 27. Female PelvisFemale Pelvis Male PelvisMale Pelvis  Many differencesMany differences between the twobetween the two  In particular,In particular, pubic archpubic arch inin males is usuallymales is usually less than 90˚,less than 90˚, whereas inwhereas in females it isfemales it is usually greaterusually greater than 90˚than 90˚
    28. 28. Lower ExtremityLower Extremity  Each lower limb = 30Each lower limb = 30 bonesbones  femurfemur andand patellapatella within thewithin the thighthigh  tibiatibia && fibulafibula within the legwithin the leg  tarsaltarsal bones in the footbones in the foot  metatarsalsmetatarsals within the forefootwithin the forefoot  phalangesphalanges in the toesin the toes  JointsJoints  hip, knee, anklehip, knee, ankle  proximalproximal && distaldistal tibiofibulartibiofibular  metatarsophalangealmetatarsophalangeal
    29. 29. FemurFemur  TheThe femurfemur or thighboneor thighbone is the largest, heaviest,is the largest, heaviest, and strongest bone ofand strongest bone of the bodythe body  It articulates with theIt articulates with the hip bonehip bone and theand the tibiatibia  HeadHead articulates witharticulates with acetabulumacetabulum  MedialMedial && laterallateral condylescondyles articulate witharticulate with tibiatibia  Neck is commonNeck is common fracture sitefracture site  Muscle attachments atMuscle attachments at greatergreater && lesserlesser trochanterstrochanters,, linealinea
    30. 30. FemurFemur  Fovea capitisFovea capitis in thein the center of the headcenter of the head  Medial epicondylesMedial epicondyles above the condylesabove the condyles  Intercondylar fossaIntercondylar fossa between the condylesbetween the condyles
    31. 31. PatellaPatella  TriangulaTriangula rr sesamoidsesamoid bonebone  Apex &Apex & basebase  ArticularArticular facetsfacets forfor thethe femurfemur  IncreasesIncreases
    32. 32. Tibia andTibia and FibulaFibula Tibia (Shinbone)Tibia (Shinbone)  Medial & largerMedial & larger bone of legbone of leg  Weight-bearingWeight-bearing bonebone  HeadHead  LateralLateral && medialmedial condylescondyles  IntercondylarIntercondylar eminenceeminence  Tibial tuberosityTibial tuberosity forfor patellarpatellar
    33. 33. Tibia andTibia and FibulaFibula FibulaFibula  Parallel andParallel and lateral to thelateral to the tibiatibia  Smaller than theSmaller than the tibiatibia  Not weightNot weight bearingbearing  Not part of theNot part of the knee jointknee joint  MuscleMuscle attachmentsattachments onlyonly
    34. 34. Tarsals, Metatarsals, andTarsals, Metatarsals, and PhalangesPhalanges SevenSeven tarsaltarsal bonesbones constitute theconstitute the ankleankle (tarsus)(tarsus) and share theand share the weight associated withweight associated with walkingwalking  FiveFive metatarsalmetatarsal bonesbones are contained in theare contained in the footfoot  Fractures of theFractures of the metatarsalsmetatarsals areare common amongcommon among dancers, especiallydancers, especially ballet dancers, and alsoballet dancers, and also among martial artistsamong martial artists
    35. 35. TarsusTarsus (Ankle)(Ankle) ProximalProximal region of footregion of foot (contains 7(contains 7 tarsal bones)tarsal bones)  TalusTalus = ankle= ankle bone (articulatesbone (articulates withwith tibiatibia && fibulafibula))  CalcaneusCalcaneus = heel= heel bonebone  CuboidCuboid,, navicularnavicular & 3& 3 cuneiformscuneiforms  MetatarsalMetatarsal fractures occurfractures occur when you dropwhen you drop something heavysomething heavy on your footon your foot
    36. 36. Metatarsus and PhalangesMetatarsus and Phalanges  MetatarsalsMetatarsals  Midregion of the footMidregion of the foot  5 metatarsals (#1 is most5 metatarsals (#1 is most medial)medial)  Each withEach with basebase,, shaftshaft andand headhead  PhalangesPhalanges  Distal portion of the footDistal portion of the foot  Similar in number andSimilar in number and arrangement to the handarrangement to the hand  Big toe isBig toe is halluxhallux
    37. 37. Arches of the FootArches of the Foot FunctionFunction  distribute body weight over footdistribute body weight over foot  yield & spring back when weight is liftedyield & spring back when weight is lifted  Longitudinal arches along each side of footLongitudinal arches along each side of foot  Transverse arch across midfoot regionTransverse arch across midfoot region  navicular, cuneiforms & bases of metatarsalsnavicular, cuneiforms & bases of metatarsals
    38. 38. HOMOLOGY OFHOMOLOGY OF APPENDICULAR BONESAPPENDICULAR BONES  FORELIMBFORELIMB 1.1. HumerusHumerus 2.2. RadiusRadius 3.3. UlnaUlna 4.4. CarpalsCarpals 5.5. MetacarpalsMetacarpals 6.6. PhallangesPhallanges  HINDLIMBHINDLIMB 1.1. FemurFemur 2.2. TibiaTibia 3.3. FibulaFibula 4.4. TarsalsTarsals 5.5. MetatarsalsMetatarsals 6.6. PhallangesPhallanges
    39. 39. HOMOLOGY OF GIRDLESHOMOLOGY OF GIRDLES PECTORAL GIRDLEPECTORAL GIRDLE 1.1. ScapulaScapula * coracoid* coracoid processprocess 2. Clavicle2. Clavicle  PELVIC GIRDLEPELVIC GIRDLE 1.1. IliaIlia 2. Ischia2. Ischia 3. Pubis3. Pubis
    40. 40. I. GIRDLESI. GIRDLES A.A. PECTORAL GIRDLEPECTORAL GIRDLE - COMPOSITION:- COMPOSITION: 1. Replacement Bones1. Replacement Bones a. coracoida. coracoid b. Scapulab. Scapula c. Suprascapulac. Suprascapula 2. Dermal Bones – 4 bones of more2. Dermal Bones – 4 bones of more a. claviclea. clavicle b. large cleithriumb. large cleithrium c. small supracleitriumc. small supracleitrium d. post temporald. post temporal e. post cleithria (ganoid fishes)e. post cleithria (ganoid fishes)
    41. 41. VARIATION OF PECTORALVARIATION OF PECTORAL GIRDLEGIRDLE 1.1. CHONDRICHTHYESCHONDRICHTHYES - ventral coracoid- ventral coracoid - scapula- scapula - suprascapula- suprascapula 2. OSTEICHTHYES2. OSTEICHTHYES - suprascapula is absent- suprascapula is absent - coracoid +scapula=coracoscapula- coracoid +scapula=coracoscapula
    42. 42. 3. TETRAPODS3. TETRAPODS A.A. AMPHIBIANSAMPHIBIANS - girdle retained in dermal bones- girdle retained in dermal bones -components:-components: a. 2 coracoida. 2 coracoid c. 2 suprascapulac. 2 suprascapula b. 2 scapulab. 2 scapula d. 1 epicoracoidd. 1 epicoracoid B. REPTILESB. REPTILES - coracoids are fused to form one bone- coracoids are fused to form one bone PROCORACOIDPROCORACOID
    43. 43. c. AVESc. AVES - components:- components: a. furculaa. furcula -2 clavicles-2 clavicles -1 interclavicle-1 interclavicle b.2 scapulab.2 scapula c. 2 precoracoidc. 2 precoracoid D. MAMMALSD. MAMMALS - components:- components: a. 2 claviclesa. 2 clavicles b. 2 scapula (shoulder blade)b. 2 scapula (shoulder blade) - coracoid process- coracoid process - acromial process- acromial process - glenoid fossa- glenoid fossa
    44. 44. II. PELVIC GIRDLESII. PELVIC GIRDLES VARIATION OF PELVIC GIRDLESVARIATION OF PELVIC GIRDLES 1.1. FISHESFISHES - fusion of ishium and pubis forming- fusion of ishium and pubis forming ISHIIO-PUBIC PLATEISHIIO-PUBIC PLATE - (median pubic symphysis)- (median pubic symphysis) 2. AMPHIBIANS2. AMPHIBIANS - 2 Ilia- 2 Ilia - 1 sichium (ischiac sysmphysis)- 1 sichium (ischiac sysmphysis) - 1 pubis (pubic symphysis)- 1 pubis (pubic symphysis)
    45. 45. 3. REPTILES3. REPTILES - 2 Ilia- 2 Ilia - sacral rib – fused with the carapace- sacral rib – fused with the carapace - 2 ishia- 2 ishia - 2 pubis- 2 pubis 4. AVES4. AVES - 2 Ilia (concave and convex area)- 2 Ilia (concave and convex area) - 2 pubis- 2 pubis - 2 ischia- 2 ischia - 2 foramens- 2 foramens a. obturator foramena. obturator foramen b. ilio-ischiac foramenb. ilio-ischiac foramen ––fused to synsacrumfused to synsacrum
    46. 46. 5. MAMMALS5. MAMMALS - 2 Ilia- 2 Ilia - 2 ischia- 2 ischia - 2 pubis- 2 pubis (os coxae, innominate bone, pelvic(os coxae, innominate bone, pelvic bone)bone)
    47. 47. III. LIMBSIII. LIMBS VARIATION OF FORELIMBSVARIATION OF FORELIMBS 1.1. AMPHIBIANSAMPHIBIANS - 2 humerus- 2 humerus - 2 radio-ulna (fused)- 2 radio-ulna (fused) - 2 rows of carpals- 2 rows of carpals a. proximal rowa. proximal row * radiale, ulnare,centrale* radiale, ulnare,centrale b. distal rowb. distal row * 3 ordinary fused carpals* 3 ordinary fused carpals - phalanges : 2: 3: 3:2- phalanges : 2: 3: 3:2
    48. 48. 2. REPTILES2. REPTILES - different size and shape, diameter- different size and shape, diameter - addition – increase in number- addition – increase in number - fusion - reduction in size- fusion - reduction in size 3. AVES - modified for flight3. AVES - modified for flight - 2 Humerus- 2 Humerus - 2 radius- 2 radius - 2 ulna- 2 ulna - 2 carpometacarpus- 2 carpometacarpus - phalanges: 1:3:2- phalanges: 1:3:2
    49. 49. 4. MAMMALS4. MAMMALS  2 humerus2 humerus  2 radius2 radius  2 ulna2 ulna  8 carpals8 carpals a. proximal rowa. proximal row * scaphoid* scaphoid * triquetral* triquetral * lunate* lunate * pisiform* pisiform b. distal rowb. distal row *trapezium*trapezium *capitate*capitate * trapezoid* trapezoid * hamate* hamate * Phalanges : 2:3:3:3:3* Phalanges : 2:3:3:3:3
    50. 50. II. HINDLIMBII. HINDLIMB  FEMUR – THIGHFEMUR – THIGH  TIBIA AND FIBULA – SHANKTIBIA AND FIBULA – SHANK  TARSALS - ANKLETARSALS - ANKLE  METATARSALS – SOLEMETATARSALS – SOLE  PHALANGES – DIGITS /TOESPHALANGES – DIGITS /TOES
    51. 51. VARIATION OF HINDLIMBVARIATION OF HINDLIMB 1.1. AMPHIBIANSAMPHIBIANS - 2 Femur- 2 Femur - 2 tibio-fibula- 2 tibio-fibula - 2 proximal tarsals- 2 proximal tarsals * astragalus *calcaneum* astragalus *calcaneum - 2 ordinary tarsals – fused- 2 ordinary tarsals – fused - 5 metatarsals- 5 metatarsals - phalanges : 1 :3:4:4:3- phalanges : 1 :3:4:4:3
    52. 52. 2. REPTILES2. REPTILES - in sphenodons and lizards- tarsal- in sphenodons and lizards- tarsal bones are fused formingbones are fused forming ASTRAGALOCALCANEUMASTRAGALOCALCANEUM 3.AVES3.AVES - TIBIOTARSUS- TIBIOTARSUS - TARSOMETATARSUS- TARSOMETATARSUS - METATARSALS- METATARSALS - 4 DIGITS WITH CLAWS, KNEE CAP- 4 DIGITS WITH CLAWS, KNEE CAP
    53. 53. 3. MAMMALS3. MAMMALS - 2 FEMUR- 2 FEMUR - 2 TIBIA- 2 TIBIA - 2 FIBULA- 2 FIBULA - 7 TARSALS- 7 TARSALS A. PROXIMALA. PROXIMAL - calcaneum,talus,navicular- calcaneum,talus,navicular B. DISTALB. DISTAL - 3 cunieforms, 1 cuboid- 3 cunieforms, 1 cuboid - 5 metatarsals- 5 metatarsals - phalanges: 2:3:3:3:3- phalanges: 2:3:3:3:3
    54. 54. ADAPTATION OF MANUSADAPTATION OF MANUS 1.1. WRISTWRIST 2.2. PALMPALM 3.3. DIGITSDIGITS • FUNCTIONS:FUNCTIONS: • For graspingFor grasping • For swift-footednessFor swift-footedness • DigitigradeDigitigrade * unguligrade* unguligrade • PlantigradePlantigrade
    55. 55.  For flight – wingsFor flight – wings  For swimming – flippers for life in theFor swimming – flippers for life in the oceanocean  FINSFINS - stabilizers- stabilizers - steering device for undulation- steering device for undulation
    56. 56. TYPES OF FINSTYPES OF FINS 1.1. PAIRED FINSPAIRED FINS 1.A BONY FISH1.A BONY FISH A. PECTORAL FINS –coracoscapulaA. PECTORAL FINS –coracoscapula B. PELVIC FINS - ischio-pubic plateB. PELVIC FINS - ischio-pubic plate 1.B. CARTILAGINOUS FIS1.B. CARTILAGINOUS FIS A. PECTORAL FINSA. PECTORAL FINS –– coracoid,scapula, suprascapulacoracoid,scapula, suprascapula B. PELVIC FINS - ischio-pubic plateB. PELVIC FINS - ischio-pubic plate
    57. 57. 2. UNPAIRED FINS2. UNPAIRED FINS A. ANAL FINSA. ANAL FINS B.CAUDAL FINSB.CAUDAL FINS C. MEDIAN DORSAL FINSC. MEDIAN DORSAL FINS A. ANTERIOR DORSAL FINA. ANTERIOR DORSAL FIN B. POSTERIOR DORSAL FINB. POSTERIOR DORSAL FIN
    58. 58. DIVERSITIES IN SKELETALDIVERSITIES IN SKELETAL STRUCTURES OF PAIRED FINSSTRUCTURES OF PAIRED FINS 1.1. SPINY FINSSPINY FINS 2.2. LOBED FINSLOBED FINS 3.3. FINFOLD FINSFINFOLD FINS 4.4. FIN SPINEFIN SPINE VARIATION OF MEDIAN FINSVARIATION OF MEDIAN FINS 1.1. HETEROCERCAL -unidenticalHETEROCERCAL -unidentical 2.2. HOMOCERCALHOMOCERCAL - identical- identical 3.3. DIPHYCERCALDIPHYCERCAL - symmetrical- symmetrical 4.4. HYPOCERCALHYPOCERCAL - directed downward- directed downward
    59. 59. THEORIES OF THETHEORIES OF THE ORIGIN OF FINSORIGIN OF FINS 1.1. FIN FOLD HYPOTHESISFIN FOLD HYPOTHESIS ––paired fins are derived from a pair of continuouspaired fins are derived from a pair of continuous fleshy folds of the lateral body wall analogous to thefleshy folds of the lateral body wall analogous to the metapleural folds of amphioxusmetapleural folds of amphioxus 2. GILL ARCH HYPOTHESIS (Gegenbaur)2. GILL ARCH HYPOTHESIS (Gegenbaur) - pectoral and pelvic fins are modified gill arches and- pectoral and pelvic fins are modified gill arches and the skeleton within the fin is an expansion of gill raysthe skeleton within the fin is an expansion of gill rays 3. FIN SPINE HYPOTHESIS (Gregory and Raven)3. FIN SPINE HYPOTHESIS (Gregory and Raven) -in early acanthodians, pectoral and pelvic appendages-in early acanthodians, pectoral and pelvic appendages were the largest of the series of lateral hollow spinywere the largest of the series of lateral hollow spiny appendagesappendages -lateral extension of the trunk-lateral extension of the trunk
    60. 60. LOCOMOTION OF LIMBLESSLOCOMOTION OF LIMBLESS VERTEBRATESVERTEBRATES 1.1. SERPENTINE OR LATERAL UNDULATIONSERPENTINE OR LATERAL UNDULATION – movement forming irregular loops– movement forming irregular loops 2.2. CONCERTIVE OR RECTILINEARCONCERTIVE OR RECTILINEAR - move from place to place by- move from place to place by gliding using the cervical ribsgliding using the cervical ribs 3. SIDESWINDING3. SIDESWINDING - occupy territory or sandy dessert- occupy territory or sandy dessert - rattlesnakes- rattlesnakes
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