Appendicular skeleton

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Our Lesson in Zoology 200 Appendicular Skeletons by: Mr. Claver Digamon

Our Lesson in Zoology 200 Appendicular Skeletons by: Mr. Claver Digamon

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  • SH – Kuo and shankland 2003, Development 131. Definition – “existence of comparable pattern elements in different segmental units of the same individual.”

Transcript

  • 1. APPENDICULAR SKELETON ENDOSKELETON OF VERTEBRATES
  • 2. The Appendicular Skeleton
    • The appendicular skeleton includes:
      • Pectoral girdle
      • Pelvic girdle
      • Upper extremities
      • Lower extremities
    • The appendicular skeleton functions primarily to facilitate movement
  • 3. Fig. 9.4
  • 4. Tetrapod Limb
    • Typical 4 limbs
    • Primarily a modification of the Rhipidistian fin
    wings paddles Lost 2 Lost 4 Modified elements
  • 5.
    • Recall: V p = V g + V e + V gxe
    • V = variation
    • p = phenotypic
    • g = genotypic
    • e = environmental
    Morphology (anatomy) Behavior & Performance Resource use (ecology) Fitness
  • 6. Three main components
    • With respect to the pectoral and pelvic girdles:
      • Serially homologous –
      • Propodium (= stylopodium) – upper arm, upper leg
      • Epipodium (= zeugopodium) – forearm, shin
      • Autopodium – manus or pes (digits, and wrist and palm, or ankle and sole
  • 7.
    • Mesopodium
    • Metapodium
    • Phalanges
  • 8.  
  • 9. Fig. 9.12
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. Focus 9.2
  • 13. Pectoral (Shoulder) Girdle
    • The pectoral or shoulder girdle attaches the bones of the upper limbs to the axial skeleton
    • Consists of scapula & clavicle
    • Clavicle articulates with sternum ( sternoclavicular joint )
    • Clavicle articulates with scapula ( acromioclavicular joint )
    • Scapula held in place by muscle only
    • Upper limb attached to pectoral girdle at shoulder ( glenohumeral joint )
  • 14. Clavicle (Collarbone)
    • S-shaped bone with two curves
    • Extends from sternum to scapula above 1st rib
    • Sternal & acromial extremities
    • One of the most commonly fractured bones in the human body
    • Fracture site is junction of curves
    • Ligaments attached to clavicle stabilize its position.
    • Shoulder separation is sprain of the acromioclavicular ligament
  • 15. Anterior Surface of Scapula
    • Articulates with the clavicle and the humerus
    • Subscapular fossa filled with muscle
    • Coracoid process for muscle attachment
  • 16. Posterior Surface of Scapula
    • Triangular flat bone found in upper back region
    • Scapular spine ends as acromion process
    • Glenoid cavity forms shoulder joint with head of humerus
    • Supraspinous & infraspinous fossa for muscular attachments
  • 17. Upper Extremity
    • Upper extremity consists of 30 bones
      • Humerus within the arm
      • Ulna & radius within the forearm
      • Carpal bones within the wrist
      • Metacarpal bones within the palm
      • Phalanges in the fingers
    • Joints
      • Shoulder ( glenohumeral ), elbow , wrist , metacarpophalangeal , interphalangeal
      • Shoulder dislocation is separation of the humerus from the glenoid cavity of the scapula
  • 18. Shoulder Dislocation
    • Head of humerus slips out of glenoid cavity
    • Closed reduction is term for slipping humerus back into place without surgery
    • Severe or frequent dislocations may require surgical ligament repair
  • 19. Humerus: Proximal End
    • Largest and longest bone of upper extremity, part of shoulder joint, articulates with scapula
    • Head
    • Greater & lesser tubercles
    • for muscle attachments
    • Intertubercular
    • sulcus or bicipital
    • groove
    • Shaft or body
  • 20. Humerus: Distal End
    • Forms elbow joint with ulna and radius
    • Capitulum
      • articulates with head of radius
    • Trochlea
      • articulation with ulna
    • Olecranon fossa
      • posterior depression for olecranon process of ulna
    • Medial & lateral epicondyles
      • attachment of forearm muscles
  • 21. Ulna & Radius: Proximal End
    • Ulna (on little finger side)
      • Trochlear notch articulates with humerus & radial notch with radius
      • Olecranon process forms point of elbow
    • Radius (on thumb side)
      • Head articulates with capitulum of humerus & radial notch of ulna
      • Tuberosity for muscle attachment
  • 22. Ulna & Radius: Proximal End
    • Radius (on thumb side)
      • Head articulates with capitulum of humerus & radial notch of ulna
      • Tuberosity for muscle attachment
      • Ulnar notch articulates with ulna
  • 23. Elbow Joint
    • Articulation of humerus with ulna and radius
    • Ulna articulates with trochlea of humerus
    • Radius articulates with capitulum of humerus
    • Interosseous membrane between ulna & radius provides site for muscle attachment
  • 24. Ulna and Radius: Distal End
    • Ulna
      • Styloid process provides attachment for ulnar collateral ligament
      • Head separated from wrist joint by fibrocartilage disc
    • Radius
      • Forms wrist joint with scaphoid , lunate & triquetrum
      • Forms distal radioulnar joint with head of ulna
  • 25. 8 Carpal Bones (Wrist)
    • Proximal row - lateral to medial
      • Scaphoid : boat shaped
      • Lunate : moon shaped
      • Triquetrum : 3 corners
      • Pisiform : pea shaped
    • Distal row - lateral to medial
      • Trapezium : four sided
      • Trapezoid : four sided
      • Capitate : large head
      • Hamate : hooked process
    S cared L overs T ry P ositions T hat T hey C an’t H andle
  • 26. Metacarpals and Phalanges
    • Metacarpals
      • 5 total: #1 proximal to thumb
      • base , shaft , head
      • knuckles ( metacarpophalangeal joints)
    • Phalanges (Digits)
      • 14 total: each is called phalanx
      • proximal , middle , distal on each finger, except thumb
      • base , shaft , head
  • 27. Pelvic Girdle and Hip Bones
    • Pelvic girdle = two hip bones united at pubic symphysis
      • articulate posteriorly with sacrum at sacroiliac joints
    • Each hip bone ( os coxa ) = ilium , pubis , and ischium
      • fuse after birth at acetabulum
    • Bony pelvis = 2 hip bones, sacrum and coccyx
  • 28. Ilium
    • Iliac crest and iliac spines for muscle attachment
    • Iliac fossa for muscle attachment
    • Gluteal lines indicating muscle attachment
    • Sacroiliac joint at auricular surface & iliac tuberosity
    • Greater sciatic notch for sciatic nerve
  • 29. Ischium and Pubis
    • Ischium
      • Ischial spine & tuberosity
      • Lesser sciatic notch
      • Ramus
    • Pubis
      • Body
      • Superior & inferior ramus
      • Pubic symphysis is pad of fibrocartilage between 2 pubic bones
  • 30. Female Pelvis Male Pelvis
    • Many differences between the two
    • In particular, pubic arch in males is usually less than 90˚, whereas in females it is usually greater than 90˚
  • 31. Lower Extremity
    • Each lower limb = 30 bones
      • femur and patella within the thigh
      • tibia & fibula within the leg
      • tarsal bones in the foot
      • metatarsals within the forefoot
      • phalanges in the toes
    • Joints
      • hip, knee, ankle
      • proximal & distal tibiofibular
      • metatarsophalangeal
  • 32. Femur
    • The femur or thighbone is the largest, heaviest, and strongest bone of the body
    • It articulates with the hip bone and the tibia
      • Head articulates with acetabulum
      • Medial & lateral condyles articulate with tibia
    • Neck is common fracture site
    • Muscle attachments at greater & lesser trochanters , linea aspera , & gluteal tuberosity
    • Patellar surface is visible anteriorly between condyles
  • 33. Femur
    • Fovea capitis in the center of the head
    • Medial epicondyles above the condyles
    • Intercondylar fossa between the condyles
  • 34. Patella
    • Triangular sesamoid bone
    • Apex & base
    • Articular facets for the femur
    • Increases leverage of quadriceps femoris tendon
  • 35. Tibia and Fibula
    • Tibia (Shinbone)
    • Medial & larger bone of leg
    • Weight-bearing bone
    • Head
    • Lateral & medial condyles
    • Intercondylar eminence
    • Tibial tuberosity for patellar ligament
    • Proximal tibiofibular joint
    • Fibular notch
    • Medial malleolus at ankle
  • 36. Tibia and Fibula
    • Fibula
    • Parallel and lateral to the tibia
    • Smaller than the tibia
    • Not weight bearing
    • Not part of the knee joint
    • Muscle attachments only
    • Head on proximal end, lateral maleolus at ankle
    • Fits into fibular notch at distal end of tibia
  • 37. Tarsals, Metatarsals, and Phalanges
    • Seven tarsal bones constitute the ankle (tarsus) and share the weight associated with walking
    • Five metatarsal bones are contained in the foot
    • Fractures of the metatarsals are common among dancers, especially ballet dancers, and also among martial artists
    • The arrangement of phalanges in the toes is the same as that described for the fingers and thumb above: fourteen bones in each foot
  • 38. Tarsus (Ankle)
    • Proximal region of foot (contains 7 tarsal bones)
    • Talus = ankle bone (articulates with tibia & fibula )
    • Calcaneus = heel bone
    • Cuboid , navicular & 3 cuneiforms
    • Metatarsal fractures occur when you drop something heavy on your foot
  • 39. Metatarsus and Phalanges
    • Metatarsals
      • Midregion of the foot
      • 5 metatarsals (#1 is most medial)
      • Each with base , shaft and head
    • Phalanges
      • Distal portion of the foot
      • Similar in number and arrangement to the hand
      • Big toe is hallux
  • 40. Arches of the Foot
    • Function
      • distribute body weight over foot
      • yield & spring back when weight is lifted
    • Longitudinal arches along each side of foot
    • Transverse arch across midfoot region
      • navicular, cuneiforms & bases of metatarsals
  • 41. HOMOLOGY OF APPENDICULAR BONES
    • FORELIMB
    • Humerus
    • Radius
    • Ulna
    • Carpals
    • Metacarpals
    • Phallanges
    • HINDLIMB
    • Femur
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
    • Tarsals
    • Metatarsals
    • Phallanges
  • 42. HOMOLOGY OF GIRDLES
    • PECTORAL GIRDLE
    • Scapula
    • * coracoid process
    • 2. Clavicle
    • PELVIC GIRDLE
    • Ilia
    • 2. Ischia
    • 3. Pubis
  • 43. I. GIRDLES
    • PECTORAL GIRDLE
    • - COMPOSITION:
    • 1. Replacement Bones
    • a. coracoid
    • b. Scapula
    • c. Suprascapula
    • 2. Dermal Bones – 4 bones of more
    • a. clavicle
    • b. large cleithrium
    • c. small supracleitrium
    • d. post temporal
    • e. post cleithria (ganoid fishes)
  • 44. VARIATION OF PECTORAL GIRDLE
    • CHONDRICHTHYES
    • - ventral coracoid
    • - scapula
    • - suprascapula
    • 2. OSTEICHTHYES
    • - suprascapula is absent
    • - coracoid +scapula=coracoscapula
  • 45. 3. TETRAPODS
    • AMPHIBIANS
    • - girdle retained in dermal bones
    • -components:
    • a. 2 coracoid c. 2 suprascapula
    • b. 2 scapula d. 1 epicoracoid
    • B. REPTILES
    • - coracoids are fused to form one bone
    • PROCORACOID
  • 46.
    • c. AVES
    • - components:
    • a. furcula
    • -2 clavicles
    • -1 interclavicle
    • b.2 scapula
    • c. 2 precoracoid
    • D. MAMMALS
    • - components:
    • a. 2 clavicles
    • b. 2 scapula (shoulder blade)
    • - coracoid process
    • - acromial process
    • - glenoid fossa
  • 47. II. PELVIC GIRDLES
    • VARIATION OF PELVIC GIRDLES
    • FISHES
      • - fusion of ishium and pubis forming
      • ISHIIO-PUBIC PLATE
      • - (median pubic symphysis)
      • 2. AMPHIBIANS
      • - 2 Ilia
      • - 1 sichium (ischiac sysmphysis)
      • - 1 pubis (pubic symphysis)
  • 48.
    • 3. REPTILES
    • - 2 Ilia
    • - sacral rib – fused with the carapace
    • - 2 ishia
    • - 2 pubis
    • 4. AVES
    • - 2 Ilia (concave and convex area)
    • - 2 pubis
    • - 2 ischia
    • - 2 foramens
    • a. obturator foramen
    • b. ilio-ischiac foramen
    • – fused to synsacrum
  • 49.
    • 5. MAMMALS
    • - 2 Ilia
    • - 2 ischia
    • - 2 pubis
    • (os coxae, innominate bone, pelvic bone)
  • 50. III. LIMBS
    • VARIATION OF FORELIMBS
    • AMPHIBIANS
    • - 2 humerus
    • - 2 radio-ulna (fused)
    • - 2 rows of carpals
    • a. proximal row
    • * radiale, ulnare,centrale
    • b. distal row
    • * 3 ordinary fused carpals
    • - phalanges : 2: 3: 3:2
  • 51.
    • 2. REPTILES
    • - different size and shape, diameter
    • - addition – increase in number
    • - fusion - reduction in size
    • 3. AVES - modified for flight
    • - 2 Humerus
    • - 2 radius
    • - 2 ulna
    • - 2 carpometacarpus
    • - phalanges: 1:3:2
  • 52. 4. MAMMALS
    • 2 humerus
    • 2 radius
    • 2 ulna
    • 8 carpals
    • a. proximal row
    • * scaphoid * triquetral
    • * lunate * pisiform
    • b. distal row
    • *trapezium *capitate
    • * trapezoid * hamate
    • * Phalanges : 2:3:3:3:3
  • 53. II. HINDLIMB
    • FEMUR – THIGH
    • TIBIA AND FIBULA – SHANK
    • TARSALS - ANKLE
    • METATARSALS – SOLE
    • PHALANGES – DIGITS /TOES
  • 54. VARIATION OF HINDLIMB
    • AMPHIBIANS
      • - 2 Femur
      • - 2 tibio-fibula
      • - 2 proximal tarsals
      • * astragalus *calcaneum
      • - 2 ordinary tarsals – fused
      • - 5 metatarsals
      • - phalanges : 1 :3:4:4:3
  • 55.  
  • 56.  
  • 57.
    • 2. REPTILES
    • - in sphenodons and lizards- tarsal
    • bones are fused forming
    • ASTRAGALOCALCANEUM
    • 3.AVES
    • - TIBIOTARSUS
    • - TARSOMETATARSUS
    • - METATARSALS
    • - 4 DIGITS WITH CLAWS, KNEE CAP
  • 58.  
  • 59.  
  • 60.
    • 3. MAMMALS
    • - 2 FEMUR
    • - 2 TIBIA
    • - 2 FIBULA
    • - 7 TARSALS
    • A. PROXIMAL
    • - calcaneum,talus,navicular
    • B. DISTAL
    • - 3 cunieforms, 1 cuboid
    • - 5 metatarsals
    • - phalanges: 2:3:3:3:3
  • 61.  
  • 62.  
  • 63. ADAPTATION OF MANUS
    • WRIST
    • PALM
    • DIGITS
    • FUNCTIONS:
      • For grasping
      • For swift-footedness
        • Digitigrade * unguligrade
        • Plantigrade
  • 64.  
  • 65.
    • For flight – wings
    • For swimming – flippers for life in the ocean
    • FINS
    • - stabilizers
    • - steering device for undulation
  • 66. TYPES OF FINS
    • PAIRED FINS
      • 1.A BONY FISH
      • A. PECTORAL FINS –coracoscapula
      • B. PELVIC FINS - ischio-pubic plate
      • 1.B. CARTILAGINOUS FIS
      • A. PECTORAL FINS
      • – coracoid,scapula, suprascapula
      • B. PELVIC FINS - ischio-pubic plate
  • 67. 2. UNPAIRED FINS
    • A. ANAL FINS
    • B.CAUDAL FINS
    • C. MEDIAN DORSAL FINS
    • A. ANTERIOR DORSAL FIN
    • B. POSTERIOR DORSAL FIN
  • 68. DIVERSITIES IN SKELETAL STRUCTURES OF PAIRED FINS
    • SPINY FINS
    • LOBED FINS
    • FINFOLD FINS
    • FIN SPINE
    • VARIATION OF MEDIAN FINS
    • HETEROCERCAL -unidentical
    • HOMOCERCAL - identical
    • DIPHYCERCAL - symmetrical
    • HYPOCERCAL - directed downward
  • 69.  
  • 70.  
  • 71. THEORIES OF THE ORIGIN OF FINS
    • FIN FOLD HYPOTHESIS
    • – paired fins are derived from a pair of continuous fleshy folds of the lateral body wall analogous to the metapleural folds of amphioxus
    • 2. GILL ARCH HYPOTHESIS (Gegenbaur)
    • - pectoral and pelvic fins are modified gill arches and the skeleton within the fin is an expansion of gill rays
    • 3. FIN SPINE HYPOTHESIS (Gregory and Raven)
    • -in early acanthodians, pectoral and pelvic appendages were the largest of the series of lateral hollow spiny appendages
    • -lateral extension of the trunk
  • 72. LOCOMOTION OF LIMBLESS VERTEBRATES
    • SERPENTINE OR LATERAL UNDULATION – movement forming irregular loops
    • CONCERTIVE OR RECTILINEAR
    • - move from place to place by
    • gliding using the cervical ribs
    • 3. SIDESWINDING
    • - occupy territory or sandy dessert
    • - rattlesnakes
  • 73.