Tenure insecurity - about 1/3 are under secure titles. The rest is under trust land with common hold tenure regimes & mainly within the Arid & Semi-arid areas (ASALs)
Land sizes - More than 1/2 of the total arable land is owned by 20% of the total population of Kenya.
About 29% of the Kenyan population is landless.
There also exists inequality in land distribution by its agricultural potential across the country.
Provincial Land distribution by potential Source: GOK, 2004 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Central Coast Eastern N.Eastern Nyanza R.Valley Western Provinces High Potential Medium Potential Low Potential
Links between Land Reforms and Sustainable Development
Land reforms can be a powerful strategy for promoting economic growth & environmental quality.
Reforms can provide poor people with the incentives to use their lands in a sustainable manner while also reducing poverty.
When households hold secure rights, they become better stewards of the environment through protecting & enhancing soil fertility, water quality & biodiversity.
Secure property rights can enable poor households to access credit to make investment and provide them with insurance against economic and social shocks.
Land & asset ownership enhances the voice of the poor and enables them to effectively participate in social and political processes.
Conceptual Framework Source: Own Conceptualization, 2008 Sustainable Development (SD) Land Reforms (LR) Sustainable livelihoods (SL) Goals of SD cannot be achieved with SL Land Reforms or Lack of it can undermine the environment sustainability SL cannot be achieved if environmental sustainability is undermined Environmental Sustainability
Experiences of Land Reforms in East Asia & Latin America
East Asian countries: Japan, China, South Korea & Taiwan were the fastest growing economies in the 2 nd half of 20 th C.
All these countries implemented highly equitable land reforms after World War II
These reforms helped reduce rural poverty, increase agricultural growth & laid foundation for rapid industrialization
In China, the reforms (collectivization) under the communist regime were disastrous –the famine of 1959-61. The agrarian reforms were later introduced in the late 1970s.
In Japan and South Korea, there was an upper ceiling on land size owned but there was compensation for former land owners.
These reforms gave farmers to invest in land improvements.
In L. America, land reform was mostly driven by political revolution & has not given sufficient access to land by the rural population because of elite capture.
Land markets as land redistribution mechanisms are important in two ways (Mahoney et al , 2007).
It provide mechanisms for efficient allocation of land.
Valuation of land and real property is made more transparent.
Land markets are of 2 types; land sales or land rental markets.
A strong link has been shown to exist between secure land rights, NRM, land markets and economic prosperity.
Connection between titles, land markets & prosperity Access to credit Secure title More Security to Land Owners & Lenders More Demand for / and Supply of Credit More Investment in NRM Greater Productivity Macro Economic Growth Higher Land Prices & Higher Incomes Source: Mahoney et al., 2007