Juan Robalino Socieconomic Effects Of National Parks


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  • Juan Robalino Socieconomic Effects Of National Parks

    1. 1. Protected Areas and their economic and social effects in Costa Rica Juan Robalino Francisco Alpízar Laura Villalobos November, 2008
    2. 2. Causal Question (Hypothesis) <ul><li>How parks and other conservation policies might affect local welfare? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wages (Laura’s Thesis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>diversification of income sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human capital </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Motivation <ul><li>Increasing demands of land for conservation and for agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>Plans to increase further the coverage of protected areas in developing countries (local and international efforts) </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the clear environmental benefits: how will these policies affect the well being of individuals in the countries and localities where these policies are implemented? </li></ul>
    4. 4. Strategy: Data <ul><li>Independent variable of interest: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protected areas across Costa Rica (Map from ITCR 2005) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dependent variables and other socio economic controls: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Census 2000 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Household surveys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These households are geographically referenced with census tracks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GIS maps of Roads and location of education centers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Controls: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geographic: Slopes, precipitation, distance to San José, density of roads, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-economic characteristics (Census and HH surveys) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Strategy: Methods <ul><ul><li>What would have been the economic outcome in the lands currently next to parks if the parks had not been established? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Find the adequate control group to determine the base line or counterfactual outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empirical Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-comparison (people close to parks versus people far away from parks) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic comparison (changes when in areas where parks were implemented versus changes in areas where parks were not implemented) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regular comparisons and matching comparisons </li></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Literature Review <ul><li>There might be possitive effects </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand: Sims 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>household consumption (0 ó +) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>poverty rates (0 ó -) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States: Lewis, Hunt and Plantinga 2002, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>wage (0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employment (0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Migration (+, small) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>United States: Duffy-Deno 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment (0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>population-density (0) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International: Wittemyer 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>human population growth (+) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There might be negative effects </li></ul><ul><li>India: Mukherjee and Borad 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displacement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Honduras: Pfeffer et al. 2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social differentiation and awareness of inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Madagascar: Ferraro 2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opportunity costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Madagascar: Shyamsundar and Kramer 1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>losses from land-use restrictions </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Identification Strategy (Matching) Treated observations: Households close to National Parks Untreated Observations: Households away from National Parks
    8. 8. Who lives close, who lives far? A 5Km B NP
    9. 9. Socioeconomic Characteristics for Rural Households
    10. 10. Socioeconomic Characteristics for Rural Households
    11. 11. Geographic Characteristics for Rural Households
    12. 12. Geographic Characteristics for Rural Households
    13. 13. Next steps <ul><li>We are currently getting the Household Survey data with income and wage variables from 2000 to 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>We will need to obtain more accurate information about entrances to the National Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Try different empirical strategies (before and after, difference in difference and matching) </li></ul><ul><li>Try different hypothesis: e.g. Do parks with more tourists have more positive effects than parks with no tourists? </li></ul>