Risk Perception, Choice and Household Water Behavior in Urban Kenya <ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Onjala <...
Collaborating Researchers <ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Celine Nauges  </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prof. Dale Whittington </...
Context in Kenya (1) <ul><li>Despite its importance, access to water remains a serious challenge to many users in Kenya.  ...
Context in Kenya (2) <ul><li>Presently, renewable fresh water capita stands at 647 m 3  against the United Nations recomme...
Problem <ul><li>Current Water Sector Interventions in Kenya are based on the premise that access to  clean water is constr...
Problem (2) <ul><li>Current water sector policy is not aligned to preferences i.e. by HH consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>This...
Research Questions (1) <ul><li>Given the water SS constraints, what choices do the policy makers have for the development ...
The specific objectives of the study are as follows: <ul><li>Examine risk perception for different types of water sources....
Objectives (2) <ul><li>Analyse the role of water infrastructural constraints in different urban areas.  </li></ul>06/08/09
Literature <ul><li>Most drinking water studies do not specifically incorporate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a conventional measu...
Analytical Frameworks <ul><li>The choice (yes or no) of using a drinking water source implies the use of limited dependent...
Empirical Analysis <ul><li>source  denotes the choice for a given alternative water source.  </li></ul><ul><li>Income  den...
Empirical Analysis <ul><li>AgeH  denotes the age of household head,  Women  denotes the proportion of women in household, ...
Are Empirical Results Contextual?  <ul><ul><li>In all the empirical studies results tend to be contextual? </li></ul></ul>...
Modelling framework for Risk Perception and Choice of water source  <ul><li>Analytical framework developed from discrete c...
Analytical Frameworks <ul><li>Households are assumed to be rational in making economic choices that maximise their utility...
The Data Set  from Urban Users <ul><li>We have so far collected data from 4 towns.  </li></ul><ul><li>A sample of about 25...
Data set from Households <ul><li>A household survey target different residential income groups. </li></ul><ul><li>The town...
Data <ul><li>cross-sectional survey data from 1000 households in the four towns.  </li></ul><ul><li>The survey data covere...
Main Source of Drinking Water 06/08/09 Valid Total N Percent N Percent Piped water into dwelling 188 20.5% 916 100.0% Pipe...
Water Quality Perception (Colour) 06/08/09 Piped water into dwelling Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii Very clean % ...
Water Quality Perception (Colour) 06/08/09 Tubewell/borehole Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii Very clean % within T...
Water Quality Perception (Colour) 06/08/09 Cart with small tank/drum Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii Very clean % ...
Water Quality Perception (Taste) 06/08/09 Piped water into dwelling Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii Excellent % wi...
Risk Assessment (1) 06/08/09 Piped water into dwelling Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii No risk % within Town 11.1%...
Risk Assessment (2) 06/08/09 Rainwater collection Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii No risk % within Town 11.7% 63.7...
Risk Assessment (3) 06/08/09 Cart with small tank/drum Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii No risk % within Town 2.4% ...
What Income group do you feel you belong to? 06/08/09 Income group Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii Wealthy % withi...
Income Groups 06/08/09 Household income(Respondent Town Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii Ksh<1000 % within Town 24.9% 18.4% 10...
Avertive Behaviour 06/08/09 How often does your household treat water? Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii 3 times a d...
Thank You! 06/08/09
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Joseph Risk Perception Demand For Water Kenya4 November2008onjala

423 views
379 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
423
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Joseph Risk Perception Demand For Water Kenya4 November2008onjala

  1. 1. Risk Perception, Choice and Household Water Behavior in Urban Kenya <ul><li>Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Onjala </li></ul><ul><li>Institute for Development Studies </li></ul><ul><li>University of Nairobi </li></ul>06/08/09
  2. 2. Collaborating Researchers <ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Celine Nauges </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prof. Dale Whittington </li></ul></ul></ul>06/08/09
  3. 3. Context in Kenya (1) <ul><li>Despite its importance, access to water remains a serious challenge to many users in Kenya. </li></ul><ul><li>Kenya is a water deficient country with a large part of its surface area being arid and semi-arid. </li></ul><ul><li>Addressing Kenya’s limited and uneven water sources is a priority challenge. </li></ul>06/08/09
  4. 4. Context in Kenya (2) <ul><li>Presently, renewable fresh water capita stands at 647 m 3 against the United Nations recommended minimum of 1,000 m3. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005, clean water sources were available to an estimated 60 per cent of the urban population and 40 per cent of rural homes, while improved sanitation coverage was 55 per cent for urban areas and 50 per cent in the countryside. </li></ul>06/08/09
  5. 5. Problem <ul><li>Current Water Sector Interventions in Kenya are based on the premise that access to clean water is constrained by infrastructural development. </li></ul><ul><li>Vision 2030 proposes massive capital investment to expand storage supply. </li></ul>06/08/09
  6. 6. Problem (2) <ul><li>Current water sector policy is not aligned to preferences i.e. by HH consumers. </li></ul><ul><li>This premise overlooks water quality needs at the HH levels. </li></ul><ul><li>The policy should be based on analysis of the structure of preferences. </li></ul>06/08/09
  7. 7. Research Questions (1) <ul><li>Given the water SS constraints, what choices do the policy makers have for the development of water infrastructure in Kenya? </li></ul><ul><li>How can the above development address the needs of the hh consumers? </li></ul><ul><li>What factors drive the preferences of hh drinking water. </li></ul>06/08/09
  8. 8. The specific objectives of the study are as follows: <ul><li>Examine risk perception for different types of water sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse how risk perception affects choices for different sources of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine how risk perception informs averting behaviour among households and the factors that determine avertive levels. </li></ul>06/08/09
  9. 9. Objectives (2) <ul><li>Analyse the role of water infrastructural constraints in different urban areas. </li></ul>06/08/09
  10. 10. Literature <ul><li>Most drinking water studies do not specifically incorporate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a conventional measure of risk or more importantly, perceived risks in household water demand analysis. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nor do they incorporate the costs HH incur in order to make the water usable/drinkable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yet these factors determine how the initial choices are made. </li></ul></ul>06/08/09
  11. 11. Analytical Frameworks <ul><li>The choice (yes or no) of using a drinking water source implies the use of limited dependent variable model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reflecting whether a particular source was chosen by the household or not. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The factors that are critical for these decisions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factors the drive hh to engage in avertive behaviour. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul>06/08/09
  12. 12. Empirical Analysis <ul><li>source denotes the choice for a given alternative water source. </li></ul><ul><li>Income denotes total household income, </li></ul><ul><li>Risk denotes the risk perception of the water quality, </li></ul><ul><li>Cost denotes total expenditure on water (i.e. distance, time taken etc), HH Size denotes the number of household members and denotes the error term assumed to be normally distributed. </li></ul>06/08/09
  13. 13. Empirical Analysis <ul><li>AgeH denotes the age of household head, Women denotes the proportion of women in household, </li></ul><ul><li>Town denotes the town of the respondent, </li></ul><ul><li>RArea denotes the area where the household lives, </li></ul><ul><li>Rooms denotes the number of room of household house, </li></ul><ul><li>Educ denotes the level of education of household head, </li></ul><ul><li>The results are estimated by the maximum likelihood method, which maximizes the probability of getting the observed data given the fitted regression coefficients. </li></ul>06/08/09
  14. 14. Are Empirical Results Contextual? <ul><ul><li>In all the empirical studies results tend to be contextual? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Because of these mixed signals, there are suggestions that analysis of HH water demand should be based on experience of each region /location rather than theory? </li></ul></ul></ul>06/08/09
  15. 15. Modelling framework for Risk Perception and Choice of water source <ul><li>Analytical framework developed from discrete choice model i.e. developed by McFadden (1974). </li></ul><ul><li>Households have to decide on the water sources to use amongst other alternatives. </li></ul>06/08/09
  16. 16. Analytical Frameworks <ul><li>Households are assumed to be rational in making economic choices that maximise their utility subject to budgetary and other constraints. </li></ul><ul><li>The choice model to be estimated is specified as: </li></ul>06/08/09
  17. 17. The Data Set from Urban Users <ul><li>We have so far collected data from 4 towns. </li></ul><ul><li>A sample of about 250 responses have been collected in each town. </li></ul><ul><li>A total of 1443 contacts were made to collect 1000 responses. </li></ul>06/08/09
  18. 18. Data set from Households <ul><li>A household survey target different residential income groups. </li></ul><ul><li>The town were stratified into three (3) residential income groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Samples were obtained randomly from each group. </li></ul>06/08/09
  19. 19. Data <ul><li>cross-sectional survey data from 1000 households in the four towns. </li></ul><ul><li>The survey data covered: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk perceptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water sourcing behavior, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>costs, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>households demographic, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>socio-economic and housing characteristics of households. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water infrastractural constraints </li></ul></ul>06/08/09
  20. 20. Main Source of Drinking Water 06/08/09 Valid Total N Percent N Percent Piped water into dwelling 188 20.5% 916 100.0% Piped water to yard/plot 185 20.2% 916 100.0% Public tap/standpipe 167 18.2% 916 100.0% Tubewell/borehole 90 9.8% 916 100.0% Protect dug well * Town 129 14.1% 916 100.0% Unprotected dug well * Town 35 3.8% 916 100.0% Protected springs * Town 139 15.2% 916 100.0% Unprotected springs * Town 104 11.4% 916 100.0% Rainwater collection * Town 306 33.4% 916 100.0% Cart with small tank/drum 83 9.1% 916 100.0% Tunker-truck * Town 2 .2% 916 100.0% Surface water(river,dam, lake,pond,stream,canal,irrigation channels) 14 1.5% 916 100.0% Other (specify) 4 .4% 916 100.0%
  21. 21. Water Quality Perception (Colour) 06/08/09 Piped water into dwelling Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii Very clean % within Town 11.1% 5.4% 44.2% 37.0% 19.4% % within Piped water into dwelling 7.8% 13.7% 45.1% 33.3% 100.0% Clean % within Town 86.1% 84.5% 40.4% 34.8% 67.3% % within Piped water into dwelling 17.5% 61.6% 11.9% 9.0% 100.0% Dirty % within Town 2.8% 8.5% 7.7% 26.1% 10.6% % within Piped water into dwelling 3.6% 39.3% 14.3% 42.9% 100.0% Very dirty % within Town .0% .8% .0% 2.2% .8% % within Piped water into dwelling .0% 50.0% .0% 50.0% 100.0% Don't know % within Town .0% .8% 7.7% .0% 1.9% % within Piped water into dwelling .0% 20.0% 80.0% .0% 100.0% Total % within Piped water into dwelling 13.7% 49.0% 19.8% 17.5% 100.0%
  22. 22. Water Quality Perception (Colour) 06/08/09 Tubewell/borehole Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii Very clean % within Town 2.2% 1.1% 15.0% .0% 2.8% % within Tubewell/borehole 20.0% 20.0% 60.0% .0% 100.0% Clean % within Town 54.3% 15.4% 25.0% 95.7% 36.7% % within Tubewell/borehole 37.9% 21.2% 7.6% 33.3% 100.0% Dirty % within Town 37.0% 62.6% 20.0% .0% 43.3% % within Tubewell/borehole 21.8% 73.1% 5.1% .0% 100.0% Very dirty % within Town 6.5% 20.9% 5.0% 4.3% 13.3% % within Tubewell/borehole 12.5% 79.2% 4.2% 4.2% 100.0% Don't know % within Town .0% .0% 35.0% .0% 3.9% % within Tubewell/borehole .0% .0% 100.0% .0% 100.0% Total % within Tubewell/borehole 25.6% 50.6% 11.1% 12.8% 100.0%
  23. 23. Water Quality Perception (Colour) 06/08/09 Cart with small tank/drum Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii Very clean % within Town 2.2% 3.3% 17.6% 15.8% 6.8% % within Cart with small tank/drum 7.7% 23.1% 46.2% 23.1% 100.0% Clean % within Town 91.3% 16.3% 32.4% 78.9% 43.5% % within Cart with small tank/drum 50.6% 18.1% 13.3% 18.1% 100.0% Dirty % within Town 4.3% 54.3% 41.2% .0% 34.6% % within Cart with small tank/drum 3.0% 75.8% 21.2% .0% 100.0% Very dirty % within Town .0% 12.0% .0% .0% 5.8% % within Cart with small tank/drum .0% 100.0% .0% .0% 100.0% Don't know % within Town 2.2% 14.1% 8.8% 5.3% 9.4% % within Cart with small tank/drum 5.6% 72.2% 16.7% 5.6% 100.0% Total % within Cart with small tank/drum 24.1% 48.2% 17.8% 9.9% 100.0%
  24. 24. Water Quality Perception (Taste) 06/08/09 Piped water into dwelling Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii Excellent % within Town 7.7% 3.1% 32.7% 34.7% 15.0% % within Piped water into dwelling 7.5% 10.0% 40.0% 42.5% 100.0% Good % within Town 43.6% 84.6% 22.4% 36.7% 58.4% % within Piped water into dwelling 10.9% 70.5% 7.1% 11.5% 100.0% Poor % within Town 12.8% 9.2% 30.6% 24.5% 16.5% % within Piped water into dwelling 11.4% 27.3% 34.1% 27.3% 100.0% Bad % within Town .0% 1.5% .0% 4.1% 1.5% % within Piped water into dwelling .0% 50.0% .0% 50.0% 100.0% Don't % within Town 35.9% 1.5% 14.3% .0% 8.6% % within Piped water into dwelling 60.9% 8.7% 30.4% .0% 100.0% Total % within Piped water into dwelling 14.6% 48.7% 18.4% 18.4% 100.0%
  25. 25. Risk Assessment (1) 06/08/09 Piped water into dwelling Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii No risk % within Town 11.1% 10.1% 46.2% 37.8% 22.1% % within Piped water into dwelling 6.9% 22.4% 41.4% 29.3% 100.0% Little risk % within Town 44.4% 76.7% 13.5% 20.0% 50.0% % within Piped water into dwelling 12.2% 75.6% 5.3% 6.9% 100.0% Some risk % within Town 36.1% 8.5% 19.2% 24.4% 17.2% % within Piped water into dwelling 28.9% 24.4% 22.2% 24.4% 100.0% Serious risk % within Town 8.3% 4.7% 7.7% 15.6% 7.6% % within Piped water into dwelling 15.0% 30.0% 20.0% 35.0% 100.0% Don't know % within Town .0% .0% 13.5% 2.2% 3.1% % within Piped water into dwelling .0% .0% 87.5% 12.5% 100.0%
  26. 26. Risk Assessment (2) 06/08/09 Rainwater collection Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii No risk % within Town 11.7% 63.7% 38.5% 42.9% 42.4% % within Rainwater collection 4.8% 39.7% 10.3% 45.2% 100.0% Little risk % within Town 61.7% 18.7% 28.2% 24.7% 29.9% % within Rainwater collection 35.9% 16.5% 10.7% 36.9% 100.0% Some risk % within Town 21.7% 9.9% 17.9% 22.7% 18.6% % within Rainwater collection 20.3% 14.1% 10.9% 54.7% 100.0% Serious risk % within Town .0% 4.4% 7.7% .0% 2.0% % within Rainwater collection .0% 57.1% 42.9% .0% 100.0% Don't know % within Town 5.0% 2.2% 7.7% 9.7% 6.7% % within Rainwater collection 13.0% 8.7% 13.0% 65.2% 100.0%
  27. 27. Risk Assessment (3) 06/08/09 Cart with small tank/drum Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii No risk % within Town 2.4% 1.1% 8.6% 33.3% 5.9% % within Cart with small tank/drum 9.1% 9.1% 27.3% 54.5% 100.0% Little risk % within Town 52.4% 12.2% 22.9% 38.9% 25.9% % within Cart with small tank/drum 45.8% 22.9% 16.7% 14.6% 100.0% Some risk % within Town 40.5% 45.6% 25.7% 27.8% 38.9% % within Cart with small tank/drum 23.6% 56.9% 12.5% 6.9% 100.0% Serious risk % within Town 4.8% 30.0% 34.3% .0% 22.2% % within Cart with small tank/drum 4.9% 65.9% 29.3% .0% 100.0% Don't know % within Town .0% 11.1% 8.6% .0% 7.0% % within Cart with small tank/drum .0% 76.9% 23.1% .0% 100.0%
  28. 28. What Income group do you feel you belong to? 06/08/09 Income group Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii Wealthy % within Town 3.0% .9% 1.7% 4.1% 2.4% % within Income group 27.3% 9.1% 18.2% 45.5% 100.0% Quite well off % within Town 21.5% 16.2% 7.8% 7.8% 12.9% % within Income group 37.1% 31.0% 15.5% 16.4% 100.0% Not so well off % within Town 39.0% 54.5% 48.7% 69.8% 53.7% % within Income group 16.1% 25.1% 23.4% 35.4% 100.0% Poor % within Town 35.0% 27.0% 32.3% 17.6% 27.6% % within Income group 28.2% 24.2% 30.2% 17.3% 100.0% Destitute % within Town 1.5% 1.4% 9.5% .8% 3.3% % within Income group 10.0% 10.0% 73.3% 6.7% 100.0% Total % within Income group 22.2% 24.7% 25.8% 27.3% 100.0%
  29. 29. Income Groups 06/08/09 Household income(Respondent Town Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii Ksh<1000 % within Town 24.9% 18.4% 10.0% 12.7% % within Household income 34.5% 27.5% 16.2% 21.8% 1000-4.999 % within Town 5.1% 18.9% 13.1% 9.8% % within Household income 9.6% 38.5% 28.8% 23.1% 5000-9.999 % within Town 21.8% 16.5% 30.1% 13.9% % within Household income 23.8% 19.3% 38.1% 18.8% 10,000-19,000 % within Town 20.3% 19.3% 33.6% 27.3% % within Household income 17.8% 18.2% 34.2% 29.8% 20,000-29,999 % within Town 13.7% 15.6% 8.3% 21.2% % within Household income 20.6% 25.2% 14.5% 39.7% 30,000-39,999 % within Town 7.6% 7.1% 3.1% 7.8% % within Household income 26.8% 26.8% 12.5% 33.9% 40,000-49,999 % within Town 2.5% 2.8% .9% 4.9% % within Household income 20.0% 24.0% 8.0% 48.0% 50,000-75,000 % within Town 2.5% .9% .0% 2.0% % within Household income 41.7% 16.7% .0% 41.7% 76-000-100,000 % within Town .5% .0% .4% .4% % within Household income 33.3% .0% 33.3% 33.3% 100,000- % within Town 1.0% .5% .4% .0% % within Household income 50.0% 25.0% 25.0% .0% Total % within Household income 22.3% 24.0% 25.9% 27.7%
  30. 30. Avertive Behaviour 06/08/09 How often does your household treat water? Town Total Kisumu Eldoret Kericho Kisii 3 times a day % within Town 1.5% 5.6% 2.7% 3.5% 3.6% % within How often does your household treat water? 7.7% 46.2% 15.4% 30.8% 100.0% Once a day % within Town 70.6% 53.3% 42.5% 36.5% 49.0% % within How often does your household treat water? 27.0% 32.0% 17.4% 23.6% 100.0% Once a week % within Town 25.0% 26.2% 43.8% 50.4% 37.2% % within How often does your household treat water? 12.6% 20.7% 23.7% 43.0% 100.0% Rarely or never % within Town 2.9% 15.0% 11.0% 9.6% 10.2% % within How often does your household treat water? 5.4% 43.2% 21.6% 29.7% 100.0% Total % within How often does your household treat water? 18.7% 29.5% 20.1% 31.7% 100.0%
  31. 31. Thank You! 06/08/09

×