Jim Boyd

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  • Jim Boyd

    1. 1. Ecosystem Services and EfD <ul><li>Eco Services as an EfD Theme </li></ul><ul><li>The Big Research Questions </li></ul><ul><li>“ Coordinated” EfD projects </li></ul>
    2. 2. “ Ecosystem Services” <ul><li>Terminological Clarification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualities </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. “ Ecosystem Services” <ul><li>Terminological Clarification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services flood, pest damage prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualities </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. “ Ecosystem Services” <ul><li>Terminological Clarification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services flood damage prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods species, irrigation, openspace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualities </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. “ Ecosystem Services” <ul><li>Terminological Clarification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services flood damage prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods species, irrigation, openspace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualities air, soil, water quality </li></ul></ul>The building blocks of all wealth
    6. 6. A Broad Theme <ul><li>How should we manage ecological systems to enhance or preserve human welfare? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the value of ecological public goods? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we implement policy instruments designed to preserve or enhance natural wealth? </li></ul>
    7. 7. Two Economies The Market Economy The Natural Economy Things bought & sold Things not bought & sold
    8. 8. Who Cares? <ul><li>Environmental advocates, conservancies, NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Government trustees of nature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particularly those with regulatory mandates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community planners </li></ul><ul><li>Environment-dependent business </li></ul>
    9. 9. Center Activities <ul><li>Forest projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the ancillary effects of forest management (water, biodiversity) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainable land, parks, & biodiversity planning </li></ul><ul><li>Natural resource accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Wetlands, water, biodiversity </li></ul>
    10. 10. Policy Instruments <ul><li>What are you trading? …ES </li></ul><ul><li>What are you encouraging via subsidization or investments? …ES </li></ul><ul><li>What “bads” are you taxing, subjecting to liability, or regulating? …Lost ES </li></ul>
    11. 11. Methods <ul><li>Valuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SP + RP applied to these public goods </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accounts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green GDP – what you’re counting is these non-market public goods and services </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. From Theme to Focus <ul><li>Projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>REDD, ecocompensation, PES, agricultural services, water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural science support group </li></ul><ul><li>Big risk, big reward </li></ul>Thinking big…
    13. 13. The Big Questions <ul><li>Missing prices? Valuation methods? </li></ul><ul><li>Instrument design? </li></ul>
    14. 14. The Big Questions <ul><li>Missing prices? Valuation methods? </li></ul><ul><li>Instrument design? </li></ul>NO
    15. 15. The Missing Link <ul><li>Biophysical production functions … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… of a particular kind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production functions that translate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete actions into </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in ecological endpoints </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Production Functions <ul><li>Not theoretical, mathematical production functions </li></ul><ul><li>Rather, empirically demonstrable relationships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dose response” </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Ecology Motivated By Economics <ul><li>How do practical social actions (things we can do ) affect biophysical outcomes we care about (endpoints) </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate by analogy… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… public health motivated by economics </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Socially meaningful Thus, amenable to valuation
    19. 20. Powerful <ul><li>Integrated economic and medical science </li></ul><ul><li>Practical action (PM10 regulation) </li></ul><ul><li>Socially meaningful outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Monetary values and policy justification </li></ul>
    20. 21. It Wasn’t Always So <ul><li>Medical science in the 1960s </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lab science – Inhaled PM effects on oxygen transfer rates in the lung </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Much less powerful </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not connected to a policy action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not translated into meaningful endpoints </li></ul></ul>
    21. 22. Our Grand Challenge <ul><li>“ Ecodemiology” </li></ul><ul><li>What can we control, what actions can we take… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preservation, land management, restoration, pollutant and stressor reductions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>And how do those actions affect biophysical outcomes that are socially meaningful </li></ul>
    22. 23. Summary: Proposal <ul><li>EfD projects that… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address the missing link: biophysical production functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depict changes in endpoints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Necessary to employ our economic tools </li></ul>
    23. 24. Don’t Ecologists Do This Already? <ul><li>In general, no </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t have a managerial mindset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t have economic wellbeing as their objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic ecology is “in the weeds” </li></ul></ul>Also, it’s hard to do
    24. 25. Economists can do something with these Not these
    25. 26. Ecological Endpoints
    26. 27. Quantity Units – Market vs. Public Goods Obvious Not obvious
    27. 30. Endpoint Definition <ul><li>“ The Endpoint Problem,” Resources , Spring 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Elements of A Welfare Significant Ecosystem Quantity Index, Journal of the International Economic Association , forthcoming </li></ul><ul><li>“ What are Ecosystem Services? Ecological Economics , 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>The Nonmarket Benefits of Nature: What Should Be Counted in Green GDP? Ecological Economics , 2006 </li></ul>
    28. 31. Production Functions
    29. 32. How to Get There? <ul><li>Easier </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use ecological rules of thumb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But make sure they are state of the art rules of thumb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Harder </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlled experimentation </li></ul></ul>Partnerships
    30. 33. Study Designs <ul><li>A practical intervention (what can we control?) </li></ul><ul><li>A desired outcome (what matters to us?) </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical controls to validate relationship between 1 and 2. </li></ul>
    31. 34. Study Designs <ul><li>A practical intervention (what can we control?) </li></ul><ul><li>A desired outcome (what matters to us?) </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical controls to validate relationship between 1 and 2. </li></ul>Medicine: Drug X Eco: Land cover pattern y Medicine: Disease remission Eco: Water quality change Medicine: Diet, smoking, income Eco: Many things...
    32. 35. Strong Suggestion <ul><li>Spatial analytical capability </li></ul>
    33. 36. Spatial Capability <ul><li>Environmental action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological & economic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valuation of outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul>Spatial
    34. 37. Actions
    35. 38. Stresses & Threats
    36. 39. Spatial Capability <ul><li>Environmental action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological & economic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valuation of outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul>Spatial
    37. 40. Production Functions
    38. 41. Spatial Capability <ul><li>Environmental action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological & economic processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valuation of outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul>Spatial
    39. 42. Location, location
    40. 43. New Mapping Technology <ul><li>Let’s not get left behind </li></ul>
    41. 44. Example: Viewshed Analysis
    42. 48. <ul><li>Biophysical production functions </li></ul><ul><li>Endpoints: valuation amenable ecological outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Mapping capability </li></ul>

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