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Jim Boyd
 

Jim Boyd

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Jim Boyd Jim Boyd Presentation Transcript

  • Ecosystem Services and EfD
    • Eco Services as an EfD Theme
    • The Big Research Questions
    • “ Coordinated” EfD projects
  • “ Ecosystem Services”
    • Terminological Clarification
      • Services
      • Goods
      • Qualities
  • “ Ecosystem Services”
    • Terminological Clarification
      • Services flood, pest damage prevention
      • Goods
      • Qualities
  • “ Ecosystem Services”
    • Terminological Clarification
      • Services flood damage prevention
      • Goods species, irrigation, openspace
      • Qualities
  • “ Ecosystem Services”
    • Terminological Clarification
      • Services flood damage prevention
      • Goods species, irrigation, openspace
      • Qualities air, soil, water quality
    The building blocks of all wealth
  • A Broad Theme
    • How should we manage ecological systems to enhance or preserve human welfare?
    • What is the value of ecological public goods?
    • How do we implement policy instruments designed to preserve or enhance natural wealth?
  • Two Economies The Market Economy The Natural Economy Things bought & sold Things not bought & sold
  • Who Cares?
    • Environmental advocates, conservancies, NGOs
    • Government trustees of nature
      • Particularly those with regulatory mandates
    • Community planners
    • Environment-dependent business
  • Center Activities
    • Forest projects
      • All the ancillary effects of forest management (water, biodiversity)
    • Sustainable land, parks, & biodiversity planning
    • Natural resource accounts
    • Wetlands, water, biodiversity
  • Policy Instruments
    • What are you trading? …ES
    • What are you encouraging via subsidization or investments? …ES
    • What “bads” are you taxing, subjecting to liability, or regulating? …Lost ES
  • Methods
    • Valuation
      • SP + RP applied to these public goods
    • Accounts
      • Green GDP – what you’re counting is these non-market public goods and services
  • From Theme to Focus
    • Projects
      • REDD, ecocompensation, PES, agricultural services, water
    • Natural science support group
    • Big risk, big reward
    Thinking big…
  • The Big Questions
    • Missing prices? Valuation methods?
    • Instrument design?
  • The Big Questions
    • Missing prices? Valuation methods?
    • Instrument design?
    NO
  • The Missing Link
    • Biophysical production functions …
      • … of a particular kind
    • Production functions that translate
      • Concrete actions into
      • Changes in ecological endpoints
  • Production Functions
    • Not theoretical, mathematical production functions
    • Rather, empirically demonstrable relationships
      • “ Dose response”
  • Ecology Motivated By Economics
    • How do practical social actions (things we can do ) affect biophysical outcomes we care about (endpoints)
    • Illustrate by analogy…
      • … public health motivated by economics
  •  
  • Socially meaningful Thus, amenable to valuation
  • Powerful
    • Integrated economic and medical science
    • Practical action (PM10 regulation)
    • Socially meaningful outcomes
    • Monetary values and policy justification
  • It Wasn’t Always So
    • Medical science in the 1960s
      • Lab science – Inhaled PM effects on oxygen transfer rates in the lung
    • Much less powerful
      • Not connected to a policy action
      • Not translated into meaningful endpoints
  • Our Grand Challenge
    • “ Ecodemiology”
    • What can we control, what actions can we take…
      • Preservation, land management, restoration, pollutant and stressor reductions
    • And how do those actions affect biophysical outcomes that are socially meaningful
  • Summary: Proposal
    • EfD projects that…
      • Address the missing link: biophysical production functions
      • Depict changes in endpoints
    • Necessary to employ our economic tools
  • Don’t Ecologists Do This Already?
    • In general, no
      • Don’t have a managerial mindset
      • Don’t have economic wellbeing as their objective
      • Academic ecology is “in the weeds”
    Also, it’s hard to do
  • Economists can do something with these Not these
  • Ecological Endpoints
  • Quantity Units – Market vs. Public Goods Obvious Not obvious
  •  
  •  
  • Endpoint Definition
    • “ The Endpoint Problem,” Resources , Spring 2007
    • “ The Elements of A Welfare Significant Ecosystem Quantity Index, Journal of the International Economic Association , forthcoming
    • “ What are Ecosystem Services? Ecological Economics , 2007
    • The Nonmarket Benefits of Nature: What Should Be Counted in Green GDP? Ecological Economics , 2006
  • Production Functions
  • How to Get There?
    • Easier
      • Use ecological rules of thumb
      • But make sure they are state of the art rules of thumb
    • Harder
      • Controlled experimentation
    Partnerships
  • Study Designs
    • A practical intervention (what can we control?)
    • A desired outcome (what matters to us?)
    • Statistical controls to validate relationship between 1 and 2.
  • Study Designs
    • A practical intervention (what can we control?)
    • A desired outcome (what matters to us?)
    • Statistical controls to validate relationship between 1 and 2.
    Medicine: Drug X Eco: Land cover pattern y Medicine: Disease remission Eco: Water quality change Medicine: Diet, smoking, income Eco: Many things...
  • Strong Suggestion
    • Spatial analytical capability
  • Spatial Capability
    • Environmental action
      • Ecological & economic processes
        • Valuation of outcomes
    Spatial
  • Actions
  • Stresses & Threats
  • Spatial Capability
    • Environmental action
      • Ecological & economic processes
        • Valuation of outcomes
    Spatial
  • Production Functions
  • Spatial Capability
    • Environmental action
      • Ecological & economic processes
        • Valuation of outcomes
    Spatial
  • Location, location
  • New Mapping Technology
    • Let’s not get left behind
  • Example: Viewshed Analysis
  •  
  •  
  •  
    • Biophysical production functions
    • Endpoints: valuation amenable ecological outcomes
    • Mapping capability