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Edwin Parks Protected Areas And Wildlife Theme 20081104
 

Edwin Parks Protected Areas And Wildlife Theme 20081104

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    Edwin Parks Protected Areas And Wildlife Theme 20081104 Edwin Parks Protected Areas And Wildlife Theme 20081104 Presentation Transcript

    • EfD Parks, protected areas and wildlife conservation theme 2008
    • Background
      • With wildlife great costs are imposed on local population/opp cost of land and money
      • Wildlife has the potential to offer great benefits – not least to international community – but is not paid for
      • Wildlife is a key driver of the tourism industry – but is not usually used to benefit the local communities that are paying the bills.
      • Many species are very valuable and endangered
        • How to save them?
        • How to benefit from them?
      • The real problem is to keep those who are not so interesting to the public.
        • Cross subsidization
    • Important policies
      • South Africa:
        • NEM: Protected Areas Act
        • NEM: Biodiversity Act
      • Kenya
        • Draft wildlife policy
      • Zimbabwe
        • Wildlife based land reform policy
      • Costa Rica
        • National system of conservation areas (national parks) (SINAC)
        • Payments for environmental services programme
      • etc
    • The vision
      • In thinking about the research agenda for this theme, we would like to conduct some research
        • which would cater for the needs of the parks, protected areas and wildlife conservation agencies (demand driven research);
        • which educate the parks, protected areas and wildlife conservation agencies about new aspects important for conservation (supply-led research) and
        • which would contribute to the academic discussion of parks, protected areas and wildlife conservation (publishable research).
      • To achieve this, we recognize the need of input from the local agencies, international agencies and the community of researchers working on parks, protected areas and wildlife conservation.
    • Protected area funding/fee issues
      • The optimal pricing of national parks with price discrimination and substitution amongst parks
      • Estimating demand functions for various parks, as functions of park fees and other variables (do this for a couple of countries that are seen as similar destinations. The point of this would be both to value the private good aspects of the parks, as well as to give an idea of whether there would be scope to raise additional revenue by changing the fee structure and/or through collusion between countries in fee setting)
      • The willingness to pay for combined nature and cultural tourism
      • Field experiments applied to the design of entrance fees
      • What affect voluntary contributions to national parks? A field study in Cahuita National Park
    • Protected area funding/fee issues
      • Social norms and hypothetical bias: Testing the effects of anonymity, reciprocity and information of others contribution on voluntary contributions to a national park.
      • Valuation and park design for tourism
      • The role of cross-subsidization among national parks
      • Substitution of tourist sites in a nation or across nations (the substitution elasticities)
    • Economy-wide effects of protected areas and sustainability
      • Parks and benefit sharing with adjacent communities
      • Parks and spillovers on land use, time allocation, local well-being, etc (Matching, census and household data)
      • What importance/significance do parks have on the economy?
      • Regional economic importance of parks (jobs, incomes, health, etc; parks vs alternative land uses (citrus); survey of operators; survey of how much time visitors/tourists actually spend in parks)
      • Framework for analysing s ocial and environmental aspects in the context of protected areas (land use planning and main productive activities, property rights and combinations, livelihood approach (capitals), costs associated with creation and maintenance of capitals, welfare defined broadly (income, health, etc))
    • Economy-wide effects of protected areas and sustainability
      • Moving from governance boundaries to ecological boundaries in conservation (Good for nature, but what about for people? Sustainability is jeopardized if local well-being is not considered into conservation efforts. Are there any real benefits from tourism?)
      • The economic effect of lopping off some parts of national parks and giving them to local communities under land reform e.g. Kruger in South Africa vs land restitution
    • Design of conservation efforts
      • Optimal instrument design for conservation policy in the presence of information asymmetries and strategic behaviour (non-cooperative game between the conservation agency and agents privately in charge of executing the conservation effort)
      • Investigating the conservation and economic efficiency of national parks in Southern Africa and examining the determinants of efficiency
      • Investigating the conservation and economic efficiency of game farms in Southern Africa and examining the determinants of efficiency (explaining the efficiency of game farms by access/proximity to national parks)
      • Impact of initial park citing on conservation and associated benefits to communities
      • Optimal siting of protected areas taking into account: (i) deforestation risk (ii) ecological benefits of protection, and (iii) economic costs of protection, including opportunity costs
    • Design of conservation efforts
      • The conservation effect of lopping off some parts of national parks and giving them to local communities under land reform e.g. Kruger in South Africa vs land restitution
      • Comparative studies from Ethiopia, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, etc to look at effects on biodiversity indices etc of social unrest; and other comfort and discomfort factors; culture (like Maasai in the Mara to get some ideas of potential in Kruger, etc)
      • The role of easements in park management and wildlife conservation
      • The effect of development activities in the park on wildlife conservation
      • Identifying the geophysical and institutional characteristics of “successful” protected areas, i.e., those that stem deforestation, and generate positive socioeconomic impacts
    • Design of conservation efforts
      • Bioregions as a strategy for designing conservation efforts (use of e conomic incentives for the sustainable management of bioregions, which economic incentives to use at which scales and under what conditions)
      • Tranfrontier protected areas as a strategy for designing conservation efforts (peace parks in Southern Africa; economic incentives for the sustainable management of transfrontier conservation areas; how institutional, economic and social differences issues complicate the success and sustainability of transfrontier parks)
      • Evaluation of the deforestation impacts of protected areas using land cover data from satellite images and econometric matching techniques
    • Bioeconomic modelling
      • Modeling elephant hunting
      • Research idea on buying conservation rights for the protection of migratory corridors in Nairobi park
      • Is there a trade off between cattle ranching and key species? Pure versus impure conservation
      • Using data from South African game farms to estimate empirical bioeconomic models (simulate long term game stocking in different parts of the country to see where private incentives are likely to be in conflict with the social biodiversity objectives, and how big interventions (in terms of taxes or subsidies) would be needed to achieve the socially optimal stocking levels)
    • The people
      • Francisco Alpizar
      • Edwin Muchapondwa
      • Fredrik Carlsson
      • Thomas Sterner
      • Carolyn Fischer
      • Jim Boyd
      • Allen Blackman
      • Juan Robalino
      • Paul Guthiga
      • Eric Mungatana
      • Jesper Stage
      • Goran Bosteadt