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CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING

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basics of civil construction engineering

basics of civil construction engineering

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  • 1. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM COURSE OUTLINE 1. Construction of foundation 2. Brick & block masonry construction 3. Reinforced brick masonry 4. Bond & joints in masonry 5. RCC structure 6. Types of steel 7. RCC slab, beam, & column 8. Floor construction 9. Doors 7 windows 10.Stair & stair case 11.Aconites of building 12.Industrial buildings & factories TEXT & BOOKS REFERENCES Building construction material & types of construction BY Huntington (3rd Edition) & Construction Engineering & Management BY S.C.Sharma
  • 2. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM FOUNDATION: The part of the structure which bears & transmit the structure load i.e. DEAD LOAD, IMPOSED LOAD or WIND LOAD to the supporting soil or rocks are called foundation Supporting soil is known as foundation material. DEAD LOAD: It includes self weight of the building which is sub-structure, super structure primary & secondary components & finishes. IMPOSES LOAD: It is the weight of occupants, furniture’s & moveable goods together with the weight of snow which may rest on roof. LATERAL LOAD: It is the seismic forces & wind load exerted on the building from any direction at its max velocity. COMPONENTS OF FOUNDATION: Any foundation has two components the natural foundation and the artificial foundation. Natural foundation is that part of sub-soil on which the structure rests and the artificial foundation is that part of the structure which transmits the load to the natural foundation. BEARING CAPACITY & BEARING PRESSURE: Bearing capacity of soil is defined as the safe load which a unite area of ground can carry. The bearing pressure is the amount of force that a structure exerts on the ground per unite area bearing pressure must not exceed the bearing capacity of soil. S.NO. Sub soil type Bearing Capacity (KN/M2 ) 1 - Rocks 600 to 10,000 2 - Compact gravel & sand 300 to 600 3 - Stiff clay 200 to 400 4 - Soft clay 50 to 100 5 - Loose gravel & sand 75 to 200 6 - Very soft clay & silt 0 to 75
  • 3. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM PURPOSE OF FOUNDATION: 1- To secure a level & firm bed area. 2- To distribute the structure load over the layer area. 3- To apply loads on the bearing surface at uniform rate. 4- To increase overall stability of the structure 5- To prevent the lateral moment of the natural foundation. DEPTH OF FOUNDATION: The minimum depth of which a foundation must be designed is depending on the following factors. 1- Applied load & their intensity . 2- Space requirement of the structure 3- Depth of adjacent foundation. 4- Characteristics of the foundation material 5- Climatically conditions TYPES OF FOUNDATION: 1-SHALLOW FOUNDATION: The foundation structured near the ground surface mostly on the first hard strata available below the ground level is called shallow foundation. Following are the four types of shallow foundation. 1- Spread foundation 2- Grillage foundation 3- Step foundation 4- Raft or Mat foundation (Sketches) SPREAD FOUNDATION:
  • 4. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM COMBINED FOOTING: CONTINUOUS FOOTING: 2- GRILLAGE FOUNDATION: A- Steel or wooden sections embedded in concrete. B- Used when bearing capacity is very low. C- Not use in massive structure. D-is is very expensive. 3-STEP FOUNDATION: Foundation bed is made of concrete used when ground is not level used in hilly areas.
  • 5. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM 5- RAFT OR MAT FOUNDATION: It consists of a thick RCC slab cover whole area in the form of a mat. It is used when ground conditions are very poor & the bearing capacity of soil is too low therefore individual footing can not be provided. Thickness of raft foundation is 2 to 3 feet is is used in massive structures e.g. Baharia Icon , Crescent bay etc. B- DEEP FOUNDATION: A deep foundation is suitable for massive structures like bridges, tall buildings where greater strength is required it is constructed with some artificial arrangements at the base e.g. PILE, CORRIONS etc. PILE FOUNDATION: A deep foundation which is supported on piles is called pile foundation these piles distributed structure load to the soil is convert either by friction bearing at the end. SUITABILITY OF PILE FOUNDATION: 1- When the soil is very soft & the suitable base is not available at the desired depth. 2- When building is constructed near the sea-shore or river bank. 3- In taller buildings subjected to heavy loads. TYPES OF PILE W.R. TO MATERIAL: 1- Concrete pile 2- RCC pile 3- Timber pile 4- Steel pile 5- Sand pile TYPES OF PILE W.R. TO USAGE: 1- Bearing pile 2- Fraction pile 3- Fraction 4- Guide pile 5- Butter pile
  • 6. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM INVERTED ARCHES: An area consists of a brick or stone unit arranged in such a manner so as to from a curved surface heavy concave face upward & inverted arch is formed. It can be constructed b/w the two walls and load can be distributed over a wider area. Depth of inverted arch is very less. EXCAVATION FOR FOUNDATION: After a foundation designed of building foundation plan is prepared to any convenient scale by showing all masonry dimensions 7 setting out this foundation plan on the ground by clean & leveling the ground & position of building & trenches should be carefully marked. After setting out the trenches excavation work is carried out by pick axes or mechanical excavators & excavated earth is dumped away from the trenches. Where excavation is carried out in rock the some advanced excavation equipments pick driller. Wedges, jumpers, Chisel etc. May be used the excavated trenches must retain their shape till the space filled with foundation concrete in it. The trenches are deep & sides are soft their trenches are suitability supported be means of planks sheets or polliy board to avoid collapse of trenches. LAYING OF FOUNDATION CONCRETE: In Pakistan normally 1:4:8 concrete is used in lean concrete& week concrete Non-concrete & its thickness is 4” to 6” before laying foundation concrete the bed of excavated trenches should be well rolled leveled & sprinkle at bottom before laying of lean concrete after lean concrete is placed to the whole depth of foundation concrete is completed no. of layers 7 each layers should not be more than 6” in depth & compacted properly before laying of foundation concrete then curing is done. MASONRY CONSTRUCTION: 1- Brick masonry 2- Block masonry 3- Stone masonry A-BRICK MASONRY: Brick masonry are obtained from clay by molding it into rectangular uniform shapes & size. To provide strength & durability these bricks are dried as burnt before use in building construction. Strength of brick work depends on the type of mortar used in brick masonry.
  • 7. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM TYPES OF BRICKS: 1- BURNED OR FIRED BRICKS: These types of bricks are burnt at high temperature & laid with cement and lime mortar lime is used to improve the workability these bricks are used in landscape or old buildings. All the old buildings In Pakistan made by these bricks these bricks can further be classify as 1st class and 2nd class and 3rd class bricks will respect to quality. 2- SUNDRIED BRICKS: In these types of bricks masonry sundried bricks are laid in mud mortar. Mud is combination of cement lime & mortar. It is used in rough construction or in ordinary works. SIZE OF BRICKS: STEP OF LAYING BRICKS MASONRY: 1- Brick are selected according to their size, shape, color. 2- Stack 1000 bricks together in such away that corners should not be damaged. 3- Bricks are soaked in water to prevent then to absorb moisture from the mortar. 4- That much quantity of mortar should be prepaid which can be consumed in 30 – 45 minutes. GENERAL PRINCIPLES IN BRICK WORK: 1- Bricks should be well burnet & of required size , shape, & color. 2- All bricks must be soaked in clean water. 3- Mortar should be of specific quantity 1:4 W/C ratio is used in brick masonry. 4- A systematic bond should be provide in general English bond is provided otherwise specified. 5- All joints should be filled with uniform thickness of mortar. 6- Ground below the wall must be firmed and leveled. 7- Brick work should be properly cured for at least 10 days. 8- Freshly laid brick should be protected from rain. BLOCK MASONRY: Block size L = B = H/D 12” = 8” = 3” 12” = 8” = 4” 12” = 8” = 5” 12” = 8” = 6” 12” = 8” = 8” 1- compressive strength of brick is ( 500 – 800 PSI ) 2- compressive strength of block is ( 1000 – 1500 PSI )
  • 8. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM ADVANTAGE OF BLOCK MASONRY: 1- it is lay in size 2- uniform in design 3- stronger then brick 4- attractive appearances 5- easy handle & placing 6- Easily manufacture. BLOCK MANUFACTURE: 1- 60% fine aggregate 7 40% coarse aggregate in block. 2- Use 1:6 proportions for cement 7 aggregate in block. 3- Block should be sufficient set before remove from the molding plate. 4- Block should not be disturbed on the molding plate for at least 24 hours. 5- It is preferable to use mechanical molds for better finish & strength. 6- Block should be curried after keeping the under shade for at least 24 hours & immured for a week in tank. LYING OF CONCRETE BLOCK MASONRY: 1. See if any cutting is necessary. 2. A mortar bed spread over foundation concrete & leveled to certain sufficient thickness of mortar. 3. The corner block laid first & positioned correctly. 4. Mortar is applied to the ends of other blocks & then placed & pasted these blocks. 5. After the placement of few blocks level of course should be checked. 6. The secondary courses are laid in such a manner so as to break the joints vertically. STONE MASONRY: The art of building structures with natural stone with suitable mortar is called stone masonry. After cutting & dressing to suitable size these stones can be used as a strong durable & economical construction material. TYPES OF STONE MASONRY: a- ASHLAR MASONRY: (sketches) The stone masonry in which properly cut in uniform shape size fine finish stone are laid in the uniform thickness of mortar is called Ashlar masonry.
  • 9. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM b- RUBBLE MASONRY: The stone masonry in which undressed or roughly dresser stone are laid in the suitable mortar is called Rubble stone masonry. GENERAL PRINCIPLES & PRECAUTIONS IN STONE MASONARY: 1- All stones should durable strong & properly dressed. 2- All stones should be well watered before laying to avoids absorption of water from mortar. 3- Stones are laid on their mortar bed. 4- Continually of vertical joints should be break by crossing various sizes of stones. 5- Lay flat stone are used as a bed plate. 6- The height of stone should never be greater than its minimum horizontal dimension. TOOLS USED IN MASONRY CONSTRUCTION: (sketches) HAMMER CLUB HAMMER MASON SQUARE MEASURING TAPE TROWEL PLUMBING BOB JOINTS: Joints are the weakest part of the masonry structure & special attention to be paid with the joints to achieve appropriate strength in the masonry work. Appearances of masonry work is also depends on the proper laying of mortar in the joints.
  • 10. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM TYPES OF JOINTS: (sketches) FLAT JOINTS CONCAVE JOINTS V – JOINTS PROJECTED JOINTS STRIPPED JOINTS WEATHERED JOINTS BONDS: The arrangement of block or bricks on each censes so as to avoid the continuity of vertical joints in any two adjacent layers or on both sides of masonry structure is called bond. This is done by overlapping the masonry units in successive layers. OBJECTIVES TO PROVIDE BOND: 1- To break the continuity of vertical joints in successive layers both in length & thickness. 2- To ensure longitudinal & lateral strength of the structure. 3- To enable the structure to act as a bounded. 4- To provide pleasant pleasing appearance by lying bricks or block symmetrically. PRINCIPLES OF GOOD BOND IN MASONRY: 1- Bricks or blocks should be of uniform shape size and color. 2- The length of brick must be twice of its length. 3- All the horizontal joints should be truly horizontal & vertical joints are truly vertical.
  • 11. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM TYPES OF BOND: (sketches) Stretcher bond Header bond English bond Flemish bond BRICK & STONE ARCHES: (sketches) A structure member having mechanical arrangements of bricks, stones or concrete block joints together with mortar in the form of a curve is called an arch. Arch can be easily constructed & mostly used to provide good appearances to the building or use as inverted arch in the foundation.
  • 12. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM COMPONENTS OF AS ARCH: 1- Ends supported of as arch or series of arches is called abutments. 2- The intermediate support of a series of arch is called pier. 3- The curved ring of masonry forming on an arch is called arch ring. 4- The inner surface of arch ring is called intend. 5- The outer surface of arch ring is called extrude. 6- The bed joints b/w intrudes & extrudes made by mortar is called radial joints. 7- The distance b/w intrudes & extrude is called depth of an arch. 8- The space under the arch is called soffit. 9- The distance b/w two supports is called span. 10- The highest point on extrudes is called crown. 11- The slopping surface at abutment or pier from where arch is started is called skew back. 12- The distance b/w skew back to crown is called hunch. 13- The geometrical center from where the arch ring is down is called center of arch. CLASSIFICATION OF ARCH: 1- According to material used 2- According to purpose or usage 3- According to geometrical shapes RCC CONSTRUCTION: Concrete construction is very durable & economical for most of the buildings. The quickness & ease of work is a great advantage & improved appearances & the types of various finishers. Which can be given to concrete surface added advantages in adopting concrete is an artificial material consisting of ingredients which are coarse & fine aggregates forming material & cement & lime which acts as a bonding material concrete usually made in a plastic state of adding water it get hardest on curing & gain strength the properties of aggregates cement lime & mixing water should be suitably cheeked & must be of approved specification.
  • 13. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD CONCRETE: 1- Compressive strength should be at least (2500 to 3000 PSI). 2- Durability (Elastic). 3- Impermeability (water should not pass through the concrete ). 4- Resistance to fire. 5- Workability ( ease to work with consistency moisture content ). 6- Compaction (density & water cement ratio) 7- Economy (material should be good & economical) 8- Appearance (appearance should be good) 9- Creep (continuous strain with the passage of time) 10- Shrinkage (decrease in volume due to presence of water) TYPES OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION: 1- Plain concrete: Concrete with out steel reinforcement is called plain concrete (i.e. D.J.collage, NED old campus) 2- Cast in place: It is cast in position (i.e. most common in houses) 3- Pre-cast concrete: Cast in some other place from where it permenantly find (i.e. slab, beam, girder) 4- Pre-stressed concrete: Used in heavy beams/girders use in building. Stressed before place in position. Concrete has a low tensile strength it therefore it is not an effective material with reinforcement for member subjected to heavy loads. Concrete good in compression but where heavy loads are applied the size & X- section of column is very low so steel is reinforced to use with concrete it bears tensile stress 7 also compressive stresses more effectively as compare to concrete & as a result size & X-sectional of concrete will reduce. WHY STEEL: In RCC structures steel is used in combination with concrete to resist compressive, Tensile & shear stresses. The reason to use steel in its ductility. Tensile & compressive strength approximate some value of expansion & construction as concrete & also good bonding with concrete. TYPES OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT: The usual type of steel reinforced is steel rods or bars steel steels welded wire. These steel is available in several grades i.e. grades 40 grade 50, Grade 60 etc. Which shows its yield strength in ksi?
  • 14. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM 1- There are three types of steel bars are used. A- Plain bar B- Deformed bar C- Twisted bar A- PLAIN BAR: Plain bars are used as shear reinforced or in ordinary small houses its bond with concrete is not very good. B- DEFORMED BAR: Deformed bar have grooves / deformation on its surface at uniform internal along the bar length & test shows it is most effective to use with concrete. C- TWISTED BAR: Twisted bar are twisted at high temperature to increase its yield strength but on the other hand it loose its ductility and failed & also it is exposed to the surface to cause corrosion. 2- Deformed & twisted bars are not available in Φ less then 3/8” or 10mm. 3- In welded wire & wire mesh very thin steel wire are used & the spacing of the longitudinal wire various from 2” to 6” 4- For unit weight of steel bars are use n2 / 24 where “n” is bar no. & it gives weight in lb/ft. If 𝛷 is in mm than use Φ2 / 162 in m / kg. Bar # (n) Φ in inch Unite wt ( n2 / 24 ) lb / ft #2 2/8 = 1/4 “ 0.167 #3 3/8 = 0.375 #4 4/8 = 1/2 “ 0.667 #5 5/8 = 1.042 #6 6/8 = 3/4 “ 1.50 #7 7/8 = 2.042 #8 8/8 = 1 “ 2.67 FROM WORK OR SHUTTERING: Concrete being a plastic material it has to be keep enclosed until it will gain strength the temporary structure which are build for an concrete member called form work. It is use to give definite shape to the concrete formwork is also known as shuttering or casing. Timber is most common material used for the form work but in recent days steel plates are also used for their purpose formwork i.e. the sustained part in the cost of finish concrete in extreme case in about 60% to 70% of the over all cost of concrete normally formwork is design by the contractor & submit it to the consultant for approved following are the two components of form work.
  • 15. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM 1- FORM FACE: It is the part of form work which is in contact with concrete & finishing of form face will decide 7 finishing of concrete it could be of hard board, timber, steel, plastic, fiber etc. 2- THE SUPPORT: These are the vertical member which transfer the weight of wet concrete from form face to ground these are called pups joints, runners etc. REQUIREMENTS OF A GOOD FORMWORK: 1- Strength 7 stability 2- Smooth to give finish surface 3- Economy 4- Alignment 5- Rigidity 6- Toughness 7- Easily install & removed 8- Durability TYPES OF FORMWORK: 1- Seasoned wood used for formwork 2- Hard wood is not used because of difficulty in work 3- Dry timber tends to swell in moisture 4- Green timber tends to dry & shrink in hot weather 5- Initial cost is very low as compare to concrete. 6- Difficult to assemble & removal 7- Wood surface is not smooth & plane 8- It can only be used for three to four times STEEL TIMBER: 1- Steel timber gives fine & smooth surface 2- It reduces cost because plaster is not necessary. 3- If it damaged then melt & reshaped 4- It can be used seven times commonly 5- It can carry very heavy loads 6- Easily install & removed by nuts & joints 7- Initial cost is very high 8- Available in standards size
  • 16. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM CURING: The mixing water in concrete is usually sufficient for initial hydration process but most of the water is lost by evaporation so this storage of water has to be immediately replaced before the hardening of cement so the method which is used to keep concrete in moisture state is called curing the process of moisture state is called curing. The process of curing continuous till the concrete will gain its more strength. Time period of curing depends on the types of work types of cement & climatically condition in normal circumstances when OPC is called curing period ranges from 7 to 10 days & they will reduce in case of rapid hardening cement. METHOD OF CURING: 1- Sprinkler of water to the concrete surface. 2- Rugs & Jude bags are used to cover the concrete surface. 3- Larger surface are covered with water proof paper 4- Small sand plots filed with water are used for slab curing 5- Spray CaH2 which absorbs moisture from the atmosphere & make it available from concrete 6- Steam curing is used in pre-cast units on commercial basic ROOF CONSTRUCTION: The covering which is provided over the top of a space enclosed by the walls to protect the interior space from the sun, rain and wind is called roof. Roof can be broadly classified into two types. FLAT ROOF: The roof whose surface remains horizontal is known as flat roof it could be of RCC or RBC these types of roofs are widely used in all types of buildings. These roof have a slop of ½” : 12” to 2 “to 12” to ensure proper drainage if the span of the roof is larger than secondary beam are also provided. ADVANTAGES OF FLAT ROOF: 1- It can be used as terrace for domestic purpose 2- Simple in construction 3- It can be easily made fire resistant 4- It posses good insularity prosperities 5- It provide architectural beauty to the building 6- It does not required false ceiling 7- It can be used as a floor for upper stories.
  • 17. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM DISADVANTAGES OF FLAT ROOF: 1- It is not suitable for long span 2- It is not suitable in high rainfall region 3- Initial cost is comparatively more 4- It develop cracks due to temperature changes 5- It take more time for construction 6- It requires carefully design slope for proper drainage PITCHED ROOF: A roof which is provided with a considerable slope usually more than 10° from the horizontal is called pitched roof or slopping roof. Followings are the main types of pitched roof. 1- SINGLE OR MONO PITCH: It slops in only one direction and suitable for sheds verandah factories etc. 2- DOUBLE PITCH: It slops in two direction the slope is often flat as 4” : 12” and used in residential or army barks. 3- GAMBREL ROOF: They slop in two direction but these is a break in the slope on each side. It is used in residential houses and the break in slope is provided space under for storage purpose. 4- HIP ROOF: It has same slope in all four directions it is used in area where heavy snow is expected or church etc. 5- DECK: It slopes in four directions with a deck on top.
  • 18. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS OF ROOF: 1- Whether exclusion or whether. 2- Structural strength and stability 3- Proper derange 4- Durability 5- Thermal insulation 6- Sound insulation 7- Fire resistance 8- Ventilation and light ROOF SCREEDING: It is mixture of concrete and aggregate applied to the upper surface of the concrete floor or roof OPC confirming BS-12 fine aggregate confirming BS-882 and course aggregate not more than 10 mm are used in screeding. It provides smooth surface to the roof slopes can be easily maintained by screeds it can be used for embedded services e.g. electricity cold weather pipes cables etc. And it provides hard wearing surface finish. DOORS & WINDOWS: Doors: A door is a moveable barrier element used to seal an opening in the enterer envelop or internally between rooms. The primary function of doors is to allow the passage of people, vehicles & goods from one area to another & it supported by door frame. PERFORMANCES REQUIREDMENTS OF DOORs: 1- Weather proof 2- Thermal & sound proof insulation 3- Security 4- Privacy 5- Durability 6- Fire resistances DOOR MATERIAL: Wood, Aluminum, Carbon steel & glass are the most commonly used materials in doors but in some other materials are also be used like Plastic, Fiber etc. DOOR FRAME:
  • 19. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM Door frame is provided to give a suitable finish to an opening in a wall & also to provide a suitable joint between the doors & surrounding the doors frame is associated with the fixing from which the door can be hanging. DOOR SITES: Interior doors are the door which opens inside the room & others doors is called exterior doors. Doors sizes are as follows: Width Length Thickness Interior 2’ – 8” , 3’ – 0” , 3’ – 3” 6’ – 6” , 6’ – 9” , 7’ – 0” 11 / 8” to 7 / 4” Exterior 3’ – 0” , 3’ – 3” , 3’ – 6” 6’ – 6” , 7’ – 0” , 7’ – 6” 11 / 8” to 7 / 4” TYPES OF DOOR: 1- Panel Door 2- Flush Door 1- Panel Door: It is the most common types of the door & consistory of horizontal & vertical members which forms rectangular area in which panel / panes of glass are located such doors with glass panel are called “SASH” doors it gives pleasant look & used in hotels & residential houses etc. 2- Flush Door: It consists of relatively thin face panel to the height & width of the door & door is rigidly bounded or attached to the solid or hollow pave with finished edges. Opening may be provided in flush doors for the in section of glass for vision, light & ventilation it is used in hotels, laborites, houses etc. DOORS COMPONENTS: (SKETCH) Door Operations: 1- Hinged doors:
  • 20. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM 2- Folding Doors: 3- Sliding Doors:
  • 21. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM 4- Revolving Doors: 1-Hinged Doors: (SKETCH) These types of doors supported on the hinged which are fixed to the hanging stile vertical edges opposite to the lock block & the door frame. The door may be swing or open in one or tie two ways & these will be one or two doors in the opening it is called side hinged doors. 2-Folding Doors: (SKETCH) A folding doors has a number of leaf joints joined by hinges or may be self supported from the frame normally these doors are supported by tracks which are located below or above the door these are suitable for larger openings when the open doors waste some storage space then the sliding or hinged door. 3-Sliding Doors: (SKETCH) These doors are individually supported on track which may carry one or more leaves. To facilitate the storage a curved tracked may be used another form of sliding door is up & over which are used is shops, garages etc. 4-Revolving Doors: These doors are providing at the entrances of commercial building & office building these are two glass paneled bisect each other @ 90o 7 the whole assembly can revolve 360o around vertical axis. WINDOWS: A window is an opening in a wall of a building to provide natural light, ventilation & vision. A satisfactory windows must be durable, weather light, reasonable in cost, readily installed & attractive in appearance. They are made of glass, wood, steel, aluminum etc. & available in a great variety of types to suit many requirements. Size of a windows opening depends on the amount of light & ventilation required in a given room. Part of windows: Any windows has two main parts the frame & the rash or casement windows frame includes the members that forms a perimeter of windows & fixed with the surrounding walls by other supports. Horizontal top member of the frame is “HEAD “, horizontal bottom member of the frame is called “STLL” & any other horizontal member at any intermediate point is called “TRANSOM”. The vertical side member are called “JAMBS” 7 any other vertical member at intermediate position is called “MULLIOWS”. A sash is framed unite which may be included with in the windows frame & may be arranged to open for natural ventilation or cleaning. The top member of the sash is “TOP RAIL”, bottom horizontal member of
  • 22. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM the sash is “BOTTOM RAIL” & the vertical members are called “STILE”. The unite of glass indicated with in windows is called “PANES” or “LIGHTS” is more than one pane are included in the area then horizontal & vertical member at intermediate position is called “MUNTINS” Placing of glass is position is called “GLAZING” the total glass area in the windows must be more than 1 / 10th of the floor area or minimum 10 Square feet. 1- Casement windows 2- Sash windows CASEMENT WINDOWS: (SKETCH) SASH WINDOWS: (SKETCH) FLOOR CONSTRUCTION:
  • 23. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM The properly supported horizontal surface which divided the building into different floors providing accommodation with in the limitation space is called “FLOOR” and the one constructed below the ground level is called “BASEMENT”. TECHNICAL TERMS USED IN FLOORING: 1- BASE: It is prepared surface on which floor topping is laid. 2- UNDER LAYER: A layer of material providing b/w base & topping. 3- TOPING: It is the top most layer of floor. 4- TOP FINISH: It is the top surface of a floor. 5- SCREEDING: The process of brining the floor to a true & level surface by mean of screeds is called scree ding. FUNCTION OF A GOOD FLOOR: 1- To carry loads which may impose on it? 2- To prevent drainage entering the building from ground. 3- To provide suitable wearing surface. 4- To provide thermal insulation. 5- To have proper drainage for the floor. 6- To prevent the growth of vegetable with in the building. SECTION OF SUITABLE TYPES OF FLOOR: 1- Initial cost 2- Appearances 3- Durability 4- Cleanliness 5- Noise lessens 6- Dampness 7- Maintenance TYPES OF FLOOR: 1- Concrete floor 2- Brick floor 3- Stone floor 4- Mosaic floor 5- Terrazzo floor
  • 24. March 25, 2014 SUBJECT : CONSTRUCTION ENGINEERING NAME: ATIQ IQBAL AKHTAR B-TECH-HONOR-CIVIL-3RD SEMESTER E-MAIL – INFO2ATIQ@GMAIL.COM 1- Concrete floor: (sketch) 2- Brick floor: (sketch) 3- Stone floor: (sketch) 4- Mosaic floor: (sketch) 5- Terrazzo floor: (sketch) DAMP PROOF COURSE: The damp proof constructed in in contact with the sub-soil & dampness will rise from the ground & entirety building from underneath so to prevent the passage of moisture in the building as impermeable layer is inserted in the wall to stop raising moisture at a high not more than 150mm above the finish surface of the ground the more commonly used material for DPC are bitumen, asbestos box, polythene , slate etc. it is usually 1 / 4 “ thick cement mortar of ratio 1:2 mixed with standard water cement proofing material it is applied at plinth level to full width of plinth beam & computed in (square feet) or (square meter) normally “ PUDLO” is used as water proofing material in Pakistan.