James Bruce, O.C., FRSC
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James Bruce, O.C., FRSC

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    James Bruce, O.C., FRSC James Bruce, O.C., FRSC Presentation Transcript

    • TROUBLE IN THE SWEET SEAS:THE SAGA OF GREAT LAKES POLLUTION Chicago,   Jan. 23, 2013 James P. (Jim) Bruce, O.C., FRSC
    • Lake Erie Lake Huron Lake Superior Seasonal Average Ice Cover (%)Seasonal Average Ice Cover (%) Seasonal Average Ice Cover (%) 60 60 60 50 50 50 40 40 40 30 30 30 20 20 20 10 10 10 0 0 0 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Winters 1973 -2008 Winters 1973 -2008 Winters 1973 -2008 Lake St. Clair Lake Michigan Linear TrendsSeasonal Average Ice Cover (%) Seasonal Average Ice Cover (%) Seasonal Average Ice Cover (%) 60 60 5-year moving average 50 50 50 St. Clair 40 40 40 Erie 30 30 30 Huron 20 20 20 10 10 10 Michigan 0 0 0 Superior 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Winters 1973 -2008 Winters 1973 -2008 Winters 1973 -2008
    • Tens of thousands of dead fish rotting on Lake Erie shore Toronto Star   4 September 2012
    • August 2010 ⁰C above  Temps near  normal Surface ⁰CSuperior 8 21Michigan 4Erie 27Ontario 24 (Austin, 2010, U. of Minn. Duluth)