( Cellular physiology )


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( Cellular physiology )

  1. 1. The Cell and Its Functions ( Cellular Physiology ) - Organization of the cell Cell membrane Cytoplasm Organelles - Principle organelles include endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lyso-Somes Peroxisomes secretory vesicles Mitochondria centrioles - Nucleus contain - nuclear membrane - nucleoplasm - nuleolus - DNA In the cell, there are two major parts are -The nucleus Separated from the cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane -The cytoplasm Separated from the surrounding fluids by a cell membrane
  2. 2. - Protoplasm A substance that makes up the cell - It's composed of five substances 1. Water - 70 - 80 % of most cells - Function serves as solvent essential for many metabolic reactions - Electrolytes atoms or molecules with unequal numbers of electrons and protons Involves in chemical reactions 2. Electrolytes - definition important ions that present in the cell - Function Provide inorganic chemicals for cellular reactions They are necessary for operation of some of the cellular mechanisms - example of essential electrolyte potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg), phosphate (Po4-3), sulfate (S), bicarbonate (CHO3-), sodium (Na), chloride (Cl), and calcium (Ca) - quantities of essential electrolytes ( as low or high ) Large quantities of K+, Mg, Po4-3, S, CHO3Small quantities of Na, Cl, Ca 3. Proteins - definition abundant substances in most cells - percentage - 10 - 20 % of the cell mass
  3. 3. - types with example and their function - structure proteins part of the cell structure - like those in cell membrane - globular (functional) proteins Enzymes - Catalysts - Bind temporarily to one or more of the reactions - Lower amount of activation Thus, speed up reactions 4. Lipids - percentage - 2 % of the cell mass - Solubility - lipids are mainly insoluble in water - Function long - term energy storage - Types phospholipids and cholestriol triglycerides (neutral fat) - Structure messangers hormones play roles in communication 5. Carbohydrates - percentage - 1 % of the cell mass - except muscle cell - 3% liver cell - 6%
  4. 4. - Function - nutrition of cell - little structural function - Common forms of carbohydrate In form of dissolved glucose Stored in the form of glycogen - Insoluble polymer of glucose Can be depolymerized - Membranous Structures of the Cell - Membranes include Cell membrane Nuclear membrane Membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum Membrane of the Golgi apparatus Membrane of the mitochondria Membrane of the lysosomes / peroxisomes - membrane consists of Lipids Proteins - general functions of membrane The lipids of the membranes provide barriers Prevent movement water soluble substances Protein molecules in membrane often penetrate through the membrane