Three Learning DomainsBloom et al. are well known for dividingcategories of learning into the cognitive, affective,and psychomotor domains. The cognitive domaininvolves the learning and application ofknowledge. The affective domain addresses theacquisition of attitudes and values, and thepsychomotor domain involves development of thebody and skills it performs.
Domain TaxonomiesA taxonomy classifies information into a hierarchyof levels. Domain taxonomies reveal that whateducators want students to accomplish (expressedby educational objectives) can be arranged intolevels of complexity, and that those levels are bestfulfilled sequentially. Example: The food guide pyramid is a taxonomy of levels based on number of servings, or relative contribution of a particular food group to total food intake. www.ncagr.com/agscool/ nutrition/pyramid.htm
Cognitive DomainThe cognitive domain involves the learning andapplication of knowledge. The taxonomy containssix levels that can be remembered by the followingmnemonic device: www.chorley.gov.uk/.../ 1/Bin- Thinking-logo.jpg Knowledge Kickball Comprehension Can Application Almost Analysis Always Synthesis Seem Evaluation EnjoyableB. Bloom, ed., Taxonomy of educational objectives, handbook I:Cognitive domain. New York: McKay, 1956.
Cognitive Domain Levels Level Description Verbs ObjectiveKnowledge To recall or recognize information Define Define levels of in some pre-arranged form. List cognitive domain.Comprehen- To understand meaning of Describe Explain purpose ofsion information based on prior Explain cognitive domain. learning. InterpretApplication To utilize information to complete Compute Write objective for a task with limited direction. Solve levels of cognitive Use domain.Analysis To classify and relate assumptions Contrast Compare cognitive & or evidence. Examine affective domains.Synthesis To integrate or combine ideas into Design Design way to write a new product or plan. Develop objectives that Organize combines 3 domains.Evaluation Critique idea based on specific Appraise Judge effectiveness of standards and criteria. Judge writing objectives Justify using taxonomy.
Cognitive Domain LevelsResearch over the last 40 years has confirmed the taxonomy as ahierarchy, with the exception of the last two levels. It is uncertainwhether synthesis and evaluation should be reversed, or whethersynthesis and evaluation are at the same level of difficulty, but usedifferent cognitive processes. Creative Thinking Critical Thinking Synthesis Evaluation Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge
Affective DomainThe affective domain addresses the acquisition ofattitudes and values. The taxonomy contains fivelevels that can be remembered by the followingmnemonic device: www.rhinocerospie.com/.../ archive-072004.html Receiving Regular Responding Rude Valuing Vices Organization Offend Characterization ChristKrathwohl, D., et al. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives, handbook II:Affective domain. New York: McKay.
Affective Domain Levels Level Description Verbs ObjectiveReceiving Being aware of, or attending to Listen Listen attentively to something in the environment. Notice badminton Tolerate introduction.Responding Showing some new behavior as Comply Voluntarily help set a result of experience. Enjoy up badminton nets. FollowValuing Showing some definite Carry out Attend optional involvement or commitment. Express badminton match.Organization Integrating a new value into Choose Purchase own ones general set of values Consider badminton racket. relative to other priorities. PreferCharacterization Acting consistently with the Act on Join intramurals to new value; person is known by Depict play badminton twice the value. Exemplify per week.
Psychomotor DomainThe psychomotor domain involves development ofthe body and skills it performs. The taxonomycontains seven levels that can be remembered bythe following mnemonic device: www.campdiscovery.com/ Specialist-04/Tennis-01.jpg Perceiving Premium Patterning Pandas Accommodating Acquire Refining Rare Varying Value Improvising In Composing ChinaBressan’s adaptations of Jewett et al., “Educational change through a taxonomyfor writing physical education objectives,” Quest 15, 35-36, 1971.
Psychomotor Domain Levels Level Description Verbs ObjectivePerceiving Recognizing movement Listen Discover headstand position or pattern. Observe movement principles.Patterning Reproducing movement Imitate Perform headstand position or pattern. Practice following modeling.Accommodating Using or modifying Adjust Use headstand in movement position or pattern. Modify routine.Refining Demonstrating efficient Improve Perform headstand control in performing pattern. Master with pointed toes.Varying Performing movement pattern Design Perform headstand in in different ways. Develop three positions.Improvising Originating novel movement Construct Combine headstand or movement combinations. Invent with new skill.Composing Creating unique movement Create Create floor exercise pattern. Invent routine.