What is illegal downloading? File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digitally stored information, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents, or electronic books. It may be implemented through a variety of ways. Common methods of storage, transmission and dispersion include manual sharing utilizing removable media, centralized servers on computer networks, World Wide Web-based hyperlinked documents, and the use of distributed peer-to-peer networking. Peer to Peer File SharingUsers can use software that connects in to a peer-to-peer network to search for shared files on the computers of other users (i.e. peers) connected to the network. Files of interest can then be downloaded directly from other users on the network. Typically, large files are broken down into smaller chunks, which may be obtained from multiple peers and then reassembled by the downloader. This is done while the peer is simultaneously uploading the chunks it already has to other peers.
History of Illegal Downloading1978- 1985: Files were first shared by file system through bulletin board such as Usenet1988-1997: Files could be shared through chat rooms1991: Mp3 encoding1998: Mp3.com and audiogalaxy launched and the Digital Millennium Copyright Act was passed1999: Napstar was released as main peer-to-peer system2001: Napstar was sued by several companies2002-2003: Other p2p sites like Limewire and BitTorrent. Recording Industry Associates of America shut down Audiogalaxy. Other Torrent sites like isohunt and the Pirate Bay launched.2005: Megaupload launched2006: Pirate Bay temporarily shut down2009: Pirate Bay found guilty in court of illegal file sharing2010: Limewire forced to shut down2012: Megaupload forced to shut down, it’s estimated it had over 50, 000, 000 users. China pass laws stating illegal downloaders can face jail sentences.
Legality of File SharingThe legal debate surrounding file sharing has caused many lawsuits. In the United States, some of these lawsuits have even reached the Supreme Court in MGM v. Grokster. In that particular lawsuit, the Supreme Court has ruled that the creators of P2P networks can be held responsible if the intent of their program is clearly to infringe on copyright laws. On the other hand, file sharing is not necessarily illegal, even if the works being shared are covered by copyright. For example, some artists may choose to support freeware, shareware, open source, or anti-copyright, and advocate the use of file sharing as a free promotional tool. Nearly all freeware, and open source software may be shared, under the rules specified in the license for that specific piece of software. Content in the public domain can also be freely shared. Japan have recently introduced piracy penalties. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-19767970http://www.japantoday.com/category/crime/view/30-arrested-for-illegally-sharing-manga-music- movies-tv-shows-and-anime-online http://www.guardian.co.uk/technology/2012/sep/11/minnesota-woman-songs-illegally- downloaded
Illegal Downloading in the U.K Manchester has been named the piracy capital of the UK, according to a new study seen exclusively by the BBC. The research said there were more illegal downloads per person in the city than any other in the country, followed by Nottingham and Southampton. The statistics, from monitoring service Musicmetric, conclude that in the first half of 2012, UK users illegally shared over 40 million albums and singles. Globally, the research suggested that the UK is a significant player on the world stage as a country of illegal music downloaders.According to Musicmetric, the highest levels of piracy based on downloads per person in the UK are:• Manchester• Nottingham• Southampton• Liverpool• Sheffield• Leicester• Stoke-on-Trent• Glasgow• Cardiff• Leeds• Bristol• Edinburgh• Wolverhampton• Derby• Reading• Bradford• Kingston Upon Hull• Birmingham• Coventry• London
Top 20 Countries for Illegal Downloading1. United States: 96,868,398 (most popular artist: Drake)2. United Kingdom: 43,314,568 (most popular artist: Ed Sheeran)3. Italy: 33,226,258 (most popular artist: Laura Pausini)4. Canada: 23,953,053 (most popular artist: Kayne West)5. Brazil: 19,677,596 (most popular artist: Billy Van*)6. Australia: 19,103,047 (most popular artist: Hilltop Hoods)7. Spain: 10,306,829 (most popular artist: Pablo Alboran)8. India: 8,965, 271 (most popular artist: Billy Van*)9. France: 8,400,869 (most popular artist: Sexion d’assaut)10. Philippines: 8,351,260 (most popular artist: Maroon 5)11. Mexico: 7,522,865 (most popular artist: Jesse y Joy)12. Netherlands: 6,671,428 (most popular artist: Birdy)13. Portugal: 5,587,198 (most popular artist: Pablo Alboran)14. Poland: 5,029,204 (most popular artist: Gotye)15. Greece: 4,919,567 (most popular artist: Billy Van*)16. Hungary: 4,470,948 (most popular artist: Pitbull)17. Chile: 4,210,641 (most popular artist: Los Bunkers)18. Romania: 4,152,252 (most popular artist: Billy Van*)19. Sweden: 4,074,594 (most popular artist: Laleh)20. Belgium: 3,880,900 (most popular artist: Gotye
Effect on the Music Industry According to the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA), 30 billion songs were illegally downloaded between 2004 and 2009. Even with sites like iTunes and Rhapsody offering legal downloads, peer-to-peer file sharing still exists. Illegally downloading music has had a significant impact on the music industry resulting in a loss of profits and jobs, and changing how music is delivered to the masses. The RIAA reports that music sales in the United States have dropped 47 percent since Napster first debuted in 1999. The availability of free music has cost the music industry $12.5 billion in economic losses. To recoup some of these losses, the music industry has filed lawsuits against individuals who have been found to have illegally downloaded music. In some cases, individuals have been sued for thousands, if not hundreds of thousands of dollars.Singers and bands are the public face of the music industry, but creating, recording and promoting a song takes a large team of people. As record companies have seen their profits decrease, they have cut positions they are no longer able to afford. This includes artists as well as engineers, songwriters, producers, technicians and marketing support. The RIAA reveals that more than 71,000 jobs have been lost as a result of illegally downloading music. Declining profits and fewer staff leave the music industry with less funds and opportunities to recruit and develop new talent. Record labels are more inclined to focus their money and time on established artists and only a few, promising new artists. As a result, more new artists have to look for outlets to create and promote their music on their own, such as selling it directly online.The illegal sharing of music has impacted the way the music industry markets and promotes its artists. The introduction of Napster and illegal downloading helped usher in a new era of digitally accessible music where singles trump a full- length album. To expose its artists to a wider audience, the music industry has had to develop and deploy new tactics like ringtones and digital licensing music to sites like YouTube and Pandora. Touring and promotional deals are more lucrative for the music industry than selling songs. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/illegally-downloading-music-impact-music-industry-27748.html
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