INTRODUCTION• The last few decades have seen a spectaculardevelopment in the health & hospitalconsciousness of the Indian public.• Essential hospital service required for thecommunity cab be met most economically onlywith adequate thought given to planning ,design,construction & operation of health carefacilities.• A design expert says- “we’ve got to design ‘smart’hospitals that respond to present needs whileanticipating future changes.
PLANNING A HOSPITAL• Planning is the forecasting and organizing theactivities required to achieve the desired goals.• All successful hospitals,without exception,are builton a triad of good planning,good design &construction & good administration.• To be successful,a hospital requires a great deal ofpreliminary study and planning• It must be designed to serve people and forpromoters to build in the first place & sustain later.
CONT..• It must be staffed with competent and adequatenumber of efficient doctors,nurses & otherprofessionals.• A strong management is essential for the dailyfunctioning of a facility & this must be included inthe plans of a new hospitals.
CLASSIFICATION1. Private2. Partnership3. Private Trust (family)4. Public Charitable trust5. Cooperative Society6. Private Limited Company7. Public Limited Company
GUIDING PRINCIPLES• High Quality Patient Care• Effective Community Orientation• Economic Viability• Sound Architectural Plan
PLANNING TEAM• Hospital administrator• Specialists from various clinical branches• Nursing advisor• Civil and electrical engineers• Representative of local body• Senior architect
OBJECTIVES OF PLANNIG TEAM•Existing facilities & its adequacy•Asses the needs of area•Needs of new facilities so as to provideadequate, qualitative health are services.
MARKET SURVEY•One the first tasks of the temporary organization isto survey the service area of the proposed hospital.•Following bodies helps in market survey-1. Banks2. CA firms3. Financial Institutions4. Consultant• Since major decisions will be on the result of thesurvey,it must be done in a professional manner.
CONT..•Following considerations should be taken duringsurvey-Character,needs & possibilities of communitiesType & size of HospitalFinancial condition of communityOccupationAge distribution
FINANCIAL PLANNING• Financial planning must take precedence overevery other consideration.• Financial planning must cover the following threeareas:1. Constructing,Equipping & Furnishing the Hospital2. Operating Funds3. Financial Assistance• Financial assistance has 2 components-1. Loan for fixed capital2. Loan for working capital
EQUIPMENT PLANNING• The term ‘equipment’ means all items necessaryfor the functioning of all services of the hospital.• It is necessary to consult with the architectdesigning the building early so that the facilitiesplanned will be of sufficient size to accommodatethe equipment & render the necessary services.• A room by room equipment list is then complied& reviewed by the adm,medical & depart.staff.
SITE SELECTION1. Accessibility to transportation & communicationlines2. Parking facilities3. Availability of public utilities4. Proper elevation for drainage & general sanitarymeasures5. Freedom from smoke,noise,vapours & otherannoyances6. Future expansion7. Total cost
INTERIOR & FURNISHING• In a patient centered environment,design solutionswill respond to the needs of the patients profile botharchitecturally and through material selections.• Should consider the following-1. Infection control standards2. Design story3. Healing environment4. Physical environment5. Organizational planningunderstanding6. Cost analysis
EMERGING HEALTHCARE DESIGNS• Acuity-adaptable patient rooms• In board v/s outboard toilet• Same handed patient rooms
HOSPITAL BUILDING• After completing all preparations for building ahospital the governing board issues instructions forthe development of final plans & specification.• Principle-# Protection# Short traffic routes# Separation of dissimilar activities# Control
GENERAL FEATURES• Environment• Screened windows• 4 separate entrance• Exit point• Attractive entrance• Traffic flow• Corridors• Visitors control• Running physical part• Fire escape
BED DISTRIBUTION• The functions of the hospital revolve around thetotal no. of beds & their distribution within variousdepart. & services.• The no. of beds in a hospital is the yardstickapplied when referring to the size of the hospital,its various services, occupancy rate,etc.• Types of bed accomodations• Bed distribution by services• Space requirements
Cont..• Bed planning:Population = A x S x 100365 x PO• A = number of patients admissions/1000populations/yearS = average length of stayPO = percentage occupancy
SHAKE DOWN PERIOD• After the commissioning of hospital some time istaken for functional integration of differentunits,services,staff,patient & community.Machine are testedStaff recruited & trainedStandard operating procedures are madeMaintenance service is put in placeMaterials, linen & stationary procured• Then starts the routine & regular functioning ofthe hospital.
CONCLUSION“A hospital is a living organism,made up of manydifferent parts,having different functions,but alltheses must be in due proportion & relation toeach other & to the environment to produce thedesired result”