David Hume Ethics should be based on what is most Useful . To determine whether an action is right or wrong one must look at what would be most useful in that situation. Francis Hutcheson Believed happiness was most important in determining what is right or wrong. “greatest happiness for the greatest number.” Jeremy Bentham Wanted to create a system of right and wrong - benefit all society. One of the first Utilitarian view point. Most useful thing in any moral dilemma is happiness . (leads people to make right ethical decisions.) Creating the Principle of Utility = Maximize pleasure – minimize pain Neither Hume nor Hutcheson were Utilitarians, joining of the two views: usefulness and happiness that makes Utilitarianism an ethical theory. +
Henry Sidgwick – how can we distinguish higher and lower pleasures... Which higher pleasure takes priority in moral decisions?
W.D Ross ‘a single factor’ they don't account for complex lives and moral decisions – family takes precedence over reason.
Golden Rule: “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.” Jesus “ To do as one would be done by, and to love one’s neighbour as oneself, constitutes the ideal perfection of Utilitarian morality.” Mill