Freewill and Determinism (OCR exam board)

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Freewill and Determinism (OCR exam board)

  1. 1. Freewill andFreewill and DeterminismDeterminism What do you think? Cast your voteWhat do you think? Cast your vote now…..now…..
  2. 2. DefinitionsDefinitions Free WillFree Will  The ability and power toThe ability and power to think, choose and actthink, choose and act voluntarily.voluntarily.  Human beings can be theHuman beings can be the authors of their ownauthors of their own actions and to freely rejectactions and to freely reject the idea that humanthe idea that human actions are determined byactions are determined by external conditions orexternal conditions or fate.fate. DeterminismDeterminism  In ethics, the view thatIn ethics, the view that human actions are entirelyhuman actions are entirely controlled by previouscontrolled by previous conditions, operating underconditions, operating under laws of naturelaws of nature..  All events are inevitableAll events are inevitable consequences of precursoryconsequences of precursory causescauses; often understood as; often understood as denying the possibility of freedenying the possibility of free will will 
  3. 3. VoltaireVoltaire ““Pear trees cannot bear bananas. The instinctsPear trees cannot bear bananas. The instincts of a spaniel cannot be the instincts of anof a spaniel cannot be the instincts of an ostrich. Everything is planned, connected,ostrich. Everything is planned, connected, limited.”limited.”  Explain what Voltaire is saying in your own words.Explain what Voltaire is saying in your own words.  Is he expressing a view on free will or determinism?Is he expressing a view on free will or determinism?  How do you know?How do you know?  Think of an example of something that is ‘planned,Think of an example of something that is ‘planned, connected, limited.’connected, limited.’
  4. 4. DeterminismDeterminism
  5. 5. Different Types of Determinism:Different Types of Determinism:  Philosophical Determinism – cause/ effectPhilosophical Determinism – cause/ effect  Scientific Determinism- gravityScientific Determinism- gravity  Genetic Determinism – programmed in genesGenetic Determinism – programmed in genes  Biological Determinism - brainsBiological Determinism - brains  Psychological Determinism – background e.g.Psychological Determinism – background e.g. Freud, Skinner (Behaviourism)Freud, Skinner (Behaviourism)  Social Determinism – social norms determineSocial Determinism – social norms determine actionsactions  Theological Determinism/ Pre Destination –Theological Determinism/ Pre Destination – God predestines all actionsGod predestines all actions
  6. 6. Philosophical DeterminismPhilosophical Determinism  Theory of Universal Causation: Everything has a causeTheory of Universal Causation: Everything has a cause that precedes it.that precedes it.  Spinoza, “Men believe themselves to be free, simplySpinoza, “Men believe themselves to be free, simply because they are conscious of their actions andbecause they are conscious of their actions and unconscious of the causes.”unconscious of the causes.”  Aristotle believed that there are four causes: material,Aristotle believed that there are four causes: material, formal, efficient and final.formal, efficient and final.  Everything is in a chain of cause and effect determiningEverything is in a chain of cause and effect determining that the ultimate Telos (final purpose) is achieved.that the ultimate Telos (final purpose) is achieved.
  7. 7. ScientificScientific  Everything is made of matter and matter obeys physical laws e.g.Everything is made of matter and matter obeys physical laws e.g. gravitygravity  Science relies on the predictability of the natural world –sun willScience relies on the predictability of the natural world –sun will rise and setrise and set  Stephen Hawkings “Quantum theories are deterministic.”Stephen Hawkings “Quantum theories are deterministic.”  David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding “David Hume: An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding “ We always transfer the known to the unknown.”We always transfer the known to the unknown.”  This means that there are no such things as accidents (eventThis means that there are no such things as accidents (event without an apparent cause).without an apparent cause).  Everything has a cause it is just a matter of science to find whatEverything has a cause it is just a matter of science to find what that cause is. (e.g. science knew that seasons changed and foundthat cause is. (e.g. science knew that seasons changed and found the cause was the earth’s spinning axis)the cause was the earth’s spinning axis)  This means that everything is determined.This means that everything is determined.
  8. 8. Genetic DeterminismGenetic Determinism  Determined by genes = parentsDetermined by genes = parents  The Genome Project – map out all possible humanThe Genome Project – map out all possible human genes – what each gene does.genes – what each gene does.  Idea that all aspects of human health, personality, abilityIdea that all aspects of human health, personality, ability etc will be explained by our genes e.g. Artisticetc will be explained by our genes e.g. Artistic temperament, criminal tendenciestemperament, criminal tendencies  Eugenics – an attempt to improve the genetic makeupEugenics – an attempt to improve the genetic makeup of the species (e.g. Nazis)of the species (e.g. Nazis)  Positive eugenics – sperm donation for intellect andPositive eugenics – sperm donation for intellect and moral fibremoral fibre How can Eugenics ever be positive?How can Eugenics ever be positive?
  9. 9. Proof: Schizophrenia StudiesProof: Schizophrenia Studies  Twin StudiesTwin Studies Identical twins (monozygotic) 100% shared genesIdentical twins (monozygotic) 100% shared genes vs.vs. non identical twins (dizygotic) 50% shared genes (same as normalnon identical twins (dizygotic) 50% shared genes (same as normal siblings)siblings) Results of Gottesman (1991) and Kendler (1993)Results of Gottesman (1991) and Kendler (1993)  Schizophrenia has concordance of 48% in Monozygotic twinsSchizophrenia has concordance of 48% in Monozygotic twins against only 17% on Dizygotic twins.against only 17% on Dizygotic twins.  This suggests genes play a role in this particular disorder –This suggests genes play a role in this particular disorder – however they cannot be completely responsible as thehowever they cannot be completely responsible as the concordance is not 100% in Monozygotic twins so other factorsconcordance is not 100% in Monozygotic twins so other factors must play a part as well.must play a part as well.
  10. 10. Biological DeterminismBiological Determinism  Delgardo: stimulating various regions of the brain, he couldDelgardo: stimulating various regions of the brain, he could cause all sorts of bodily motionscause all sorts of bodily motions  Tried first on animals then humansTried first on animals then humans  However not only did they do the movements they producedHowever not only did they do the movements they produced reason for themreason for them  Showing we can be determined but still think we have free willShowing we can be determined but still think we have free will  German scientist KornhuberGerman scientist Kornhuber  When you move your finger, the brain activity begins 1 ½When you move your finger, the brain activity begins 1 ½ seconds before the movementseconds before the movement  So they know you are going to move your finger before youSo they know you are going to move your finger before you actually doactually do
  11. 11. Biological DeterminismBiological Determinism  If a small section of the hypothalamus isIf a small section of the hypothalamus is removed then animals and human can turnremoved then animals and human can turn savage/ uncontrollable ragesavage/ uncontrollable rage  Showing we are determined to act a certain wayShowing we are determined to act a certain way due to our brain waves.due to our brain waves.
  12. 12.  Freud – PsychoanalysisFreud – Psychoanalysis  Childhood experiences lead to adult personalityChildhood experiences lead to adult personality  Psychosexual 5 stages ~ all children go through in samePsychosexual 5 stages ~ all children go through in same sequence and are pre-programmed in the unconscioussequence and are pre-programmed in the unconscious mindmind  Parental behaviour determines passage through stages =Parental behaviour determines passage through stages = fixation (later adult personality)fixation (later adult personality)  Fixations are unconscious motives behind all action,Fixations are unconscious motives behind all action, which we have no control over.which we have no control over.  For Freud: Free Will is an Illusion.For Freud: Free Will is an Illusion. Psychological DeterminismPsychological Determinism
  13. 13.  All behaviour is due to conditioning and reinforcingAll behaviour is due to conditioning and reinforcing  All behaviour is learnt.All behaviour is learnt.  Everything we do is a result of previous learningEverything we do is a result of previous learning Reward and Punishment:Reward and Punishment:  if your action leads to good results it is positivelyif your action leads to good results it is positively reinforced and likely to be repeatedreinforced and likely to be repeated  But if your action leads to bad results and negativelyBut if your action leads to bad results and negatively or not reinforced then unlikely to be repeated.or not reinforced then unlikely to be repeated. Behaviourism - SkinnerBehaviourism - Skinner
  14. 14. Evidence of ConditioningEvidence of Conditioning Watson and Rayner (1920) Little Albert was a 9-month-old infant who was tested on his reactions to various stimuli. He was shown a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey and various masks. Albert described as "on the whole stolid and unemotional" showed no fear of any of these stimuli. However what did startle him and cause him to be afraid was if a hammer was struck against a steel bar behind his head. The sudden loud noise would cause "little Albert to burst into tears”. When Little Albert was just over 11 months old the white rat was presented and seconds later the hammer was struck against the steel bar.  This was done 7 times over the next 7 weeks and each time Little Albert burst into tears. By now little Albert only had to see the rat and he immediately showed every sign of fear. He would cry (whether or not the hammer was hit against the steel bar) and he would attempt to crawl away. Watson and Rayner had shown that classical conditioning could be used to create a phobia. A phobia is an irrational fear, i.e. a fear that is out of proportion to the danger. Pavlov's Dogs  During the 1890’s Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov was looking at salivation in dogs in response to being fed, when he noticed that his dogs would begin to salivate whenever he entered the room, even when he was not bringing them food.
  15. 15. Two boys - Jon Venables and Robert Thompson planned,Two boys - Jon Venables and Robert Thompson planned, kidnapped, tortured and killed two year old James Bulger.kidnapped, tortured and killed two year old James Bulger. It is believed that the boy’s background (a world of social andIt is believed that the boy’s background (a world of social and economic deprivation, trashy television and cultural poverty) waseconomic deprivation, trashy television and cultural poverty) was the cause for the children's actions.the cause for the children's actions. The case looked at how these boys were not morally responsibleThe case looked at how these boys were not morally responsible for their actions, blaming their parents and environment.for their actions, blaming their parents and environment. This means the boys were determined by their environment to actThis means the boys were determined by their environment to act in such a way.in such a way. However is it easier to believe these boys were determined =However is it easier to believe these boys were determined = actions out of their control than the alternative – that these boysactions out of their control than the alternative – that these boys used they freewill to choose to commit such a monstrous crime?used they freewill to choose to commit such a monstrous crime? James Bulger CaseJames Bulger Case
  16. 16.  Two wealthy, extremely intelligent Chicago studentsTwo wealthy, extremely intelligent Chicago students murdered 14-year-old Bobby Franks in 1924, and weremurdered 14-year-old Bobby Franks in 1924, and were sentenced to life imprisonment.sentenced to life imprisonment.  The duo were motivated to murder Franks by theirThe duo were motivated to murder Franks by their desire to commit a perfect crime.desire to commit a perfect crime.  Clarence Darrow, the boys lawyer, reducedClarence Darrow, the boys lawyer, reduced their sentenced from death penalty totheir sentenced from death penalty to life imprisonment due to pledging thatlife imprisonment due to pledging that the boys were determined due to theirthe boys were determined due to their background and education.background and education. Loeb and Leopold CaseLoeb and Leopold Case
  17. 17. Evaluate DeterminismEvaluate Determinism  Supported by science –Supported by science – proof- predictionsproof- predictions  cause / effect is testable,cause / effect is testable, we can all experience thewe can all experience the effectseffects  Explanation for whyExplanation for why things happen as they dothings happen as they do e.g. Gode.g. God x Takes away moralTakes away moral responsibilityresponsibility x Society would be inSociety would be in chaos if nochaos if no punishmentpunishment x People do not like toPeople do not like to think they are not inthink they are not in control of lifecontrol of life
  18. 18. TheologicalTheological DeterminismDeterminism PredestinationPredestination
  19. 19. PredestinationPredestination  God has already chosen (pre elected) who will beGod has already chosen (pre elected) who will be eternally saved.eternally saved.  ““In love He predestined us...” Ephesians 1:5In love He predestined us...” Ephesians 1:5  Predestination = before creation God determined thePredestination = before creation God determined the fate of the universe throughout all of time and space.fate of the universe throughout all of time and space. John Calvin (1509-1564).John Calvin (1509-1564).  Calvinism is the Protestant theological systemCalvinism is the Protestant theological system  ““For he does not create everyone in the sameFor he does not create everyone in the same condition, but ordains eternal life for some and eternalcondition, but ordains eternal life for some and eternal damnation for others.” Calvin.damnation for others.” Calvin.
  20. 20.  Calvinist theology is translated into the following basic doctrines,Calvinist theology is translated into the following basic doctrines, expressed by the wordexpressed by the word TULIPTULIP::  TT:: Total DepravityTotal Depravity (Inability) human sin has affected every aspect(Inability) human sin has affected every aspect of the human character.of the human character.  UU:: Unconditional ElectionUnconditional Election God chooses some to be saved andGod chooses some to be saved and some to be damned.some to be damned.  LL:: Limited AtonementLimited Atonement Christ died for the sins of some (thoseChrist died for the sins of some (those predestined to heaven), but not for others (those predestined topredestined to heaven), but not for others (those predestined to hell).hell).  II:: Irresistible Grace:Irresistible Grace: person is predestined for heaven. No matterperson is predestined for heaven. No matter what they do they are saved.what they do they are saved.  PP:: Perseverance of the SaintsPerseverance of the Saints (i.e., those whom God has saved)(i.e., those whom God has saved) will always remain under God's protection until they are brought towill always remain under God's protection until they are brought to heaven.heaven.
  21. 21. StrengthsStrengths WeaknessesWeaknesses  Fits in with theFits in with the idea that God isidea that God is omniscient (allomniscient (all knowing)knowing)  Supported bySupported by PhelpsPhelps Family:Family: WestboroWestboro BaptistBaptist ChurchChurch x The Calvinist doctrine puts believers in a moralThe Calvinist doctrine puts believers in a moral dilemma: should they even bother trying to bedilemma: should they even bother trying to be good?good? x If God knows who will is rewarded and who isIf God knows who will is rewarded and who is condemned in after life then we cannot be heldcondemned in after life then we cannot be held morally responsible for what we do. So there is nomorally responsible for what we do. So there is no point in reward and punishment.point in reward and punishment. x N. Geisler If our sins are predetermined, then weN. Geisler If our sins are predetermined, then we have no real control over them and our will is nothave no real control over them and our will is not free. In fact, it is God’s will working through us.free. In fact, it is God’s will working through us. “Moral determinism makes God immoral and“Moral determinism makes God immoral and makes humans amoral.”makes humans amoral.”
  22. 22. Further problems of CalvinismFurther problems of Calvinism  ““If all our thoughts and actions are divinely predestined,If all our thoughts and actions are divinely predestined, however free and morally responsible we may seem tohowever free and morally responsible we may seem to be to ourselves, we cannot be free and morallybe to ourselves, we cannot be free and morally responsible in the sight of God but instead be hisresponsible in the sight of God but instead be his helpless puppets.” John Hickhelpless puppets.” John Hick
  23. 23. Critic of CalvinismCritic of Calvinism Arminianism
  24. 24. Jacob Arminius (1560—1609)Jacob Arminius (1560—1609)  Jacob Arminius, a Calvinist, argued that sinful humansJacob Arminius, a Calvinist, argued that sinful humans do indeed have an ability to choose between doingdo indeed have an ability to choose between doing good and doing evil,good and doing evil,  Human response determines salvation.Human response determines salvation.  God has provided salvation for everyone, but its onlyGod has provided salvation for everyone, but its only effective for those who, through free will ‘choose’ toeffective for those who, through free will ‘choose’ to cooperate and have faith.cooperate and have faith.  Each sinner (we are all sinners epistemic distance/fall)Each sinner (we are all sinners epistemic distance/fall) possess free will and his destiny depends on how hepossess free will and his destiny depends on how he uses it.uses it.
  25. 25. Incompatibilism/ CompatibilismIncompatibilism/ Compatibilism  Does what it says on the tin.....Does what it says on the tin.....  Incompatibilism believes that free will andIncompatibilism believes that free will and determinism are not compatible and need todeterminism are not compatible and need to remain completely separate.remain completely separate.  Compatibilism, on the other hand, believes thatCompatibilism, on the other hand, believes that a bridge can be made between free will anda bridge can be made between free will and determinism – a mid way point can be met.determinism – a mid way point can be met.
  26. 26. Thomas AquinasThomas Aquinas  Believed that God knows everythingBelieved that God knows everything knowable – omniscience. But whatknowable – omniscience. But what about free will?about free will?  Metaphor ala Aquinas: God stands onMetaphor ala Aquinas: God stands on top of a hill and sees simultaneously alltop of a hill and sees simultaneously all the travellers on the path around thethe travellers on the path around the hillside.hillside.  This means that God can see the pathThis means that God can see the path you have taken, the path you are onyou have taken, the path you are on now and where this path will lead butnow and where this path will lead but that does not mean you are not free.that does not mean you are not free.
  27. 27. Ted HonderichTed Honderich  Debate between the Compatabilists andDebate between the Compatabilists and IncompatabilistsIncompatabilists  Based on a false definition of the word ‘freedom’Based on a false definition of the word ‘freedom’  Determinism and freedom are not mutually exclusiveDeterminism and freedom are not mutually exclusive  Determinism restricts the scope of freedomDeterminism restricts the scope of freedom  Reconcile two theories together = soft determinism/Reconcile two theories together = soft determinism/ CompatabilismCompatabilism  Determined by cause and effect but triggered by FREEDetermined by cause and effect but triggered by FREE moral choices.moral choices.
  28. 28. Hume- The CompatibilistHume- The Compatibilist  In ‘A Treatise of Human Nature’In ‘A Treatise of Human Nature’ chapter called “chapter called “Of Liberty andOf Liberty and NecessityNecessity”, and later in a slightly amended form, in the ‘”, and later in a slightly amended form, in the ‘EnquiryEnquiry concerning Human Understandingconcerning Human Understanding.’.’  Hume said there is no necessary connection betweenHume said there is no necessary connection between cause andcause and effecteffect. We think one thing causes another because we have. We think one thing causes another because we have observed this cause and effect relationship in the past. (Criticismobserved this cause and effect relationship in the past. (Criticism against cosmological argument…remember?)against cosmological argument…remember?)  He said that there is no completely random action, that our actionsHe said that there is no completely random action, that our actions are dictated by our upbringing and psychological makeup to anare dictated by our upbringing and psychological makeup to an extentextent (links to Freud and Skinner)(links to Freud and Skinner)..  In other words, the cause and effect relationship between the lawsIn other words, the cause and effect relationship between the laws of nature and our actions is strong, but our actions still could beof nature and our actions is strong, but our actions still could be otherwise.otherwise.
  29. 29.  Hume is saying that people are predictable, but that sometimesHume is saying that people are predictable, but that sometimes (rarely) a person goes against the predictability.(rarely) a person goes against the predictability.  E.g If a person (call him Steve) is arrogant, he is most likely toE.g If a person (call him Steve) is arrogant, he is most likely to gloat every time he wins a game. It’s in his nature to do so.gloat every time he wins a game. It’s in his nature to do so. ButBut,, it’s notit’s not necessarilynecessarily the case that he will gloat. Maybe Steve will havethe case that he will gloat. Maybe Steve will have a day where he is feeling more generous and he willa day where he is feeling more generous and he will notnot gloatgloat when he wins a game. It won’t happen often, but it will happen,when he wins a game. It won’t happen often, but it will happen, says Hume.says Hume.  Thus, determinism and freewill can, seemingly, co-exist. We canThus, determinism and freewill can, seemingly, co-exist. We can be guided by the laws of cause and effect, but sometimes webe guided by the laws of cause and effect, but sometimes we have a little wiggle room to get outside those laws.have a little wiggle room to get outside those laws.
  30. 30. Evaluate CompatibilismEvaluate Compatibilism  Thomas Hobbes believes weThomas Hobbes believes we have free will unlesshave free will unless something physically restrainssomething physically restrains us.us. x Where does determinism endWhere does determinism end and the moment of free willand the moment of free will begin?begin? x Many believe that free willMany believe that free will and determinism cannot beand determinism cannot be linked togetherlinked together x Kant called it “a miserableKant called it “a miserable subterfuge.” (evasion)subterfuge.” (evasion) x William James “a quagmireWilliam James “a quagmire of evasion.” (swamp)of evasion.” (swamp)
  31. 31. FreewillFreewill Explore in an essay: what is meant byExplore in an essay: what is meant by freedom? Is it freedom in all actions orfreedom? Is it freedom in all actions or just ethical choices?just ethical choices?
  32. 32. Irenaeus andIrenaeus and AugustineAugustine  We have been put on earthWe have been put on earth with freewill so we can becomewith freewill so we can become perfect, have to earnperfect, have to earn perfection – make us all readyperfection – make us all ready for heaven.for heaven.  Ultimate reason why there isUltimate reason why there is evil and suffering is becauseevil and suffering is because humans are autonomous (selfhumans are autonomous (self governed) our actions aregoverned) our actions are freely chosen.freely chosen.  God is not responsibleGod is not responsible for evil: we bring it onfor evil: we bring it on ourselves when weourselves when we reject God using ourreject God using our free will.free will.  Problem of evil is dueProblem of evil is due to our free will to turnto our free will to turn towards or away fromtowards or away from God.God.
  33. 33. Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1980)Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1980)  We are 100% free to choose how we live our livesWe are 100% free to choose how we live our lives “existence precedes essence.”“existence precedes essence.”  This means: Firstly humans exist, encounterThis means: Firstly humans exist, encounter themselves, define themselves. This was in 1946themselves, define themselves. This was in 1946 book ‘Existentialism and Humanism.’book ‘Existentialism and Humanism.’  OnlyOnly our freedomour freedom gives meaning to our lives.gives meaning to our lives.
  34. 34. Jean Paul SartreJean Paul Sartre  He wrote ‘Being in Nothingness’: 2 ways people can live livesHe wrote ‘Being in Nothingness’: 2 ways people can live lives a)a) AuthenticallyAuthentically b)b) With bad faith/ self deception – belief in lack of freedomWith bad faith/ self deception – belief in lack of freedom Sartre said there is no God and there is no human nature.Sartre said there is no God and there is no human nature. Therefore humankind is completely free to choose ownTherefore humankind is completely free to choose own values and ways of livingvalues and ways of living Not believing this is living in ‘Mauvais foi’ bad faith.Not believing this is living in ‘Mauvais foi’ bad faith.
  35. 35. Further PhilosophersFurther Philosophers  Kant: “ought implies can” if we feel a moralKant: “ought implies can” if we feel a moral imperative (something that should be done) weimperative (something that should be done) we must be able to do it. Freewill must exist inmust be able to do it. Freewill must exist in order to choose to follow the imperative ororder to choose to follow the imperative or ignore them.ignore them.  John Stuart Mill - Utilitarian: Freedom andJohn Stuart Mill - Utilitarian: Freedom and happiness are linked. Need to be free to behappiness are linked. Need to be free to be happy.happy.
  36. 36. Further PhilosophersFurther Philosophers  Karl Marx: Believed Capitalism kept people’s livesKarl Marx: Believed Capitalism kept people’s lives determined because they were ‘tied’ to a system whichdetermined because they were ‘tied’ to a system which oppresses the masses. Communism offered politicaloppresses the masses. Communism offered political and economic freedom.and economic freedom.  Nietzsche: Society imposes rules/ morals/ values onNietzsche: Society imposes rules/ morals/ values on us. These constrain us and prevent us from reachingus. These constrain us and prevent us from reaching our full potential. We will not be free to be individualsour full potential. We will not be free to be individuals until we reject society’s norms.until we reject society’s norms.
  37. 37. Further PhilosophersFurther Philosophers  ““His chosen act is one of which he is the soleHis chosen act is one of which he is the sole cause or author.” C. A. Campbellcause or author.” C. A. Campbell  ““I am free in performing an action if I couldI am free in performing an action if I could have done otherwise if I had chosen to do so.”have done otherwise if I had chosen to do so.” G. E. MooreG. E. Moore  ““Everything can be taken from a man but oneEverything can be taken from a man but one thing: the last of the human freedoms – tothing: the last of the human freedoms – to choose one’s attitude.” Victor Frankl Holocaustchoose one’s attitude.” Victor Frankl Holocaust SurvivorSurvivor
  38. 38. Imagine:Imagine:  What would happen if everyone hadWhat would happen if everyone had fullfull freefree will?will?
  39. 39. StrengthsStrengths  Empowering idea?Empowering idea?  Nice idea that we have choices and control overNice idea that we have choices and control over our livesour lives  Total moral responsibility – deserving areTotal moral responsibility – deserving are punishedpunished  Adds meaning to ethics: can apply praise andAdds meaning to ethics: can apply praise and blame accordinglyblame accordingly
  40. 40. WeaknessesWeaknesses x If everyone had free will = dangerous.If everyone had free will = dangerous. x Assumes everyone is morally goodAssumes everyone is morally good x If I have free will I may interfere with other free willIf I have free will I may interfere with other free will e.g. noisy neighbourse.g. noisy neighbours x Would not necessarily be acceptable to religiousWould not necessarily be acceptable to religious believers (Calvinists)believers (Calvinists) x Are we not partly determined by emotionsAre we not partly determined by emotions x Total moral responsibility can be a huge burdenTotal moral responsibility can be a huge burden x Could lead to dangerous and destructive behaviour ifCould lead to dangerous and destructive behaviour if everyone exercised total free will.everyone exercised total free will.
  41. 41. Weaknesses John LockeWeaknesses John Locke x Free will is like a sleeping man who is moved into a roomFree will is like a sleeping man who is moved into a room and locked in.and locked in. He wakes and chooses not to try and leave the room. HeHe wakes and chooses not to try and leave the room. He believes he could leave the room if he so chose but in actualbelieves he could leave the room if he so chose but in actual fact he cannot.fact he cannot. Likewise we think we can choose from a number ofLikewise we think we can choose from a number of different options, but in fact, our moral choices aredifferent options, but in fact, our moral choices are determined by other factors.determined by other factors.
  42. 42. Moral Responsibility - FreewillMoral Responsibility - Freewill  Moral responsibility comes if you freely choose theMoral responsibility comes if you freely choose the decision. You are morally responsible for the action IF youdecision. You are morally responsible for the action IF you have freely chosen them. But are you moral responsible forhave freely chosen them. But are you moral responsible for actions that are determined = the discussion in your answer.actions that are determined = the discussion in your answer.  I.e. ExplainI.e. Explain SartreSartre = moral responsibility use= moral responsibility use CampbellCampbell ‘sole author’ to support. Use‘sole author’ to support. Use CalvinCalvin against to say God setagainst to say God set path – discuss whether responsible or not. Bring inpath – discuss whether responsible or not. Bring in GeislerGeisler for God responsible not us then explore one of the casesfor God responsible not us then explore one of the cases ((Bulger or LoebBulger or Loeb) to discuss whether free or not –) to discuss whether free or not – comparing free maybecomparing free maybe IrenaeusIrenaeus test withtest with SkinnerSkinner deterministic behaviourism in application to the case youdeterministic behaviourism in application to the case you select.select.
  43. 43. ““I believe I have freewill; I haveI believe I have freewill; I have no choice.”no choice.” Isaac SingerIsaac Singer
  44. 44. HTTPS://ITHINKTHEREFOREITEAHTTPS://ITHINKTHEREFOREITEA If you would like further informationIf you would like further information please follow the link below to myplease follow the link below to my blog:blog:

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