Just  War  Theory
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Just War Theory

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    Just  War  Theory Just War Theory Presentation Transcript

    • Just War Theory Ethics of War and Peace
    • Nuclear Weapons – Nuclear Warfare (weapons that immediately kill but also have long term affects e.g. radiation.)
      • CND (Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament)
      • Wants destruction of all nuclear weapons
      • Nuclear weapons are unproductive use of world’s resources
      • Increase risk of innocent lives lost
      • Book of Proverbs: God hates shedding of innocent blood
      • More nuclear weapons in world greater risk of wiping out mankind
      • NATO (The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation)
      • Nuclear weapons should be kept
      • They keep peace (every nation knows cant win nuclear war = peaceful solution needed)
      • Needs for defence
      • If one country launched nuclear attack, only right that other country has means to retaliate “eye for an eye.”
    • St Augustine
      • 4 th Century Christian
      • Would be inconceivable to think God would allow people to come to power who would not lead people according to God’s will
      • If authorities believe war is needed to solve a political problem = becomes a “Holy war” therefore a “just war”
      • Augustine believed God called Israelites to go to war against enemies = justified if its intentions were to bring peace.
    • Aquinas
      • 13 th Century Christian
      • Adapted Augustine's ideas
      • For war to be just, cause must be just
      • War is moral if intentions behind it are good.
      • Undertaken by those in proper authority
      • Good reasons to go to war
      • War must be fought to promote good and avoid evil.
    • ‘ Jus (justice) ad Bellum (war)’ Meaning: When is it right to go to war?
      • Just cause (Augustine)
      • The country must deserve it/ present a real and present danger/ committed evil
      • Invasion, attack on national honour
      • Assassination of prominent person
      • Attack on religion, economic attack
      • Attack on ally, pre-emptive strike
      • Assisting friendly nation, human rights violations
      • Do you agree these are just causes?
    • Jus ad Bellum
      • 2. Legitimate Authority (Augustine)
      • Has to be lawfully declared by competent government
    • Jus ad Bellum
      • 3. Right intention (Thomas Aquinas)
      • Keeping or restoring peace
      • Righting a wrong
      • Assisting the innocent
      • Cant fight war for immoral intentions e.g. money
    • Jus ad Bellum
      • 4. Comparative Justice (Catholic Bishop added later)
      • Have to consider the claims/ arguments of both sides
      • Death and suffering on both sides considered
    • Jus ad Bellum
      • 5. Last resort (Catholic Bishop added later)
      • All sensible, non-violent options must have been tried first
      • War cannot be a first choice
    • Jus ad Bellum
      • 6. Reasonable chance of success (Catholic Bishop added later)
      • Hopeless causes may be noble, but are unethical
      • Immoral to enter into a hopeless war
      • Need it be able to win or it is just prolonging suffering
      • wrong to cause pain, suffering and death with no chance of success
    • Jus ad Bellum
      • 7. Reasonable proportion between injustice suffered and suffering and death of war (Catholic Bishop added later)
      • Proportionality = state shouldn't engage in war which causes more suffering than the wrong done by the enemy (Pearl Harbour vs. Hiroshima?)
      • Goal of war should be in proportion to the offence
      • Should prevent more evil and human suffering than it causes
    • ‘ Jus in Bello’ – Meaning: How should a war be fought?
      • 1. Minimum force/ Proportionality
      • Means used to fight the war must be the force needed to win and no more
      • Are WMD’s like nuclear, chemical and biological weapons always disproportionate?
    • Jus in Bello
      • 2. Discrimination
      • Avoid children, sick, elderly, farmer, ordinary workers.
      • Wrong to target civilians only soldiers
      • It is unjust to attack non-combatants
    • Jus Post Bellum
      • Ending of war