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    Cosmological Cosmological Presentation Transcript

    • Cosmological Argument
    • Aquinas First Way – Unmoved Mover
      • ‘ A posteriori’ argument based on logic taken from sense experience
      • Concentrated on change in the world.
      • “ Anything in process of change is being changed by something else.”
      • The knock on effect cannot go back infinity
      • Unmoved Mover started it off.
    • Aquinas Second Way – Uncaused Causer
      • Everything in the universe is in the cycle of cause and effect.
      • No endless cause and effects throughout eternity
      • First cause created by God which is unaffected by the cause/ effect cycle.
    • Aquinas Third Way – Contingency and Necessity
      • Everything is contingent - relies upon something else for existence.
      • There must be a necessary being (explanation for own existence within itself) that started it.
    • Kalam Cosmological Argument
      • Created by al Kindi and al Ghazali.
      • Everything has to have a beginning including the universe.
      • The universe cannot go on infinitely.
      • Then there must be a God who willed it to begin.
    • Supporters
      • William Lane Craig
      • No such thing as infinity
      • Universe not infinite must be a beginning.
      • Beginning must be caused by something.
      • For Craig this is a “personal being” who freely chooses to create the world
      • Ed Miller
      • Events are caused
      • The beginning of the universe was an event
      • Therefore must be a cause
      • This First Cause is God.
    • Critics: Hume
      • Fallacy of Composition = things in the universe are caused by something does not mean universe as a whole has a cause.
      • Bertrand Russell supports this by saying that every man has a mother is not proof that the human race has a mother.
    • Hume
      • The proposition ‘ Whatever has a beginning of existence must have a cause,’ is meaningless.
      • It is meaningless to talk about anything that was not either a synthetic or an analytic.
      • Analytic: Bachelors are unmarried. Simple by defining bachelor the rest of the statement is meaningful within itself.
      • Synthetic: Requires external evidence to prove it right. Herbert is a Bachelor – you actually need to find Herbert to check he is unmarried.
    • Frederick Copleston’s Argument from Contingency
      • Things in the world are contingent, dependant on something else for its existence e.g. our parents for us.
      • What created the universe must be external from it just like our parents are external from us.
      • a “necessary being” created the universe = God
      • “ A being that must and cannot not exist.”
    • Copleston VS. Bertrand Russell
      • Cannot have a ‘necessary’ being . Only propositions (statements of reason) are ‘necessary.’
      • Cause and effect will stretch into infinity in the future so why cant it stretch infinitely into the past? So no use for the first cause.
      • If God is the explanation of everything and everything requires an explanation, then what is the explanation of God ?
      • Why should God be self explanatory in the way that the universe is not. Why cant the universe simply exist
    • Criticisms
      • Big Bang – random particles caused the universe not God.
      • But: was the BB a deliberate action of God?
      • Steady State Theory - by Bondi, Gold and Hoyle.
      • Energy cannot be created – simply redistributed
      • Beginning of universe not God but redistribution of energy.
    • Criticisms
      • Cause and effect cannot be infinite or can it? Infinite numbers in Pi TT
      • Aquinas said infinity was impossible so must be a God but... God is infinite !!
      • Brian Davies Cosmological argument cannot stand alone as proof of God’s existence. Needs other support / evidence