All reality around us in the material world consists of material (matter) and form (essence/particular qualities.)
There is no separate world of Forms.
Material world = Real world!
Humans gain knowledge through perception and sense experience. This means he was an Empiricist .
Telos describes something that achieves its final purpose.
Everything needs to change in order for it to come to its final end, ultimate purpose.
The Form is changeless, only exists in the Noeton. The true essence of a tree Plato’s ideas of forms Imperfect, changing trees based on sense experience Aristotle’s Form makes it a tree. Form gives the tree its essence.
Four causes are needed to bring about the forms change in order for it to reach its ultimate purpose.
In other words in order for something to reach its telos from potentiality to actuality, it needs to go through four causes.
“ Nature does not act without a goal.”
Formal Cause The natural law which governs the process and limits the possible changes for the efficient cause. What are its characteristics? Efficient Cause The process which produces the effect – creating a changed set of circumstances. How does it happen? This does not always have to be a person e.g. a gust of wind blows down a tree. Final Cause The purpose of these causes and effects. Aristotle examines there purpose of the object, the reason it exists at all. What is it for?