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DG3. Marxist & Neo Marxist theories
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  • 1. Theme “Major International Relations Theories” DG 3. Marxist and Neo-Marxist International Relations Theories February 5th, 2014 Anna A. Dekalchuk, Lecturer at the Department of Applied Politics, Higher School of Economics – St. Petersburg
  • 2. DG outline 1. 8-minute test 2. Marxist thought: legacy 3. Marxist thought: why renaissance? 4. Marxist thought on IR: outset 5. Dependency school 6. Gramsci 7. Gramsci & Robert Cox 8. Critical theory & Frankfurt School
  • 3. 1. Multiple Choice Test 8 minutes, 10 questions, only one correct answer per question
  • 4. 2. Marxist thought: legacy 1. social world should be analysed as a totality; 2. materialist conception of history and economic determinism (tension between the means of production and relations of production that together form the economic base of a given society) => 3. base-superstructure model (legal, political, & cultural institutions and practices of a given society reflect and reinforce the patter of power and control in the economy); 4. history of all existing societies is the history of class struggle (axis of conflict is between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat); 5. idea of emancipation (communist society). (1818-1883)
  • 5. 2. Marxist thought: legacy Social world has to be studied as a whole “Мы знаем, откуда произошли все эти разделения предмета. Они интеллектуально вытекают из господствующей либеральной идеологии девятнадцатого века, которая утверждала, что государство и рынок, политика и экономика являются отдельными для анализа сферами, каждая со своими особенными правилами ("логикой"). Общество было обязано содержать их раздельно. Поскольку, казалось, было много реалий, явно не относившихся ни к сфере рынка, ни к сфере государства, эти реалии были помещены в ящик для отходов, который обрел в качестве компенсации величественное название социологии. Существовало мнение, по которому считалось, что социология объясняет (по-видимому) внешне "иррациональные" феномены, которые экономика и политическая наука были не в состоянии объяснить. Наконец, поскольку были народы, находящиеся вне господства цивилизованного мира – отдаленные и с которыми было трудно общаться, – изучение таких народов включало специальные требования и специальное образование, которые получили спорное название антропологии.” (Immanuel Wallerstein, “World-Systems Analysis,” in Social Theory Today, ed. Anthony Giddens and Jonathan H. Turner (Stanford University Press, 1987), 312.)
  • 6. 2. Marxist thought: legacy Base-superstructure model
  • 7. 3. Marxist thought: why renaissance? 1. Disappearance of the USSR has encouraged an appreciation of Marx’s work less laden with the baggage of Marxism-Leninism as a state ideology (USSR was plainly not the dreamt communist utopia); 2. Marx’s social theory retains formidable analytical purchase on the world we inhabit (especially his analysis of crisis).
  • 8. 4. Marxist thought on IR: Leon Trotsky (1879-1940) Combined and uneven development thesis Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919) “The Accumulation of Capital” (1913) outset Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) “Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism” (1917) According to Lenin, what is a two-tier structure and why is there no longer an automatic harmony of interests between all workers?
  • 9. 5. Dependency school Raúl Prebisch (1901-1986) “The Economic Development of Latin America and its Principal Problems” (1950) Andre Gunder Frank (1929-2005) Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born 1931)
  • 10. 6. World-system theory Immanuel Wallerstein (born 1930)
  • 11. 6. World-system theory 1. World systems can be either world empires or world economies; 2. Current WS is the world economy that emerged in Europe in 16th centaury; 3. It is a capitalist world economy; 4. Its institutions are created and recreated; 5. But it has a beginning, a middle and an end; 6. According to Wallerstein, it is now at the end of its existence (crisis); 7. Three-tier model -> What role does the semi-periphery play?
  • 12. 7. Gramscianism Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937) “Prison Notebooks” (1971) R E S E A R C H Q U E S T I O N ?
  • 13. 7. Gramscianism 1. Marx: revolution and the transition to socialism would occur in the most advanced capitalist societies, but there is no empirical proof; 2. Gramsci: concept of hegemony and the Machiavelli’s view of power as a centaur (a mix of coercion and consent); 3. Consent is created and recreated by the hegemony of the ruling class in society and this takes place through the institutions of civil society (false consciousness). 4. Thus, more attention to be paid to the superstructural phenomena (concept of historical bloc); 5. Idea of counter-hegemonic struggle in civil society to allow an alternative historic bloc to develop.
  • 14. 7. Gramscianism & Robert Cox “Theory is always for some one, and for some purpose” (1981: 128) Knowledge cannot be objective and timeless as it is a reflection of a certain context, time and space. What is the difference between problem-solving and critical theory? And what about hegemony? Robert W. Cox (born 1926) “Social Forces, States and World Order: Beyond IR Theory” (1981)
  • 15. 8. Critical theory & Frankfurt School Max Horkheimer (1895-1973) Theodor Adorno (1903-1969) Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979) One-dimensional society What is one-dimensional society?
  • 16. 8. 1. 2. 1. 2. Critical theory & Frankfurt School Meaning of emancipation and the role of communication. Radical democracy and participation. Emancipation as a process in which borders of the sovereign state lose their ethic and moral significance. The goal is a situation in which citizens share the same duties and obligations towards noncitizens as they do to their fellow citizens Jurgen Habermas (born 1929) Andrew Linklater (born 1949)