Sword and the cross:instruments of pacification and exploitation
On Easter Sunday, March 31,1521, a mass was held on Masao’s shore. This was the first Catholic mass in the Philippines and was officiated by Rev. Pedro de Valderrama. It was attended by Magellan, King Kolambo and Siago, Spanish voyagers and Filipinos.
After the mass, Magellan entertained the people of Masao to spectacular display of European tournament staged by the best swordsmen of his expedition At sundown, Magellan planted a large wooden cross on the summit of a hill overlooking the sea.
•About the name of the place:Pigaffeta said that the place was “Masua” ( threesyllable word) which is much closer to “masao”• The Latitude Position:records: 9 2/3 degrees, Limasawa is closer by 10degrees, Masao exactly 9 degrees.•Geographical Features: Masao fits the descriptionof Pigafetta: bonfires, balanghai, abundance ofgold, type of houses, Masao king, good beach etc.Limasawa is rocky & thus difficult to hold Mass.
Magellan landed on Cebu on April 7, 1521 and on the sane day he made a blood compact with Humabon. On Sunday, April 14, 1521, a mass was held on the shore of Cebu and Humabon and his warriors were impressed by the sublime ceremony. Magellan planted a wooden cross after the mass
Did the Cebuanos really accept Christianity?• It was claimed that because 800 Filipinos participated in the mass and underwent ritual baptism, these were the first native converts to Christianity. Magellan gave the image of Sto. Niño to Queen Juanna, wife of Raha Humabon and his expedition claimed to have made converts of the Filipinos in the area.
Redduccion policies Mass baptism Attitude of the Spanish missionaries
At dawn of April 27, 1521, Magellan invaded Mactan with an assault army of 60 steel-clad Spaniards in three vessels and 1,000 Cebuano warriors in 30 baots. The Spanish invaders were beaten and forced back to their boats . Magellan was wounded by a poisoned arrow in his right leg; twice his iron helmet was knocked off and a Mactan bamboo spear struck him on the face.
Magellan’s voyage was the greatest maritime exploit of mankind. Its results affected the course of history By him, Europe became aware that the greatest of all oceans lies between the New world and Asia . It enhanced geographical knowledge and made Europeans eager to explore and to conquer the pacific. It paved the way for Spanish colonization and Christianization in the Philippines.
The success of Magellan’s voyage give way for Spain’s expansion to the orient. Five other expeditions successively headed by Loaisa, Cabot, Saavedra, Villalobos and Legazpi were sent to the east to conquer and colonize the Philippines.
Due to lack of funds, Legazpi spent his own fortune to finish the preparation of his expedition With a fleet of four ships and 380 men, he left Natividad Mexico on November 21, 1564. He was accompanied by Father Urdaneta(acting as chief pilot), Guido de Lavezaris, Melchor de Legazpi and 5 agustinian Missionaries.
He anchored near the island of Cebu on February 13, 1565, but due to Cebuano hostility , Lagazpi sailed to Samar where he was welcomed by a friendly chief, Urrao whom he made blood compact on February 22. On March 9, he landed at Limasawa and he was welcomed by a young king named Bankaw. Later, legazpi landed on Bohol where he made blood compact with Katuna.
King Tupas of Cebu defied Spaniards . Spanish artillery and muskets won that day and Tupas with his men retreated to the hills leaving his kingdom in flames
First conquest of Manila On May 8,1570, an expedition of Martin de Goiti left Panay having a fighting force of 120 Spaniards and 600 Visayans . At that time, Manila was a Muslim kingdom under Raha Sulayman. Sulayman refusing to submit to the Spaniards defended his kingdom. May 24, 1570, Goiti and his men captured Manila.
Second conquest of Manila After his victory, Goiti returned to Panay and told Legazpi about the existence of Muslim kingdom by the shore of Manila. The second conquest was bloodless event. Lakan dula , last king of Tondo accepted Legazpi. On May 19, 1571, Legazpi took possession of Manila. Legaspi establishes his government in Manila and proclaims it the capital of the Philippines, calling it the Insigne y Siempre Leal Ciudad which means "distinguished and ever loyal city".
The might of the Spanish sword and the martial exploits of Spanish conquistadors, helped much in the conquest but without the missionaries , the Spanish colonization would not have been successful. By the acceptance of Christianity, the Filipinos became the loyal subject of Spain. It is one of the history’s incredible facts that the overall conquest of the Philippines was achieved more by the cross than by the sword.
The Sword and the Cross These two symbols are what constituted the strategies or tactics used by the Spaniards in invading the Philippines. It made the pacification of the natives easier. The cross symbolizes religion while the sword symbolizes force.
The Blood Compact Through the blood compact of Magallanes and Kulambo, Magallanes and Humabon, and even Legazpi, Sikatuna and Gala, the natives were enticed. This ritual symbolizes unity and is done by the slashing of the wrist of both parties and drinking the blood of the other fused with wine. The giving of gifts of Spaniards to the datus and their families were also strategies to occupy the Philippines.
Reduccion Reduccion is the centralization of the Filipino community where churches, convents, casa real and plaza complexes can be found. Plazas are where people gather when there are events or celebrations like festivals. By using this system, the Spaniards can easily monitor the movements of Filipinos to prevent protests and to collect the taxes easier. There are also changes in the architectural designs of infrastructures.
Divide et Impera (Divide and Rule) In line with reduccion, the people were categorized based on race and religion. For the still rebellious places, entrada was enforced. For those which are not, Spain turned the citizens to soldiers and were made to fight with their fellow Filipinos.