Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society NewsletterVolume 26 Number 2 Winter 2007 Monthly meetings Thompson Park Center/Dakota Lodge Updated Endangered Thompson County Park 360 Butler Ave. E., West St. Paul, MN 55118 Species List will affect 651-552-7559 (kitchen) 6:00 p.m. — Social period 7 – 9 p.m — Program, society business availability of plants by Hannah Texler, Rich Baker, and Nancy Sather, Natural Heritage Programs and Nongame Research Program, Minnesota DNR The MN NPS meets the first Thursdayin October, November, December, MN NPS members are invited to submit comments on new list.February, March, April, May, and June. Minnesota’s Endangered Species Statute (MS 84.0895) requires thatCheck the website for more program the Department of Natural Resources (DNR) maintain a list of theinformation. state’s endangered, threatened, and special concern species (hereafter Feb. 1: “Recent Highlights in the referred to as the list). The list was created in 1984 and was last revisedMinn. County Biological Survey,” by in 1996. The DNR’s goal is to maintain a list that reflects our scientificCarmen Converse, County Biological knowledge of the status and conservation needs of Minnesota’s plantSurvey supervisor, DNR. Plant-of-the- and animal species.Month: Bog adder ’s mouth orchid During the past few years, staff within the DNR’s Division of(Malaxis paludosa), Erika Rowe, DNR. Ecological Services have developed a set of several hundred draft Mar. 1: “Hot Topics Related to the Use changes to the list in light of newof Native Plants for Landscaping andRestoration: Endangered Species, Local Symposium is research and survey results. These draft changes are theGenetic Stock, and Restoring PlantCommunities,” by Hannah Texler, DNR March 31 subject of administrative rule- by Scott Milburn making during 2007.regional plant ecologist. Panel discussion In order to give the public an Our annual symposium will bewith nursery owners/operators and Dept.of Agriculture representative. POM: March 31 at the Bell Museum of opportunity to comment onLouisiana Broomrape (Orobanche Natural History. Join us as we these draft changes early in theludoviciana). learn about the Minnesota portion rule-making process, the DNR of the Prairie Coteau while will accept comments between April 5: “Conservation Challenges inMinn. Forests: Climate Change, Invasive exploring the past, present, and Jan. 2 and March 5, 2007. WeSpecies and Deer,” by Dr. Lee Frelich, future of this unique landform. Continued on page 3Dept. of Forestry Resources, Univ. of The roster for the symposium isMinn. Plant, Place of the Month: Black just about set, with talks on the Prairie Coteau that include its In this issueSpruce and Seagull Lake, by Dr. Frelich. May 3: ”Motorized Recreation: Social, geology, human history, plant President’s column................2Ecological Consequences,” by Matt communities, insect pollinators, Plant press donation.............4Norton, Minn. Center for Environmental rare plant species and Millennium Seed Bank..........4Advocacy. POM: Carex garberi (a sedge), conservation issues. The Flora ID problem fix............5by Scott Milburn.. symposium brochure will be Growth pressures .................6 June 7: “Decorative Tree Harvest available in early February, but Arden Hills restoration ........6from Minnesota Spruce Bogs,” by Mike please continue to check our Field trips.............................6Phillips, DNR Division of Forestry. website for updates and Regal Meadow donation......7Annual Plant Sale. programming notes. Plant Lore -Leadplant............7
The Continuum of Conservation MN NPS Boardby Scott A. Milburn, president The Minnesota Native Plant Society begins 2007 marking an important of Directorsmilestone while heading into the year with great momentum. I first would President: Scott Milburn,like to remind our membership that Feb. 3 marks the 25th anniversary of email@example.com Society’s first monthly meeting. While this is a great accomplishment, Vice President: Shirley Mahour mission is far from over. Kooyman, firstname.lastname@example.org In my past column, I brought up the issue of conservation, and I would Secretary: Daniel Jones,like to continue with this message. Since the publication of the last email@example.com, the Conservation Committee and the Education and Outreach Treasurer: Ron amd CathyCommittee have both started to move forward under the direction and Huber, firstname.lastname@example.org of Beth Nixon and Sean Jergens. We are still looking for more Ken Arndt, board member,volunteers from our membership to join these committees and add their email@example.com and energy. Jason Husveth, board member, As a society, we need to continually look for ways to not only engage firstname.lastname@example.org but also a whole new generation. Conservation will continue to Sandy McCartney, boardbe a very important topic in Minnesota, and we have the opportunity to be member, email@example.com players. As the landscape continues to be developed, children will Sean Jergens,continue to be further and further removed from the natural world. We firstname.lastname@example.org to ensure that today’s children are given the opportunity to experiencethe natural world. In doing so, we will be showing an entire generation the Beth Nixon, email@example.com of Minnesota’s natural history. The question is: how can we do this? One way is to support your local Program Coordinator: Lindanature center either through volunteering efforts or by donation. A second Huhn, 612-374-1435and perhaps more intriguing opportunity is through the development of Listserv Coordinator: Charlescurriculum for all grade levels. This information could be available online Umbanhowar, firstname.lastname@example.org teachers throughout the state. This is an idea to think about this next Field Trips:year, and I hope you can share your email@example.com. In closing, I hope everyone MN NPS website www.mnnps.org Memberships:is as excited as I am about our great e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com; 651-monthly programs, our great roster 739-4323of speakers for the annual MN NPS Listserve Send a message with “subscribe” Historian/Archives:symposium, and the great lineup of firstname.lastname@example.org or “unsubscribe” and your name to:field trips. Technical or membership email@example.com inquiries: firstname.lastname@example.orgMinnesota Native Plant Society’s purpose Minnesota Plant Press editor: Gerry Drewry, phone, 651-463- (Abbreviated from the bylaws) 8006; email@example.com This organization is exclusively organized and operated for educational and scientific purposes, including the following: 1. Conservation of all native plants. Deb Anderson, Jason 2. Continuing education of all members in the plant sciences. Husveth receive state 3. Education of the public regarding environmental protection of plant conservation awards life. Deb Anderson (Fillmore Soil and 4. Encouragement of research and publications on plants native to Water Conservation District) and Minnesota. Jason Husveth (Anoka SWCD) each 5. Study of legislation on Minnesota flora, vegetation and ecosystems. received their district’s 2006 6. Preservation of special plants, plant communities and scientific and Outstanding Conservationist’s Award natural areas. at the Minnesota Association of Soil 7. Cooperation in programs concerned with the ecology of natural and Water Conservation Districts resources and scenic features. Convention Dec. 2. Deb is a former 8. Fellowship with all persons interested in native plants through MN NPS board member; Jason is a meetings, lectures, workshops and field trips. current board member.2
List to be discussed likely that attempts to introduce orEndangered species reintroduce rare plants will not beContinued from page 1 at March 1 meeting successful. There is littleare requesting scientific information The draft revisions and other documentation about successfulthat will help us determine whether current topics related to using techniques for the introduction ofor not a species should be designated native plants for landscaping and most rare species. So again, the lawas endangered, threatened, or of restoration will be further is applied uniformly in order to makespecial concern in Minnesota. explored at the Society’s March 1 it more easily understood. meeting. These topics include 4. Moving species around can You may review and comment on current views about using localthe DNR’s Draft Revisions to obscure natural biogeographic genetic stock for native plantings patterns. This can cloud ourMinnesota’s List of Endangered, and the importance of restoringThreatened, and Special Concern understanding about what the plants ecologically appropriate native really need in their naturalSpecies on the internet at plant communities. Be sure tow w w. d n r. s t a t e . m n . u s / e t s / environments. attend this meeting; there will be 5. The use of plants or rootstocksrulesrevision.html a panel discussion to present Links to the current list, and to bearing soil from another site may various views and give audience bring invasive weed seeds orMinnesota’s Endangered Species members the opportunity toStatute and associated rules are also invertebrates into a site. comment. It promises to be a livelyavailable at that site. evening. 6. Collecting seeds from wild If you prefer to receive a paper populations of rare species maycopy of these materials, please coming out soon, it seems like a good significantly reduce the seedsrequest a copy from: time to address the issues again. available for reproduction in Richard J. Baker, Division of Here is a brief overview of the naturally occurring populations.Ecological Services, Minnesota ecological reasons for regulating theDepartment of Natural Resources, planting, transplanting and sale of Society urges500 Lafayette Rd., Box 25, St. Paul, rare plants:MN 55155; phone: 651-259-5073; 1. Most listed species are rare protection fore-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org primarily because of habitat loss. Coldwater Spring siteHow the law affects the sale and Introductions and reintroductions do At its Oct. 5, 2006, meeting, thepurchase of native plants not address this root cause of MN NPS Board of Directors voted Out of the 2,024 vascular plant endangerment, and they may lead to to urge protection of the Coldwaterspecies that occur in the state, 123 a false assumption by the general Spring site in Minneapolis. They(six percent) are currently legally public that biodiversity loss can be signed a letter, “Comments on thelisted as endangered or threatened, addressed simply by moving species Historic Coldwater Spring Site,”and 133 are listed as of special around. which was sent to Actingconcern. It is illegal to take, import, 2. Many listed plant species have Superintendent Steve Johnson,transport, or sell any portion of an been reduced to a small number of Mississippi National River andendangered or threatened species fragile populations that could be Recreation Area.without a special permit from the damaged by the introduction of genes The letter begins:Minnesota DNR. From a practical from plants from a different “On behalf of The Minnesotastandpoint, this means that it is illegal geographic area. Ideally, we would Native Plant Society, the Board ofto use endangered or threatened understand the genetics of each Directors requests the above 27-acreplants as horticultural materials or in species and use that understanding to property be designated a publicrestorations. determine whether or not outdoor museum under permanent This is a controversial law, and introductions could be helpful or protection of the National Parksome natural resource managers and harmful to native populations. Service following the removal ofplant vendors disagree with its basic However, there is almost no buildings on the site. We also requestpremise. In fact, many plant vendors information available about the this protection be accompanied bysell Minnesota endangered and genetic makeup and reproductive federal guarantees that this propertythreatened species illegally, in many behavior of most listed species, so will never be sold for private use,cases because they don’t know about the law is applied uniformly in order private development, or non-historicthe law. This issue was addressed in to avoid potential damage. public use.”detail at the 2000 MNPS annual 3. Since many rare plants have very The letter then lists reasons why thesymposium, but with the new list specific habitat requirements, it is site should be protected. 3
Husveth makes plant presses Collectors neededfor Hastings biology class for Millennium Seedby Bonnie St. James. Reprinted with Bank Projectpermission from the Sept. 14, 2006, Betsy Allen, coordinator for theHastings Star-Gazette. Millennium Seed Bank Project at the High School teacher Joe Beattie’s Chicago Botanic Garden, wants tobiology classes are always hands-on hire botanists to collect seeds ofand intensive. This year is going to native plants.be no exception. But this year, They are collecting seeds fromstudents have new tools — plant 1,500 different native species in thepresses built by an ecologist who was Midwest for long-term conservationin Hastings last week to teach the as part of the internationalstudents how to use them. Millennium Seed Bank Project Field biology students found (http://www.rbgkew.org.uk/msbp/themselves dressed in waders last index.html). These seeds are dried toThursday and in water up to their a low moisture content, stored in anknees. They were learning about airtight container, and then frozen.collecting wetland plants from Jason The Royal Botanic Garden, Kew,Husveth, principal ecologist for thinks that the average lifespan ofCritical Connections Ecological these stored seeds is 200 years. The One of donated plant presses seeds are used mostly for “what if”Services, Inc. and past president ofthe Native Plant Society. “Collect as much of the plant as scenarios, but a portion can be used you can,” he said. “Look at the by qualified groups for restoration or Beattie asked the Native Plant smartweed. If you collected just the research. For each species, theySociety last year for help in getting top, you wouldn’t be able to see how collect between 5,000 and 20,000plant presses so his students could tall the plant is.” seeds from one population and takecollect, press and dry plants. Husveth two herbarium specimens.did more than was asked. He took the He placed the plants in separateproject on himself and built seven bags, and then had the students do Allen hopes to collect seeds inpresses, which he donated to some collecting. The students would Minnesota this year. “If we want toBeattie’s class and then came to show also collect prairie plants at a piece fulfill our requirement to Kew,” shethe students how to use them. of prairie on 3M grounds on Friday, said, “we have to collect seed from and forest plants at Vermillion Falls300 species in one year. Yikes! We At 7 a.m. last Thursday morning, Park on Monday. have money to pay contract botaniststhe students gathered with Beattie to help me out with making theseand Husveth in the parking lot at the After the plants were collected, the students climbed out of the water andcollections. Do you know anyHastings Lock and Dam and walked amateur botanists or poor, starvingto the berm between Lake Rebecca out of the waders and watched Husveth prepare a plant for pressing.graduate students that earning moneyand the Mississippi River west of the by seed collecting might belock and dam. They all put on waders The arrowroot plants were long, so he folded them in thirds. appealing?”and followed Husveth into a littlepiece of wetlands. The presses Husveth built consist A species list is posted online at of an open frame made of lath, a http://cbgseedbank.org/ Husveth explained how rare plants targetspecies.html. For additionalcould occur in very small piece of cardboard the same size (all cut to a standard size used by information, contact: Betsy Allen,communities or “pockets” like this Millennium Seed Bank Projectone. He pointed out the native collectors), blotter paper to absorb the water, a layer of newspaper, the coordinator, 847-835-6957;arrowroot and smartweed, and the email@example.com;invasive cattails and purple plant, more newspaper, a sheet of blotter paper, a layer of newspaper Chicago Botanic Garden, 1000 Lakeloosestrife. He showed them the tools Cook Road, Glencoe, IL 60022.he used — plastic bags and a serrated and the top frame.knife — that wouldn’t cut anything Then the press is pulled together Use new mailing addressprobably but plants. Then he tightly to form a bundle, and a strap The Society’s mailing address iscollected an arrowroot plant to show made of webbing is secured tightly P.O. Box 20401, Bloomington, MNthem how it is best done. around it, to release water. 554204
Thank you Compatibility Oakdale Park Following are excerpts from a problem with Flora benefits from ‘Thinkthank-you letter from the GreaterWest Metro Humane Society ID CDs can be fixed Native’ plantingsMemorial Garden Committee. by Bruce Barnes, Flora ID by Ron Rogstad, administrative “In the spring of 2004, [we] Northwest, LLC services director, City of Oakdale;received a $200 grant from your The default settings in the just- from a city newsletter.society to purchase seeds of native released Internet Explorer version 7 A group of volunteers from Hopeplants for our planned prairie interfere with the Flora ID XID Evangelical Free Church in Oakdale,wildflower and pond edge areas. The software the keys run in. Some users along with Oakdale city staff, aMemorial Garden was planned to may not notice this problem. Below community volunteer, and thecreate a peaceful landscape next to is a description of the problem and Oakdale Tree Board chair, plantedour adoption center where people the changes in the IE7 settings which more than 100 native plants and treescould enjoy perennial beds and are needed for one of the minor in Oakdale Park on June 9 from 9:30native plantings. With supporters’ features of the program to work a.m. to noon.donations, we place small granite The Problem The plants were given as part of theplaques in the garden in honor and If your computer has Internet “Think Native” grant programmemory of beloved people and pets. Explorer version 5 or 6, when an sponsored by the Minnesota Native “This year we have seen a great attribute image or a species image is Plant Society, which is a non-profitblossoming of our native areas in clicked, it expands to full size in a organization dedicated to thespite of the harsh heat and drought. separate window and there is no conservation of the native plants of problem. If you have Internet Minnesota through public education Explorer version 7 (IE7), this and advocacy. window appears as a blank screen. The Oakdale planting was originally planned for the wetland The Solution buffer area near 4th St. N. and Hadley IE7 calls the page which is created Ave., but was moved to Oakdale Park “about:blank”. So if you add this because the majority of the plants URL to the list of trusted pages, it obtained were shade or semi-shade will show its content. varieties. City Forester Chris Larson The simplest way to do that is: Go prepared prairie, woodland, and to Tools> Internet Options > Security meadow sites for the plant materials; Tab. Select “Trusted sites” and click all the sites are adjacent to paved “Sites” button. walking trails in the park. Memorial garden in bloom First remove any check mark that The Society established its grant may be in the box at the bottom program to educate the public about “In the fall of 2004, we planted a labeled “Require server verification native plants and to encourage theshort mesic prairie area above a (https:) for all sites in this zone.” use of native plants in home andboulder wall and a small area of shortgrass woods edge savanna where the Type: “about:blank” (without public projects. The city alsotrees produced some shade. In the quotation marks) into the “Add this received surplus seeds from thespring of 2005, we planted the edge website to the zone” field Society’s annual November seedof our pond with a short sedge (overwriting any address that appears exchange.meadow mix. there), and then click “Add” button Larson plans to use the surplus “We hope to develop a path in the in the Dialog Box. The words seeds to help replace the groundprairie area with educational markers “about:blank” should appear below cover in the buckthorn removal areasand to develop a woodland in the list of websites. Click “Close” in the park.wildflower garden with path. The to save the settings. In this screen,planting you funded has brought make sure that the “Security level” The image problem between IE7pleasure to many people and has for the trusted sites is set to Medium and XID will now be corrected.created a wildlife habitat. … We hope or lower. If the security level is a If you choose to not change theyour members may visit the adoption Custom setting, click Default level settings, you can still view images atcenter and garden someday.” The to provide a slider that enables you their full size by simply dragging togarden is located at 4375 Hwy. 55 to select the level you wish, in this the left the vertical divider betweenS.E., Buffalo, MN 55313. case Medium or lower. Click OK. the left and right windows. 5
Growth pressures on Winter fieldnatural resources studied trips planned by Kenneth J. Arndtby Sharon Pfeifer, DNR Central Region community assistance manager. We have planned three MN NPSThis is an abstract of her talk Dec. 7, 2006, at the MN NPS meeting. winter field trips. If you haven’t In the next quarter century, growth pressures in the Twin Cities signed up yet, just send an e-mail tometropolitan region will be intense, as more than one million new residents me at firstname.lastname@example.org orand 500,000 new homes consume unprotected, sensitive natural areas. sign up at our general meeting in This GIS-based regional assessment was conducted to: 1) examine February. I will be at the field tripsocioeconomic changes and potential natural resource impacts, and 2) table with sign-up sheets and otherprovide recommendations to address trade-offs between future growth and information on upcoming trips.conservation. Sensitive land and water habitats and groundwater availability Saturday, Feb. 17, 1 - 3 p.m.,were analyzed in the context of social and economic factors, including Terrace Horticultural Books, 503changes in population, urbanized land area, number and size of new housing St. Clair Ave., St. Paul. Owner Kentsubdivisions, commute times, job locations, community types, and local Patterson has opened his store to allfiscal capacities. MN NPS members and is offering to Growth scenarios suggest that regional growth will be most intense at the donate 20 percent of all sales fromfringes of the seven-county core region and just beyond in the four “collar the afternoon to the Society. So if wecounties,” where groundwater is an additional constraint to growth. Because spend $1,000, then the MN NPS willmost communities in the path of growth have modest or below average tax get $200. There is no limit to thecapacities, they will be challenged to conserve land and water resources. If number of Society members who cangrowth continues in the form of large lot, low-density development, almost come, but I do appreciate your lettingall remaining unprotected sensitive natural areas will be developed. me know if you can make it. Future conservation will require strategic regional scale planning, Saturday, March 3, 1-4 p.m.,conservation cost-sharing, and additional resources to bridge gaps in Pine Bend Bluffs SNA in Inverinformation, analyses, and technical assistance to communities. Grove Heights. Join botanists Scott Milburn and Jason Husveth andRestoration of Arden Hills site urban forester Ken Arndt for an afternoon of winter botany at thisby Wade J. Hammer, wetland ecologist, Svoboda Ecological Resources. fantastic Scientific Natural Area. WeThis is an abstract of his presentation at the April 6, 2006, MN NPS meeting. will hike from atop the bluffs down The Arden Hills Army Training Site (AHATS) is a 1,786-acre military through the mixed hardwood/installation in Ramsey County, Minn. The Original Land Survey, completed coniferous forests to the Mississippiin the late 1800s, makes note of bur oak and white oak woodlands, with River, where we will explore thetamarack swamps in the low areas in the approximate vicinity of the property. seeps for skunk cabbage in bloom. Thirty home sites were displaced when the site was purchased in 1941 by The hiking will be moderate inthe federal government for use as a military installation. The site hosted 22 difficulty, due to the 150- to 200-footyears of active munitions production through the Vietnam War. At its peak, elevation change from the top of the26,000 people were employed there. It was listed as a superfund site in bluff down to the river. The trail itself1983. Clean-up at the site continues. is easy going; it’s the elevation Tallgrass prairie restoration projects have occurred at the AHATS since change I want people to be aware of.the early 1990s. As part of a Masters of Science project, a study assessing We have to limit the number ofthe relationships among management (seeding and burning), vegetation, people to 20, due to site-sensitiveand environmental factors (soil, aspect, and slope) was completed. The reasons. More detailed informationstudy included completion of 75 vegetation surveys, consisting of three will be available in mid-February.random plots in 25 purposively placed grids. The surveys consisted of Late March or early April,cover class data for all plant species. The surveys were completed twice Warner Nature Center in Marineduring the summer of 2002 (late June/early July and mid-August). on St. Croix. Join Dr. Jans A.Multivariate statistical analyses of the vegetation survey data revealed Janssens of Lambda-Max,relationships between vegetation and soil texture, vegetation and shallow Ecological Research as we exploredepth to ground water (within 1 m), and individual plant species and fire the world of bryophytes at thisfrequency. The intended use of the findings is to improve management of unique natural area. A date will bedesignated tallgrass prairie restoration sites at the AHATS. set in the next month.6
110-acre prairie is gift to Plant LoreRegal Meadow Preserve by Thor Kommedahl What is leadplant?By Melissa Andrie. This excerpt is reprinted with permission from the Leadplant is Amorpha canescens,Aug. 2, 2006, Paynesville Press. a native perennial shrub in the pea “We have a prairie. What it needs is help continuing as a prairie.” family. It is also called prairie With these words, Don Knutson [former MN NPS president] passed on shoestring, downy indigobush, orthat land at a dedication ceremony. The prairie, one of very few remaining false indigo.parcels of wet to wet-mesic prairie, was donated by Knutson to The Nature How did it get these names?Conservancy, and it is now one of three areas of land in the Regal Meadow Amorpha is a Greek word meaningPreserve, which covers a total of about 620 acres. Knutson donated the land “deformed,” because it has only onein memory of his son, Dean Anders Knutson, who died in 1997. petal instead of five typical of Grazing and fire created good natural disturbances to the prairie in the legumes. Canescent refers to thepast, and it has never been plowed. “You can’t rebuild this. It’s a genuine hoary leaf appearance due to thenative stand,” said John Maile, the project manager of the Ordway/Glacial short, white hairs, which accounts forLakes Project, of which the Regal Meadow is a part. the name leadplant, but also it was There are “a whole suite of plants associated” with wet prairie, according once thought (erroneously) to be anto Carmen Converse, the “plant lady” and program director of the Minnesota indicator of lead ore. ShoestringDepartment of Natural Resources’ County Biological Survey. Some describes the long, tough roots.examples are cord grass, blazing star, prairie anemone, and heartleaf golden Because it resembles plants in thealexander. genus Indigofera, it is sometimes called false indigo or downy In the floodplain of the Crow River, the Regal Meadow is also home to indigobush.the small white lady’s slipper as well as non-plant life, like the regal frittilaryand the Poweshiek skipper, both species of butterflies. What do plants look like? “You get addicted to things,” Knutson said of his interest in conservation. They are perennial shrubs usuallyThrough an unusual series of events, he became the catalyst for the donation less than three feet, but up to fourof this special piece of land, with its hundreds of species, many of them feet tall. The alternate leaves areunique. While he taught a botany class at the University of Minnesota, Twin pinnately compound with 15-51Cities campus, he was approached by a student who said she and her husband nearly stalkless, whitish, hairyowned a piece of prairie land and wanted him to look at it, to see if it was leaflets. Blossoms, in dense terminalthriving. Though prairies were not his specialty, he came and discovered it spikes, are bluish-purple with ato be thriving prairie. single petal, at first tubular, then unfolding. It has one seed per pod. After Knutson recommended that the couple contact The Nature Bees and wasps are attracted forConservancy if they ever wanted itto become publicly protected land, pollination.he did not hear from them for 10 Where do the shrubs grow?years. Then the former student Leadplant grows in the dry, prairiecontacted him. She wanted to give areas of the state and sometimes inhim the land to take care of and to sandy, open woods.“keep it as a living, vital, natural Is it edible?prairie system,” according to Not for humans, but deer, rabbits,Knutson. and livestock find it palatable; it is After owning the land for a couple high in protein. It is not poisonousof years, two years ago he began the either.process of shifting the land from Has it medicinal properties?private to public ownership, to make Not really; however, Omahasure that it was protected while he Indians made a paste from stems towas “still in shape to do it.” treat neuralgia and rheumatism. The land is located about a half- Is it economically important?mile west of Regal on Highway 55. It has no particular landscapeIt is open to the public and and will features, but it is sometimes includedcontinue to be open for hunting. Leadplant photo by Peter Dziuk in native plant gardens. 7
Minnesota Native Plant SocietyP.O. Box 20401Bloomington, MN 55420Winter 2007 Thompson County Park Take Hwy. 52 to the Butler Ave. E. exit in West St. Paul. Go west on Butler 0.2 miles, then go south on Stassen Lane, the park entrance road.