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Summer 2007 Minnesota Plant Press

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  • 1. Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society NewsletterVolume 26 Number 4 Summer 2007 Monthly meetings Non-native invasives Thompson Park Center/Dakota Lodge Thompson County Park360 Butler Ave. E., West St. Paul, MN 55118 threatening Chippewa 651-552-7559 (kitchen) 6 p.m. — Social period 7 – 9 p.m. — Program, society business National Forest Programs On June 20, the Minnesota Native Plant Society Board submitted The MN NPS meets the first Thursday comments opposing the Chippewa National Forest Off-Highwayin October, November, December, Vehicle (OHV) Road Travel Access Project. Beth Nixon, a MN NPSFebruary, March, April, May, and June. board member, prepared the document and attached papers that wereCheck the website for more program cited in footnotes. Following are the comments.information. 1. Non-native invasive plant species present on the Chippewa Oct. 4: “The harvesting of herbal National Forest are a top ecological threat to these USFS lands, andmedicines; concerns for protecting plant have been identified by Dale Bosworth, former chief of the U.S.species and plant communities,” by Erica Forest Service, as one of the four top threats to the nation’s forestsFargione, herbalist. Plant of the Month: and rangelands. In the Chippewa, there are 13 species of ingeniousPanax quinquefolium, American ginseng. propagators, producing enormous amounts of seed with a variety of Nov. 1: “Effects of moose browsing on dispersal mechanisms. Invasives as a group are a major drain on thelong-term forest succession on Isle national, state, and local economies, costing the country roughly $138Royale,” by Dr. Peter Jordan, University billion each year, according to the USFS document “National Strategyof Minnesota. Annual seed exchange and Implementation Plan for Invasive Species Management.”following the program. Package seeds in 2. An OHV will spread non-native invasive species very, verysmall envelopes; label them. effectively in several ways, including:2008 Symposium a. As is commonly known, the OHV driver travels readily back and forth between a variety of land cover types, disseminatingbeing planned invasive propagules into a wide variety of more remote and ecologically sensitive natural areas, even when those areas are The North Shore highlands will be the technically off-limits;subject of the Society’s 2008 symposium.Details have not been finalized, but it will b. The OHV tire size and configuration will very efficiently denudeprobably be held at the Bell Museum on and then transport large quantities of soil laden with a highthe University of Minnesota campus. concentration of propagules whenInformation will be posted on the website. driven through an infestation, and In this issue then afterwards deposit those President’s column...............2 propagules for distances of over 10 Plant donation .....................3Society has a blog miles; MN NPS information and comments can Mushroom identification .....4be read on the Society’s blog. Go to c. OHVs often are driven on Society news ...............4, 6, 7www.mnnps.blogspot.com to see what is roadsides, where thick infestations Orchid field trip ...................5posted. Information will continue to be of non-native invasive species are Pine Bend SNA field trip ....5posted on the Society’s website, most likely to exist. Plant collection standards ....6www.mnnps.org Continued on page 3 Plant Lore: Turtlehead.........7
  • 2. President’s column MN NPS Boardby Scott Milburn, president The Society is coming off another great year and one to be proud of. Our of Directorsmembership is strong and active, as seen with the number of members President: Scott Milburn,attending our events. In keeping with our mission, we have provided an president@mnnps.orgopportunity to learn and expand as we explored the flora of our state. Vice President: Shirley Mah To recap this past year, we dove into conservation issues such as alternative Kooyman, vp@mnnps.orgagricultural practices and how that affects our native biodiversity. We also Secretary: Sean Jergens,spent a great day at the Bell Museum of Natural History learning about the secretary@mnnps.orgfascinating Prairie Coteau, with much insight provided by the talented folksat the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. The Society was also Treasurer: Ron and Cathyfortunate to have a great line-up of field trips, including a great lesson in Huber, treasurer@mnnps.orgforested wetland ecology and the visual experience of the incredible Ken Arndt, board member,vegetative composition present in these communities. All in all, it was a karndt@mnnps.orggreat year of learning. I would like to thank those who helped this year and Peter Dziuk, board member,hope for more of the same in the upcoming year. pdziuk@mnnps.org The board, an ever changing group itself, has several new members whobring a lot to the table. I am excited and pleased to be working with this Linda Huhn, board member andgroup of individuals, and I think the Society will be pleased with our future program coordinator, 612-374-1435efforts. Daniel Jones, Over the past several board meetings, the board made several changes to djones@mnnps.orgour membership policies. No need to worry about raising membership costs, Beth Nixon, bnixon@mnnps.orgas it appears we are inflation-proof for the time being. In all seriousness, it Russ Schaffenberg,was felt that we need to maintain continuity with our membership. The rschaffenberg@mnnps.orgboard recently voted to change our membership year from October to Januaryof every year to correlate with the calendar year, in an attempt to eliminateforgotten renewals. Another exciting change is the ability to become a Listserv Coordinator: Charleslifetime member of the Society. Umbanhowar, ceumb@stolaf.edu Not only do we want to retain our members, we would like to increase our Field Trips:membership. There is a large demographic out there that has an interest in fieldtrips@mnnps.orgthe natural history of Minnesota. It is our job to reach out to this group and Memberships:engage them. Perhaps the best start is for everyone in our membership to memberships@mnnps.org; 651-introduce a friend to the Society. By doing this, we have a great opportunity 739-4323to grow, expand, and add to what we do as a Society. Historian/Archives: RoyMinnesota Native Plant Society’s purpose Robison, historian/ (Abbreviated from the bylaws) archives@mnnps.org This organization is exclusively organized and operated for educational Technical or membership and scientific purposes, including the following: inquiries: contact@mnnps.org 1. Conservation of all native plants. New member packets: Chuck 2. Continuing education of all members in the plant sciences. and Ellen Peck, 651-739-4323 3. Education of the public regarding environmental protection of plant Minnesota Plant Press editor: life. Gerry Drewry, phone, 651-463- 4. Encouragement of research and publications on plants native to 8006; plantpress@mnnps.org Minnesota. 5. Study of legislation on Minnesota flora, vegetation and ecosystems. 6. Preservation of special plants, plant communities and scientific and natural areas. MN NPS website 7. Cooperation in programs concerned with the ecology of natural For current information about resources and scenic features. MN NPS field trips, meetings, and 8. Fellowship with all persons interested in native plants through other events, check the website: meetings, lectures, workshops and field trips. www.mnnps.org2
  • 3. greatly accelerate the spread of non- the Chippewa National ForestOHV damage native invasive species. statutory boundary likely to have aContinued from page 1 8. Designating hundreds of miles moderate risk of infestation by a non- 3. OHV routes should not be of routes without reasonably native invasive species with adesignated in any areas known to be complete knowledge of where all moderate, high, or very highinfested with any non-native invasive non-native invasive species ecological risk categorization by thespecies, or areas thought to be more infestations are located on the USFS. These species include alllikely to be infested, or in Chippewa National Forest will likely those terrestrial plant species listedenvironments most susceptible to result in designation of many routes as occurring on the Chippewa, asbeing invaded if the same route or a that are presently infested with one well as exotic earthworm infestationsconnected route also traverses areas or more non-native invasive species. surveyed according to level of infestation. In the estimation of thelikely to be or known to be infested 9. OHVs will rapidly spread non- Minnesota Native Plant Society,with non-native invasive species. native invasive species to many infestations of haplotype common intersecting routes, including some reedgrass and hybrid cattail should 4. OHVs should not be permitted undesignated routes, making it very also be surveyed, since extremeto travel on roads that run through or difficult and perhaps impossible to OHV use can include marshy areas.near to sugar maple and other control, eradicate, or even effectivelynorthern hardwood stands, thereby 13. The above comments are manage and monitor the spread ofintroducing another stressor to areas non-native invasive species in the consistent with direction in thewhich the Environmental Chippewa National Forest’s current forest.Assessment Wildlife Report Forest Plan, including specificallyidentifies as the most susceptible 10. The project at issue has the direction regarding soils, vegetationcommunities to earthworm-caused capacity to do tremendous damage management, wildlife, threateneddamage. to the environment because it and endangered species, non-native involves a highly efficient invasive species, social and 5. The ability to find places for mechanism for spreading non-native economic stability, recreation, trails,watching wildlife or for enjoying or invasive species, and project and recreational motor vehicles.studying rare native plants and high- planning has occurred in the absencequality native plant community of reasonably complete knowledgeassemblages in a remote natural of all non-native invasive species School sends thankssetting, without the interference of locations, or even those representing for donated plantsOHVs, is itself rare and becoming the highest ecological threat levels. At the close of the June plant sale,rarer. all unsold plants were donated to 11. Extensive surveys for all non- 6. Actions that accelerate the rate native invasive species should be Garlough School in West St. Paul. Inor extent of spread of non-native the following letter, Susan Simon conducted on all road, otherinvasive species will damage soils, explains how the plants were used. motorized travel corridors, andwater quality, vegetation, and habitat proposed route alternatives at the “Thank you for donating thefor wildlife, for which there may be earliest possible time, particularly ‘leftover’ native plants from the saleup to 27 percent of the state’s since over 82 percent of all Chippewa to Garlough Environmental Magnetpopulation of mammal Species in and Federal lands are within a half School. We are an elementary schoolGreatest Conservation Need mile of route alternatives. located at 1740 Charlton Ave., across(SGCN), a group of species from Dodge Nature Center.representing a threshold level for 12. The project is likely to cause “Our school is developing ansignificant effects;. 22 federal and significant environmental effects and environmental curriculum that willstate threatened, endangered or requires a full Environmental Impact include outdoor study areas.special concern species; sensitive Statement, in part due to the Although much of the landscape isplant species such as the goblin fern; unknown impacts on Minnesota currently turf grass in different stagesand several other rare moonwort SGCN. The EIS should proceed only of decline, we are working to restorespecies known in the Chippewa. after a comprehensive survey of prairie, woodlands, wetland and put SGCN, and concurrent with or after in raingardens. The plants you 7. Designating OHV routes non-native invasive species surveys donated will add much needed plantthrough areas that are in fact infested have been completed on all road and material. Thanks again, Garloughwith non-native invasive species will other potential travel corridors within School.” 3
  • 4. Getting started on Membershipmushroom identification year will startby David and Esther McLaughlin Jan. 1; life At the March MN NPS meeting, several members expressed interest inlearning about mushroom identification and natural history. We thought we option addedmight provide the Minnesota Plant Press with information on books that The Minnesota Native Plantwould be most useful and accessible for beginners. These books are fairly Society Board of Directors haswidely available, either on-line or by ordering through local booksellers. All voted to change the membershiphave colored photographs and cover many of the mushrooms you are likely year to a calendar year. Theto find in Minnnesota and environs in the spring, summer and fall. But be membership year, which has startedaware that there are many more species here than any of these books cover. Oct. 1, will now start Jan. 1. Barron, G. L. Mushrooms of Northeast North America, 1999. Lone Pine As a result of this change, allPublishing Co. current annual or multi-year memberships will be extended three Huffman, D.M., et al. Mushroomsand Other Fungi of the Volunteers are months. All annual memberships will be due for renewal Jan. 1, 2008.Midcontinental United States, 1989. needed Members are encouraged to payIowa State University Press, Ames. Conservation committee dues for several years in advance, if Lincoff, G. H. The Audubon Society Would you like to receive timely they wish. This option is notField Guide to North American information about conservation available for donors, who receive aMushrooms, 1981. A. A. Knopf, Inc., issues? That is one of the benefits tax deduction for the donationNew York. for members of the MN NPS portion of their payment. Miller, 0. K., Jr. and H. H. Miller. Conservation Committee. If you are Life Memberships for adults areNorth American Mushrooms, 2006. interested, contact Beth Nixon at now available at a cost of $300.Globe Pequot Press, Guilford, CN. bnixon@mnnps.org Membership categories are as Smith, A.H. and N.S. Weber. The Social coordinator follows.Mushroom Hunter’s Field Guide, The Society needs a new social $15 Individual1980. University of Michigan Press, coordinator. This person helps $15 Family (two or more peopleAnn Arbor. members and visitors get acquainted at the same address) So which book should you choose? at the monthly meetings. $8 Student (full time) Responsibilities include arranging forWe especially like Barron’s book, as $8 Senior (over 62 or retired) snacks and providing name tags. Annit is very well illustrated, and the $20 Institution McGee has been the coordinator. Ifphotographic guide at the beginning you are interested, let any board $25 Donoris an effective way to find the right member know. $300 Life (for adults)group. The Millers’ book is very up- David Johnson keeps the data baseto-date and more complete than therest but covers a much broader area. Plant sale earns of members. He also distributes the e-mail copies of this newsletter.All are good, so you should be $842 for Society You may join or renew yoursuccessful with any of them. Total proceeds from the June 7, membership at any monthly If you want help in getting started 2007, plant sale were $842, Treasurer meeting, or mail your check andon mushroom identification or want Ron Huber reported. This is an information to: Minnesota Nativeto go on a mushroom foray, the increase from the $789 total in 2006. Plant Society, P.O. Box 20401,Minnesota Mycological Society John Arthur ’s auction photos Bloomington, MN 55420.meetings and forays can be very brought $82; Peter Dziuk’s photos,helpful. You can find out about them $38; auction plants, $76; and sale Anniversary partyfrom their website: plants, $646. The plant sale is the being plannedwww.minnesotamushrooms.org Society’s major fund-raising project. Watch the website and your mail [Botanizers go on field trips; The board thanks everyone who for announcement of a MN NPSmushroomers go on forays.] donated plants and pictures. 25th anniversary celebration.4
  • 5. Orchids everywhereArticle and photos by Ken Arndt acaule, C. calceolus var. parviflorum, C. calceolus var. pubescens, C. reginae, Listera cordata, Platantera dilatata, P. hyperborea, and P. On June 30, the MN NPS held a obtusata.field trip to the Hill City area ofnorthern Minnesota, led by DNR John mentioned that last year’sForest Ecologist Dr. John orchid display was by far moreAlmendinger. Over 30 field trip intense than this year’s. I think weparticipants decided to make the were all very impressed by what wejourney north to take in this very got to experience that day.special part of the state. We began the morning near the The snow was deepparking area, with a brief talk by Johnabout the rich cedar swamp we were at Pine Bend SNAabout to enter and some of the plants by Ken Arndtthat we would be seeing. Once we Who ordered the foot plus of snowall were together, we started to hike two days before our field trip to Pineinto the cedar swamp by going down Bend Scientific Natural Area? Ona small hill through recent aspen March 3, Jason Husveth, Scottslash a hundred feet or so. At the Cypripedium reginae, Showy Milburn and Ken Arndt led 12 bravebottom of the slope, the terrain pink lady’s-slipper orchid. souls through the snow at Pine Bendleveled out into eastern white cedar, SNA. This new SNA is just eastblack spruce and a carpet of of the native orchid species were of Hwy. 52 in Inver Grove Heights.sphagnum moss. We followed a found. We started the afternoon hike at thenarrow path into the swamp for a few Within a very short time you could top of the bluff, where we werehundred feet more, to where many hear someone call out “over here is treated to a fantastic view of the an orchid!” All around us we were Mississippi River some 200 feet starting to see the many different below. From there we took a trail native orchids and other interesting down to the river, identifying plants plants that call this place home. as we came across them. It’s a good Needless to say, we didn’t move very thing a few of the trip participants far from this point for the whole day. were smart enough to bring Several folks brought their snowshoes. Naturally, we let them photographic equipment to capture blaze the trail for the rest of us. these spectacular plants, while others With the deep snow cover, our were able to wander around and take plant identification was heavy on the it all in at a very reasonable pace. woodies, as you might imagine, with Throughout the day, John would a few herbaceous plants still visible. gather us together and lead The oak-dominated forest mixes with impromptu talks about different white pine in areas and then topics like peat formation and transitions into lowland floodplain accumulation, as well as the local species closer to the river’s edge. geology and ecology of this region Once we got down to river level, we of Minnesota. We had lunch in the were able to explore the seeps where swamp and ended up spending the the skunk cabbage grows. Luckily, rest of the day within a few hundred the seeps flow year round, so the feet of where we started. snow was no match for the water flowing out from the bluff slopes. Twelve different native orchids Most of the seeps had little, if any, were found within this cedar swamp, snow cover, so seeing the skunk with most in bloom. They include: cabbage was not a problem. A few Amerorchis rotundifolia, Arethusa of the skunk cabbage flowers were Platantera dilatata, tall white bulbosa, Calopogon tuberosus, even beginning to open (a sign that bog-orchid. Corallorhiza striata, Cyprepidium spring was near). 5
  • 6. New international Conservation Union, and Josef Brinckmann, Traditional Medicinals.standard for collection of Organizations and experts involved in the ISSC-MAP consultation included: the German Federalwild plants is adopted Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN), the IUCN SSC Medicinal A new standard to promote the harvested from the wild. Almostsustainable management and trade in 70,000 species are involved, many of Plant Specialist Group (MPSG),wild medicinal and aromatic plants them are in danger of over- WWF-Germany, and TRAFFIC, plus(MAP) was launched Feb. 16 at exploitation and even extinction industry associations, companies,Biofach, the World Organic Trade through over-collection and habitat certifiers and community-basedFair, in Nuremberg, Germany. loss. For example, in India, almost NGOs. 300 medicinal plants are considered TRAFFIC works to ensure that The International Standard for trade in wild plants and animals is threatened by IUCN — the WorldSustainable Wild Collection of not a threat to the conservation of Conservation Union.Medicinal and Aromatic Plants nature. TRAFFIC is a joint program(ISSC-MAP) was drawn up Traditional Medicinals, one of the industry’s leading companies, is of WWF, the conservationfollowing extensive consultation organization and IUCN - The Worldwith plant experts and the herbal investigating applying the new standard to the collection of Conservation Union.products industry worldwide. Itpromotes appropriate management bearberry, a shrub whose leaves areof wild plant populations to ensure used for the treatment of a variety of Board members, conditions, mainly of the diuretic andplants used in medicine andcosmetics are not over-exploited. urinary tract. officers change Scott Milburn was re-elected “Our German supplier was able to president of the Minnesota Native The ISSC-MAP is based on six prove the sustainability of their Plant Society at the June 26 boardprinciples: maintaining wild MAP bearberry sources, and we are keen meeting. Shirley Mah Kooyman wasresources, preventing negative to see how the newly developed re-elected vice president; Ron Huberenvironmental impacts, legal ISSC-MAP criteria apply to this was re-elected treasurer. Seancompliance, respecting customary trade,” said Josef Brinckman, vice- Jergens was elected secretary.rights, applying responsible president of Traditional Medicinals. Peter Dziuk, Russ Schaffenberg,management practices, and applying “Sustainable supplies will mean and Linda Huhn joined the board atresponsible business practices. It can long-term benefits for the local this meeting. Peter and Russ werebe downloaded from http:// people who rely on the bearberry elected earlier this year; Linda waswww.floraweb.de/proxy/floraweb/ appointed to complete Sandy trade for supplementary income.”map-pro/ McCartney’s term. “I welcome the launch of this new “Traders and companies, collectors standard, which presents anand consumers must share the important step in ensuring the Extension serviceresponsibility for maintaining sustainable use of natural has forestry websitepopulations of medicinal plants pharmaceutical products,” said The University of Minnesotawhich are valuable natural Professor Drenckhahn, president of Extension Service has created a newresources,” said Susanne Honnef of WWF-Germany. “We’d like to see website, Myminnesotawoods.orgTRAFFIC, the wildlife trade other companies use the standard and The site includes information on themonitoring network. “The ISSC- see how it works in practice for their natural history of savannas,MAP principles and criteria show benefit.” woodlands, and forests in Minnesota,how this can be achieved in Those attending the EXPO West as well as specific information aboutpractice.” trade fair March 9 - 11, 2007, were tree growth and forest health. It More than 400,000 tons of able to hear more about the ISSC- encourages forest stewardship for amedicinal and aromatic plants are MAP standard from Dr. Danna J. variety of purposes, includingtraded worldwide annually, with Leaman, chair of the Medicinal Plant renewable timber harvest, recreation,around 80 percent of the species Specialist Group for the World and restoration.6
  • 7. Peter Dziuk Plant Lorejoins board by Thor Kommedahl What is turtlehead? Peter Dziuk, a new MN NPS Board Turtlehead is Chelone glabra, amember, is one of our most creative native herb in the figwort family.members. One of his photos is on this What do its names mean?page. Following is the biography he Chelone comes from the Greeksubmitted to introduce himself to kelone, a tortoise, referring to themembers. turtle-head shape of the upper partRumor has it that of the flower. In Greek mythology,Peter M. Dziuk started his career Chelone was a nymph who, becauseWhile in the fourth grade, she refused to attend the wedding ofCopping strawberry plants from Zeus and Hera, was turned into aLittle Old Ladies’ gardens. Chelone glabra, photo by Peter turtle. Glabra means smooth. Dziuk What does the plant look like?Since that time, Plants are usually two to three feetHe has been known to grow tall (some report up to six feet) fromAll sorts of things, a creeping, perennial root. The stemSome, possibly illegal, is smooth and somewhat four-angled.But he’ll never fess up. Leaves are opposite without, orThough of dubious academic perhaps with short, petioles. The two- lipped flowers in a spike consist ofIntent and skill (attitude, attitude, four fertile stamens and one sterileattitude), stamen and five united (two upperHe did manage to get degrees in and three lower), white petals. SeedsHorticulture (early), biology and are flat and rounded, winged, andsecondary education (later). encased in a capsule.However, teaching high school Where do turtleheads grow?students Mainly in the eastern half of theWas not in his future. state in swamps, wet meadows,In the late 70s he worked at marshes, or along streams. TheyThe “new” zoo out in Apple Valley, flower from July to September.But then stumbled around the private Chelone glabra in profile, Is this a “butterfly plant”?sector, photo by Scott Milburn. Well, yes, at least for the Baltimore butterfly (Euphydras phaeton),And more schooling, for some time. whose larvae feed exclusively onThen, by 1992, he stumbled back into Field trips turtlehead leaves, e.g. the MinnesotaState Government — River Valley is habitat to both plantOr at least the MDA version. Summer field trips are a popular membership benefit. The Aug. 9 trip and butterfly. Fall butterflies alsoHe coordinated the tree inspector to St. Croix Savanna Scientific and feed on plant nectar.program; Natural Area has been filled. Hannah Has it any medicinal uses?He coordinated the gypsy moth Texlar, Minnesota DNR regional American Indians valued it as aprogram; plant ecologist, will lead this trip. laxative and purgative. They alsoHe coordinated the invasive species Future trips will be announced on the made a tea from flowers to treat website (www.mnnps.org) and on the worms and as a contraceptive. Earlyprogram; physicians prescribed it as anHe coordinated the cooperative blog (www.mnnps.blogspot.com). ointment for fevers, piles, liveragricultural pest survey program. Recent completed field trips problems, etc. It contains a bitterFor now, he is a nursery inspector. include Whitewater Wildlife resin.While he may have a habit Management Area May 12; Prairie Is it used horticulturally?Of saying too much, Coteau June 16 and 17; Hill River It is sometimes planted in gardens,Above and beyond all, State Forest June 30; a western but it requires light shade and prairie fringed orchid survey the consistently moist soil. Plants can beHe is passionate about weekend of July 7; and Pioneer Park propagated from seed and byNative wildflowers! fen in Blaine July 14. dividing roots. 7
  • 8. Minnesota Native Plant SocietyP.O. Box 20401Bloomington, MN 55420Summer 2007