Summer 2005 Minnesota Plant Press


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Summer 2005 Minnesota Plant Press

  1. 1. Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society NewsletterVolume 24 Number 4 Summer 2005 Monthly meetings Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge Combined attacks by deer, Visitor Center, 3815 American Blvd. East Bloomington, MN 55425-1600 earthworms endangering 952-854-5900 6:30 p.m. — Building east door opens hardwood forests in state 6:30 p.m. — Refreshments, by Lee E. Frelich, director, University of Minnesota Center for information, Room A Hardwood Ecology. This is an abstract of his talk at the April 7, 7 – 9 p.m — Program, society business 7:30 p.m. — Building door is locked 2005, meeting. 9:00 p.m. — Building closes European earthworms and deer are having a synergistic impact on woodland plant communities that is cascading through forest Programs ecosystems, causing major changes in soil structure, nutrient The MNPS meets the first Thursday in availability, loss of native plant species, facilitation of invasiveOctober, November, December, February, species, and failure of tree regeneration. European earthworms eatMarch, April, May, and June. Check the the duff in hardwood forests when they invade, exposing the rootWeb site for more program information. systems and causing death of a large proportion of woodland plants. Oct 6: “Managing Woodlands During The deer-to-plant ratio is then much higher, allowing deer to finishand After Buckthorn,” by Janet Larson, off many of the remaining plants and tree seedlings.forester. Place of the Month: Meyers’ Recovery of the plant community is difficult because the seedbedPrairie, Nicollet County, by Linda Huhn. conditions are changed from duff to mineral soil, the mycorrhizal Nov. 3: “Plant Communities of the community is changed, the dusky slug (also a European invader)Mississippi River Gorge,” by Karen Schik, causes high mortality of newly germinating seedlings, growth ofecologist with Friends of the Mississippi plants is relatively slow due to lesser availability of nutrients, andRiver and MNPS board member. Seed those plant seedlings that get past these difficulties can then be eatenExchange. by deer. Previous research in the Big Woods by Augustine and FrelichCollect, package native showed that densities of plants must be on the order of 4,000 perseeds to exchange Nov. 3 acre or more to saturate the deer, and such densities are hard to Place native seeds for the exchange in achieve. A few species of plants,envelopes. Write the name of the plant andthe seed source on each envelope. The including Pennsylvania sedge and In this issueexchange will follow the meeting. jack-in-the-pulpit, are adapted to Leadership changes ............ 2 the post-invasion conditions. The President’s column.............. 3New MNPS Web site sedge in particular can become Fall field trip very dense and out-compete other Go Native! book review........4e-mail: native plant species. Mower County prairies.........4MNPS Listserve The combination of high deer New board members.............5 Send a message that includes the word populations and invasion by New lifetime member.......... 6“subscribe” or “unsubscribe” and your European earthworms and slugs Sneezeweed (Plant Lore).....7name in the body of the message to: Rediscovered flower............. Continued on page 5
  2. 2. Officers re-elected; some MNPS Board of Directorscommittees changed President: Jason Husveth, Critical Connections Ecological Officers were re-elected and chairs and Gerry Drewry, who resigned as Services Inc., 14758 Ostlund Trailand members of several committees co-chair. N., Marine on St. Croix, MN; 651-were changed at the June 16 MNPS The Think Native Program will be 247-0474; jhusveth@ccesinc.comBoard of Directors meeting. led by Karen Schik, Shirley Mah Vice-President: Scott Milburn, Jason Husveth will serve one more Kooyman, and Linda Huhn. 744 James Ave., St. Paul, MN 55102;year as president, and Scott Milburn Other positions include: Program 651-261-4381;will again be vice president. Karen Chair, Linda Huhn; Seed Exchange, smilburn@ccesinc.comSchik will continue as secretary and Dave Crawford; Nominations, Scott Secretary: Karen Schik, 13860will be assisted by Mary Grace Milburn, chair, Karen Schik, Shirley 236th St. N., Scandia, MN 55073;Brown. Ron Huber, who recently Mah Kooyman; New Member 651-433-5254 (h), 651-222-2193relieved David Johnson of the Contacts and Newsletter Mailers, (w); kschik@fmr.orgtreasurer’s duties, will continue in Chuck and Ellen Peck; Web site Treasurer: Ron Huber, 2521that position. David is continuing to managers, Scott Milburn and Jason Jones Place W., Bloomington, MNmanage the membership data base. Husveth; Listserve manager, Charles 55431-2837; 952-886-0783; Daniel Jones succeeds Karen Schik Umbanhowar; Newsletter Editor, huber033@umn.eduas chair of the Symposium Gerry Drewry. Ken Arndt, 2577 Co. Rd. F, WhiteCommittee. Shirley Mah Kooyman, Bear Twp., MN 55110; 651-426- A volunteer is needed to send the 8174; karndt@pioneereng.comScott Milburn, and Karen are also on monthly meeting-notice postcards.this committee. Mary G. Brown, 9300 Old Cedar Ave., #119, Bloomington, MN Ken Arndt is the new chair of the 55425-2426; 651-310-8085 (w),Field Trip Committee. He will be Wild Ones plan annual conference Sept. 9 - 11 952-885-0913 (h);assisted by Jason Husveth, Scott MGBROWN@stpaultravelers.comMilburn and Doug Mensing, the The Twin Cities chapter of Wildformer chair. Ones, will hold its annual conference Daniel Jones, 208 Linden St. S., at Bunker Hills Park Sept. 9 - ll. Joan Northfield, MN 55057-1723; Ken Arndt and Dave Crawford will Nassauer, University of Michigan, 507-664-9663;co-chair the plant sale. Other will be the keynote speaker. For dwjonesecoserv@earthlink.netcommittee members are Daniel Jones information, go to Shirley Mah Kooyman, 4520 Terraceview Lane N., Plymouth, MN 55446; 952-443-1419 (w), 763-559-Minnesota Native Plant Society’s purpose 3114 (h); (Abbreviated from the bylaws) This organization is exclusively organized and operated for educational Sandy McCartney, 8824 35th and scientific purposes, including the following: St.,#5, St. Louis Park, MN 55102; 952-932-0954 (h); 1. Conservation of all native plants. 2. Continuing education of all members in the plant sciences. Program Chair: Linda Huhn, 3. Education of the public regarding environmental protection of plant 2553 Dupont Ave. S., Minneapolis, life. MN 55405; 612-374-1435 4. Encouragement of research and publications on plants native to Listserv Coordinator: Charles Minnesota. Umbanhowar, 5. Study of legislation on Minnesota flora, vegetation and ecosystems. Minnesota Plant Press editor: 6. Preservation of special plants, plant communities and scientific and Gerry Drewry, 24090 Northfield natural areas. Blvd., Hampton, MN 55031; phone, 7. Cooperation in programs concerned with the ecology of natural 651-463-8006; fax, 651-463-3135; resources and scenic features. 8. Fellowship with all persons interested in native plants through Technical or membership meetings, lectures, workshops and field trips. inquiries: contact@mnnps.org2
  3. 3. From the president Savanna, bog field With the warm, sunny summer of The officer elections resulted in trip is Sept. 182005 upon us, I am pleased to report several officers continuing on for Hannah Texler, Minnesota DNRthat the Minnesota Native Plant another year’s term. Scott Milburn regional plant ecologist, will lead aSociety continues to flourish. Our was re-elected as vice-president, and fall field trip to the Helen Allisonsteady growth can be attributed to the Karen Schik will continue on as Savanna SNA and Cedar Creek Boghard work and dedication of the secretary, with assistance from Mary at Bethel in Anoka County from 2 toboard of directors and the active Brown. Ron Huber has graciously 5 p.m. Sunday, Sept. 18. To register,participation of many of our accepted the position of treasurer. contact Doug Mensing at And I am honored to have the or 612-202-members. The society continues to privilege to serve as president for one 2252.grow with new members, and wecontinue to offer informative more year. Linda Huhn continues to Helen Allison Savanna SNA is anprograms, field trips, and services to plan our monthly meetings, and Ken 86-acre prairie and oak savanna. It Arndt has taken the lead role as field was named for Helen Allison Irvine,our membership. This is no accident. trip coordinator. “Minnesota’s grass lady,” who wroteOver the past several months, theboard and many members have been Most of all, I want to wish all of a text on the 180 grasses ofvery committed to improving the our members a most enjoyable Minnesota. This SNA lies within thesociety, developing new ideas, and summer of botanizing and enjoying Anoka sand plain, providing anplanning future programs, field trips, Minnesota’s great outdoors. We excellent example of sand dune plantand symposia. welcome your ideas and succession, with blowouts and dunes participation. in various stages of stabilization by At the June board meeting, we said pioneer species.farewell to two members of the board Please be sure to visitwho have gone above and beyond the and please feel free Community types found on the sitecall of duty over the past three years to contact the officers, board include oak sand savanna, dry prairie– Doug Mensing and David Johnson. members, or other key members with with bur oak and pin oak, thickets ofAmong his many contributions to the your ideas for future society services willow and aspen, and sedge marshessociety, Doug has taken the lead in and programs. I hope to see you at in scattered depressions. Trees andplanning and organizing our many the summer field trips, and at our shrubs include pin oak, bur oak,field trips each year, as well as next membership meeting in American hazelnut, chokecherry,helping to organize the 2004 and October. willow, and quaking aspen. Other2005 annual symposia. David has Best regards, Jason Husveth, savanna species include lead plant,served as our treasurer for many president smooth sumac, slender willow,years, and has handed the books over steeple bush, aster, and goldenrod. Native bottlebrush Look on the dunes for pioneer sandto Ron Huber for safekeeping. Wethank both Doug and David for their grass likes dry shade plants such as sea-beach needle grassenergy, enthusiasm, and adept by Erin Hynes, president of the and hairy panic grass. Sedgeservice to the society! Ornamental Grass Society of meadows contain tussocks of Minnesota .This is an abstract of her Hayden’s sedge, along with marsh Sandy McCartney and Mary fern and blue-joint grass. Other rare presentation at the May 5 meeting.Brown were both elected to the board Native bottlebrush grass (Elymus plant species occurring include long-this spring and started their terms at hystrix; Hystrix patula) is one of the bearded hawkweed, rhombic-petaledthe June meeting. Daniel Jones was evening primrose, and tall nut-rush. few ornamental grasses adapted torecently appointed to the board to dry shade. It tolerates wet or dry soil,complete Dianne Plunkett Latham’s A side trip will take participants on full shade to partial sun. Although it a short boardwalk through the nearbyterm, and he has already begun is reputed to be short lived, it re- Cedar Creek Bog, which is locatedtaking the lead on planning the 2006 seeds, although not invasively. Thesymposium. We look forward to at the University of Minnesota Cedar most notable feature is the bristly Creek Research Center. This is oneworking with Sandy, Mary, and flower, after which the grass is of the most interesting bogs in theDaniel, and the new ideas, named. Bottlebrush grass growsconsiderable experience, and fresh Anoka sand plain. Common plant about two feet tall and flowers from species include leatherleaf,perspectives they bring to the board June through August. The flowers cottongrass, three-way sedge, andand the society. persist into autumn. bog cranberry. 3
  4. 4. Survey identifiesGo Native! by Carolyn Harstad prairie remnants inis resource for native gardens Mower County by Paul J. Bockenstedt, a restorationBook Review by Dianne Plunkett which the reader can readily see that ecologist with Bonestroo andLatham Carolyn has an eye for beautiful Associates, Inc., and former resource Carolyn Harstad moved to combinations. It’s no accident that manager for Metro State Parks. ThisLakeville, Minn., from Indiana in the she is a flower show judge for the is a summary of his talk at the Feb.fall of 2003 and shortly thereafter Federated Garden Clubs of 3, 2005, MNPS meeting.joined the MNPS. She is a past Minnesota. The Lyle-Austin Wildlifepresident and a founding member of Although the book was published Management Area encompassesthe Indiana Native Plant and as part of a series on Gardening in approximately 114 acres along 9.5Wildflower Society, as well as a the Lower Midwest, nearly all the miles of former Chicago Greatfounding member of the Indiana native plants included in Go Native! Western railroad right-of-way on theHosta Society. are fully hardy in Minnesota. The few Iowan Surface landform between the that are not are at least marginally cities of Lyle and Austin in southeast In addition to authoring Go Minnesota.Native!, an exhaustive resource on hardy here. The extensive research, plus entertaining prose and plant lore, This area includes a rich history innative plants, she is also the author prairie, landform, and railroads. Theof Got Shade?, which the Dec. 8, make this book a must read for native plant enthusiasts of all levels! Both intersection of these factors with the2004, issue of the Minneapolis Star apparent influence of the culture ofTribune listed as one of eight paperback books retail for $24.95 and are published by Indiana the Chicago Great Western Railroadrecommended Christmas gift books had a major effect on conservingfor gardeners. Got Shade? was also University Press, 601 N. Morton St., Bloomington, IN 47404. Go Native! these important tallgrass prairiefeatured as one of the top 10 remnants.gardening books in Best of the Year and Got Shade? are available at major bookstores, or can be ordered To better understand the locationin the February 2005 Fine Gardening and quality of prairie remnants andmagazine. on-line from or Barnes & Noble. They are also available at rare plant populations, a review of Go Native! is an outstanding the Minnesota Landscape historical railroad information wasresource for the native plant Arboretum. conducted, and a botanical surveyenthusiast. Not only does it tell you was completed between 1999 andwhy and how to design a native for prairie, wetland, Grasses studied The inventory identified 23 areaswoodland or wildlife, it also makes during workshop of good to very good quality remnantrecommendations for vertical and prairie. A total of 324 species of The May 5, 2005, meeting featured plants were noted, 47 of which arehorizontal accents, in addition to an interactive grass identification non-natives. Over 150 populationsrecommendations for biohedges and workshop, which was led by Anita F.ferns. Go Native! has a chapter on for 10 rare plant species were Cholewa, Ph.D., curator of encountered, including those that areexotics, where buckthorn gets the temperate plants, J.F. Bell Museumboot, with plenty of information on state-listed, or not listed but tracked of Natural History, University ofwhy and how to remove it. Given that by the Minnesota Department of Minnesota, St. Paul.Carolyn is a Master Gardener, a Natural Resources Natural Heritagepopular garden lecturer, a certified The grass workshop started with a Program. A new state record for brief introduction to the grass family, sweet coneflower, RudbeckiaLandscape Design Critic, and a consisting of the distinguishing subtomentosa, was also recorded.regular contributor to several features and major groupings asgardening newsletters, the book currently understood. This wascontains much practical advice on grasses, looking for those with followed by a hands-on portion, in features that matched informationeach species’ planting requirements which museum specimens ofand propagation. sheets Cholewa distributed. The common Minnesota grasses were Museum’s herbarium website The book contains 125 lovely line available for viewing, along with ( by Jeanette Ming. There samples of grass flowers. vascularplantpage2.htm) contains aare also 100 of Carolyn’s own MNPS members and visitors detailed and technical identificationgorgeous color photographs, from examined the many samples of guide to Minnesota’s grasses.4
  5. 5. Mary Brown, Sandy McCartney, andDaniel Jones join MNPS board The MNPS Board of Directors has “I grew up in Wayzata, actually Jones started his career in 1984 inthree new members. Daniel Jones Orono, and what is now Wood Rill the Chicago area and returned to thewas appointed in March to serve the Scientific and Natural Area was Midwest two years ago, after 11final year of Dianne Plunkett about 12 feet from my bedroom years in the Pacific Northwest. HeLatham’s term. Mary Brown and window,” he wrote. “I spent many was active with the WashingtonSandy McCartney were elected by hours in the woods, and that is Native Plant Society, serving associety members for three-year terms probably where I learned to love thethat began in June. They succeed outdoors. I spent over five years editor of Douglasia, the WNPSDoug Mensing and David Johnson. driving over the road, have worked quarterly journal. He also wasJason Husveth, president, was re- construction, been a telephone WNPS liaison to Earth Share ofelected to the board. operator, and worked for United Washington. Parcel Service from 1993 to 2003. “I am impressed by the talent,Mary Grace Brown Mary Brown is a resident of “I was first invited to attend the knowledge, and passion for nativeBloomington. She has volunteered to Minnesota Native Plant Society plant stewardship that I see at thehelp monitor and maintain Grey meetings by Janet Larson, but was MNPS meetings, and I am eager toCloud Dunes and Nine Mile Creek unable to attend until I left UPS. tap into that passion to help theprairie and to be more involved in Besides my new board position with Society grow,” he wrote. Jonesrestoration. the society, I am the secretary/ hopes to continue promoting MNPS treasurer for the College of Natural advocacy for conservation of “I am excited to become more Resources Alumni Society and alsoinvolved in the MNPS by serving on the national board representative sensitive native plant species andthe board,” she wrote. “I am an from the college to the University of stewardship of native naturalornamental gardener, using some Minnesota Alumni Association.” communities.native plants, but am more interestedin restoration and seeing plants in the Daniel Jones Endangered forestswild than in my garden. Therefore, Daniel Jones is a botanist andI am grateful to the leaders who now certified ecologist with a career spent Continued from page 1offer more local field trips. I have in natural resource inventory and appears to be spreading into thebeen active in my Audubon chapter management. He currently works as countryside from metropolitan areas.(which also meets at the refuge), an environmental scientist for Barr When a Big Woods remnant isenjoying many birding field trips, Engineering in Edina. His wife, surrounded by farms, deer areorganizing two fundraising native Karil Kucera, is a professor of Eastplant garden tours that generated Asian Studies and Art History at St. maintained at relatively low$2,000 profit, and leading spring Olaf College, Northfield. densities. When a few houses arewildflower field trips. I am looking built, however, hunting pressure goesforward to working with you all.” Daniel has worked in the Midwest down and deer multiply. If they were and the Pacific Northwest, in both the not already present, EuropeanWilliam H. “Sandy” McCartney, public and private sectors. His work has included wetland delineation and earthworms, slugs, and invasiveJr. plant species such as European Sandy McCartney, a resident of St. mitigation design, forest inventories,Louis Park, received a B.A. in rare plant surveys and vegetation buckthorn and garlic mustard alsoeconomics and a M.S. in forestry management plans. He has worked arrive with the first wave of houses.from the University of Minnesota. in a wide variety of vegetation types Native Big Woods plantHe has been the tree inspector for St. from prairie to forest, and from communities are winking out one byLouis Park for the past three seasons wetlands to subalpine meadows. He one across the landscape, and a large-and went back to work for the city is also a trained mycologist and has scale research and conservationthe end of April. He and his wife, conducted fungal surveys, as well asTracy, have a 10-year-old daughter, surveys for sensitive moss and lichen program will be necessary to saveSusan. species. these native communities. 5
  6. 6. scenes. Gerry has served as the editorGerry Drewry receives MNPS of the Minnesota Plant Press since 1998 (that’s 28 issues), and has donelifetime honorary membership a fantastic job as editor, improving the quality of the newsletter, andby Jason Husveth, president, MNPS Since her introduction to the ultimately working with the board to Gerry Drewry was awarded the society in 1985, Gerry has attended facilitate the electronic publication ofMinnesota Native Plant Society’s every annual symposium and has the Plant Press in the past few years.Lifetime Honorary Membership contributed her talents andAward April 7 at the 2005 annual enthusiasm as an active member. Gerry has also served as a primarysymposium. Gerry has been a Each year, Gerry is a regular attendee organizer and facilitator of themember of the Minnesota Native of our monthly membership MNPS annual native plant sale,Plant Society since 1985 (the society meetings, and has attended many along with David Crawford. She haswas founded in 1982). field trips over the past two decades. served in this role for approximately Gerry also served on the board of 10 years. Each year, Gerry informs She learned about the society from directors for two terms, before she our members, board, and othersattending the 1985 symposium as a became the editor of the society’s about the coming plant sale, plansprivate landowner, interested in newsletter, the Minnesota Plant the details of the event, and overseeslearning about the native plants and Press, and she still attends most the sale at the June meeting. Gerrynative habitats of Minnesota, quarterly board meetings. has given so much of her time andwanting to apply this information tothe restoration and management of talents to the society, and we are Most impressive are Gerry’sher land in Hampton (near considerable volunteer services to the honored to have her as our fourthNorthfield), and to help educate society, which she adeptly provides recipient of the society’s lifetimeothers about Minnesota’s native graciously and quietly behind the honorary membership award!flora. Read Plant Protection Review on-line A Minnesota Department of Agriculture publication, Plant Protection Review, is an excellent resource that will keep you abreast of insect pests, noxious weeds, and plant diseases, what the department is doing about them, and what you can do. The newsletter merged two previous newsletter publications, the Overstory and Nursery News, into a single publication. The intent is to provide the green industry, the public, and other interested parties with timely articles and information relating to nursery inspection, export certification, shade tree programs, and invasive species, as well as seed and noxious weeds. The next issue is to be published in July. The newsletter can be viewed by going to To subscribe to the e-mailed version, just send an e-mail addressed to MajorDomo@State.MN.US. In the body of the message, type: SubscribeGerry Drewry holds plaque presented by Jason Husveth MDA-Plant-Protection-Review6
  7. 7. Plant Lore Mt. Diablo buckwheat rediscoveredby Thor Kommedahl A petite pink flower that hasn’t which is part of the Center for PlantWhat is sneezeweed? been seen in 70 years has been Conservation network, will provide rediscovered on the flanks of Mount a reserve of seeds in case the species Sneezeweed is Helenium Diablo in Contra Costa County by a declines further.autumnale (and some other species) University of California, Berkeley, “At some point, if we have thein the sunflower family. graduate student. mature seeds and can get them startedHow did it get its names? The Mount Diablo buckwheat, in cultivation so there is a backup, Legend has it that Helenium is Eriogonum truncatum, “has been a then we can relax a little more,”named for Helen of Troy, who cried Holy Grail in the East Bay for several Ertter seeing the lives lost by those who decades,” according to UC Berkeley Park, 35, began surveying the floracame to rescue her, and where her botanist Barbara Ertter, who of Mount Diablo three years ago astears fell, these plants sprang up. confirmed the identification in the part of Ertter’s ongoing surveillance“Sneezeweed” comes from the plant field on May 20. Last reported in of the area’s plants. Now finishingused as a snuff. Menominee Indians 1936, the flower was presumed his first year as a graduate student inground mature flower heads into a extinct, she said, because its habitat the Department of Integrativepowder to sniff for treatment of head has been overrun by introduced Biology, Park found the buckwheat grasses. It is one of only three plants, while completing his survey duringcolds. The powdered leaves induce all of them rare, that are endemic to a prime time of the year, when plantssneezing. Mount Diablo. are flowering profusely after one ofWhat does the plant look like? Michael Park had the missing the latest and rainiest winters in This fibrous-rooted, native buckwheat on his mind May 10, decades. He divulged his secret toperennial has yellow ray flowers in when he hiked to a remote corner of Ertter and alerted the park service.which each petal has 3 shallow lobes. Mount Diablo State Park. Following Two days later, he hiked with twoThe center of the head is spherical a different routine from his normal fellow graduate students to takeand ocher-yellow. The elliptical survey, he stumbled across the plants photos, which convinced Ertter heleaves are punctuated with glands. It — about 20 in all — in full bloom, had indeed found the elusivegrows from two to five feet tall and looking like pink baby’s breath. Less buckwheat. First reported in 1862, than eight inches tall, the annuals are there are only seven historicalis often found in clumps. inconspicuous and were growing in records of the plant, the last in 1936.Where does it grow? a balding area between full chaparral Park suspects that the It is widespread in Minnesota, and non-native grassland. unseasonably late rains may haveexcept in the arrowhead region, and The discovery site, a full day’s hike produced the flowering, since manygrows in open, moist areas, often from public trailheads in the park, is native plants produce seeds thatalong streams. being kept secret for now so that remain dormant in the soil for admirers won’t flock to the area and decades until the right moistureIs it poisonous or medicinal? inadvertently destroy the conditions make them germinate. Both. Sneezeweed (several rediscovered plant. Brent Mishler, UC BerkeleyHelenium spp.) is a major economic professor of integrative biology and Ertter, the curator of western Northproblem for sheep raisers; in one director of the Jepson and University American flora at UC Berkeley’syear, for example, 8,000 sheep died Jepson Herbarium, noted that one Herbaria, noted that this is typical ofin Colorado from sneezeweed priority should be to gather seeds and plants in Mediterranean-typepoisoning. Liver and kidneys are start cultivating the buckwheat at the climates like California. “It reallydamaged. UC Botanical Garden. Cultivated demonstrates the importance of specimens conserved by the garden, continuing floristic and systematic The plant produces a lactone, studies across the decades andhelenalin, which has anti-tumor centuries, the key role of herbaria,activity and is being tested by the Has it any horticultural uses? and the need to maintain strongNational Cancer Institute. This It has been grown in backs of educational programs in these areas,”lactone also is a powerful insect borders or in wild gardens. Varieties he said.repellent. Tea made from have been developed that thrive in (The complete article, with photos,sneezeweed is used to treat intestinal fairly rich soil in sunny locations. It can be seen at Sneezeweed may cause can be propagated by seeds, cuttings, news/media/releases/2005/05/contact dermatitis. and division. 24_buckwheat.shtml) 7
  8. 8. Minnesota Native Plant SocietyUniversity of Minnesota250 Biological Sciences Center1445 Gortner Ave.St. Paul, MN 55108 Summer 2005