Spring 2006 Minnesota Plant Press
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  • 1. Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society NewsletterVolume 25 Number 3 Spring 2006 Monthly meetings Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge Finding the Visitor Center, 3815 American Blvd. East Bloomington, MN 55425-1600 952-854-5900 invisible orchid 6:00 p.m. — Building east door opens by Erika Rowe, Plant Ecologist/Botanist, Minnesota County 6:00 p.m. — Refreshments, Biological Survey, Division of Ecological Services,Minnesota information, Room A Department of Natural Resources 7 – 9 p.m — Program, society business There are a handful of native plant species in Minnesota that have 9:00 p.m. — Building closes mythic qualities: elusive, rare, revered, endangered, or so specific in Programs their habitat requirements they are not likely to be seen. Bog adder’s- The MN NPS meets the first Thursday mouth (Malaxis paludosa) encompasses all of these qualities andin October, November, December, therefore has earned the reputation of being one of the rarest orchidsFebruary, March, April, May, and June. in North America. Bog adder’s-mouth is one of the most challengingCheck the website for more program orchid species to find, partly because of its rarity, but also because itinformation. is easily overlooked. The orchid’s small stature and greenish colorMay 4: “Sioux Nation Calcareous Fen,” make it difficult to distinguish from the mossy hummocks where itby Jeanette Leete, hydrogeology technical typically grows. Prior to 2005, only six known records existed fromanalysis supervisor, DNR. Plant of the four counties in Minnesota, the only state within the contiguous UnitedMonth: Carex sterilis (a sedge) by Scott States to have any documented locations. The first finding was inMilburn, Society vice president. Otter Tail County in 1904; however, that population has not beenJune 1 “Invasive Cattail Control,” by relocated. Other populations were subsequently found in Hubbard,Cindy Kottschade, University of Minnesota Clearwater, and Beltrami counties. It has also been found in scatteredgraduate student. Native Plant Sale locations in Canada and Alaska. It is less rare in northern Europe.immediately following the program. In 2005, Malaxis paludosa was on my rare plant list as a species to look out for while surveying Becker County for the DNR’s MinnesotaSymposium is April 22 County Biological Survey. The idea of finding it, however, seemed At press time, there were still a few so remote I was reluctant to search for it. So when my colleague, Timopenings at this year’s MN NPS Whitfeld, who was surveying nearby Clearwater County, told mesymposium — The Land That Glaciers that he was going to spend a few days looking for Malaxis paludosa,Forgot: The Ecology of the Driftless Area. my initial reaction was one of amazement for attempting such anIt will be from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. Saturday, ambitious goal. In fact, several other experienced botanists utteredApril 22, at the St. Olaf College Science words such as “wild goose chase”Center, Room280, in Northfield. Details and a sarcastic “good luck!”are on the website, www.mnnps.org However, this wasn’t going to In this issue dissuade him from organizing a New MN NPS T-shirt............2 MN NPS website trip with another DNR botanist, Field trips..............................3 www.mnnps.org Welby Smith, to a documented Dr. Valentine O’Malley.........3 e-mail: contact@mnnps.org location of Malaxis paludosa Bolete mushrooms and trees.5 MN NPS Listserve during peak flowering in early FQA for state wetlands.........6 Send a message that includes the word August. Often, seeing a flowering 6 p.m. social hour/................6 “subscribe” or “unsubscribe” and your specimen in its habitat is the best Plant sale tips........................6 name in the body of the message to: way to begin searching for rare Wild ginger (Plant Lore)......7 mn-natpl-request@stolaf.edu Continued on page 4
  • 2. Society’s first T-shirt features MN NPS Boarddesign by Vera Ming Wong of Directorsby Jason Husveth President: Jason Husveth,14758 Ostlund Tr. N, Marine on St. Croix, The Minnesota Native Plant MN 55047; 651-247-0474;Society is pleased to announce the president@mnnps.orgupcoming arrival of its own limited Vice-President: Scott Milburn,edition T-shirt. vp@mnnps.org Since October 2005, the Society Secretary: Karen Schik,has been collaborating with Vera secretary@mnnps.orgMing Wong, renowned local Treasurer: Ron Huber, treasurer@mnnps.orgbotanical artist (and plant societyhonorary member), to design the Ken Arndt, board member, karndt@mnnps.orgSociety’s first T-shirt. Vera produced Daniel Jones, board member,a stunning woodcut print design, djones@mnnps.orgwhich will be printed with forest Shirley Mah Kooyman, boardgreen ink on natural organic shirts. member, skooyman@mnnps.org The design showcases Minnesota’s Invasive species events Sandy McCartney, boardstate flower — the Showy Lady’s If you are sponsoring an invasive member, smccartney@mnnps.org species event this year, send the Program Coordinator: LindaSlipper Orchid (Cypripedium information to Dianne Plunkettreginae), along with the Society’s Huhn, 612-374-1435 Latham at PlunkettDi@mn.rr.comname and website address. Listserv Coordinator: Charles and she will coordinate posting on Umbanhowar, ceumb@stolaf.edu The shirts are now in print and will the MN NPS website with our Field Trips: webmaster. If you would like tobe available for sale at the April 22 fieldtrips@mnnps.org volunteer in one of the many noxioussymposium and at our monthly weed control programs throughout Memberships:meetings and field trips. Sizes Small the state, go to www.mnnps.org/ memberships@mnnps.org; 651-to XXXL will be available. Be sure invasive/index.htm for a listing of 739-4323to purchase these uniquely beautiful events, and select one that has a Historian/Archives:shirts before they sell out! convenient time and location for you. president@mnnps.org Technical or membership inquiries: contact@mnnps.orgMinnesota Native Plant Society’s purpose Minnesota Plant Press editor: (Abbreviated from the bylaws) Gerry Drewry, phone, 651-463- This organization is exclusively organized and operated for educational 8006; plantpress@mnnps.org and scientific purposes, including the following: Mary Brown resigns 1. Conservation of all native plants. from board; three 2. Continuing education of all members in the plant sciences. 3. Education of the public regarding environmental protection of plant members re-elected life. Mary Brown has resigned from the 4. Encouragement of research and publications on plants native to Minnesota Native Plant Society Minnesota. Board of Directors. She cited time 5. Study of legislation on Minnesota flora, vegetation and ecosystems. constraints, but said she will continue 6. Preservation of special plants, plant communities and scientific and to remain active in the Society. natural areas. The three board members whose 7. Cooperation in programs concerned with the ecology of natural terms expire in June have been re- resources and scenic features. elected. They are Scott Milburn, 8. Fellowship with all persons interested in native plants through Shirley Mah Kooyman, and Daniel meetings, lectures, workshops and field trips. Jones.2
  • 3. Memorial honors Sign up now for fieldDr. ValentineO’Malley trips in May, June, July by Ken Arndtby Linda Huhn Spring wildflowers will soon be blooming, so now is the time to sign up Long-time Minnesota Native Plant for the next MN NPS field trips. Sign-up sheets will be at the monthlySociety member Dr. Valentine (Val) meetings, along with detailed information about each field trip. Or, youO’Malley, who passed away June 2, can sign up anytime by going to our website and following the link to2005, at the age of 86, made many “Field Trips.” New information is being posted regularly on upcomingcontributions to the Society as well trips for the spring and summer.as to his community and country. In memory of his friend, Arden Wolsfeld Woods SNAAnestad has made a significant Sunday, May 7, from 1 to 3 p.m., join Shirley Mah Kooyman, MN NPSmonetary gift to the Society. “We board member and adult education manager at the Minnesota Landscapewill miss him at meetings,” he Arboretum, for an afternoon of woodland wildflower identification atremarked to me. And that’s an Wolsfeld Woods Scientific Natural Area in Long Lake. This fine exampleunderstatement. of “Big Woods” is home to many spring ephemerals like bloodroot, hepatica, rue anemone and bellwort. In addition to his membershipdating back to 1992, Val served on Pioneer Parkthe Society’s Board of Directors from Saturday, June 10, from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m., the Society will be leading a1994-97 and was chair of the working field trip at Pioneer Park in Blaine. Come work with BotanistConservation Committee for several Jason Husveth, our president, in the continued effort to restore the fen.years. More recently, I remember Participants will assist with invasive plant removal and seed collection.him as a most enthusiastic front-row After lunch, there will be an interpretive walk led by Jason, which willsitter — along with his good friend give everyone the chance to see the progress of the fen restoration. Manyand former board member Arden — rare plants will be encountered on this field trip, so sign up now and helpat our monthly programs. “Linda, make a difference on the ground! Group leaders will be on-site throughoutthis was really a good program, thank the day. Come work for as many hours as you can spare, and enjoy a dayyou so much,” and “This is really helping to restore the habitat of several threatened and endangered plantgreat!” were phrases he often used. species of the Anoka Sand Plain.Even though his hearing was Patterned peatlands of northern Minnesota (Date changed.)impaired and his health obviously Set aside the weekend of July 21 to 23 for a field trip to the northernfailing last spring, his enthusiasm for reaches of Minnesota near Ely, within the Superior National Forest. Jasonlearning and for our Society never Husveth will lead this two-day field trip. On Saturday the 22nd, thewaned. participants will be led on an all-day hike across a saturated cushion of peat moss, through patterned peatlands, rich and poor fens, black spruce According to Arden, “He was very and tamarack swamps, to see and experience the northern plant communitiesinterested in the natural world,” and of this region. Many different native plants will be encountered along thewas also a member of AudubonSociety, Como Zoo, Friends of the way, including orchids, carnivorousSt. Paul Public Library, the Hospital from 1967-69, and was plants, sedges, rushes, and grasses.Geological Society of Minnesota, Minnesota Deputy Commissioner of The second day will entail a lessand the Horticultural Society. “We Health from 1983-87. At the time rigorous but equally spectacular hikealways did a lot of birding together, of his death, he was a medical at another local setting (or serve as aand he helped me in banding birds consultant for the Minnesota back-up in case of inclement weatherand on field trips with my classes,” Department of Health. During the on Saturday). Camping and lodgingArden added. Korean Conflict, he was a captain are plentiful in this area, but in the Army and in 1983 retired from remember to make reservations in In his professional life, according the National Guard as a brigadier advance, since the summer can beto Arden and the June 3, 2005, St. general. Val’s wife Lorraine busy. Check our website in thePaul Pioneer Press obituary, Val preceded him in death. In his coming weeks for detailedpracticed internal medicine and immediate family, he is survived by information regarding this field trip.cardiology in St. Paul for 30 years, three children and four A $10/person or $20/family fee iswas chief of staff at St. Joseph’s grandchildren. required to register for this event. 3
  • 4. Finding the orchid 29 very small, greenish yellowContinued from page 1 flowers that have a faint blue-greenplants. Pictures and herbarium striped lip. These flowers twistspecimens can only go so far in themselves 360 degrees so that theconveying how tiny and difficult this lip is uppermost of the perianth parts.orchid is to see. Most orchids twist 180 degrees in order to have the lip lowermost in the I decided to take part in the foray flower. Another interestingto relocate the existing population of adaptation of this orchid is its abilityorchids, although I remained to develop tiny vegetative propagulesskeptical that we would find them. called foliar embryos at the marginsMany people have tried returning to of its leaves that are capable ofknown populations of Malaxis growing into new adult plants oncepaludosa and have been unsuccessful the leaves drop. How often orin relocating them, perhaps because effective this process is in producingthe orchids were not in bloom at the a new plant is not known. The onlytime, but more likely because the insect observed carrying pollen fromplants have an uncanny ability to this plant is a species of fungus gnat,disappear into the vegetation even Phronia digitata.when one is standing in a patch ofthem. When I returned to the office, I Photo by Erika Rowe, Copyright 2005, State notified Welby about the new Our destination was a rich black of Minnesota, Department of Natural populations that Mike and I hadspruce swamp in Clearwater County. Resources, Reprinted with Permission. found. In near disbelief, he somewhatWe set out in a line and walked what are the chances!” I came to my jokingly said, “Wow, finding Malaxisslowly, scouring the ground with our senses and proceeded to count paludosa will be the top find of youreyes. Close to an hour went by and another 10 plants within roughly two career!” Well, I guess it’s all downstill no orchids. Something then acres. When I got back to the field hill from here.caught my eye, despite thinking that house that evening, my colleagueit was probably just another fruiting Mike Lee (also working in Becker Sonja Larsen naturestem of naked mitrewort (Mitellanuda), which is common in that County), who was also inspired by prints are on exhibit Tim’s enthusiasm for findinghabitat. As I got closer, I immediately by Sue Filbin, member of the Malaxis paludosa, told me of his ownknew that it was Malaxis paludosa, Minnesota Native Plant Society and discovery of yet another population.despite having never seen it in the the Nature Printing Society By the end of summer, five newfield. I was then determined to find locations were found in Becker Nature printer Sonja Larsen isa new population in Becker County. County, bringing the total up to 11 presenting an exhibit of spring The next day, I set out hiking for a locations in Minnesota. ephemerals and buds native tosmall black spruce swamp mixed All known occurrences of Malaxis Minnesota at the Eloise Butlerwith tamarack in Becker County that paludosa are in conifer swamps Wildflower Garden during April. Theseemed to have all the right dominated by black spruce with show is in the Martha Crone Visitors’characteristics for potential habitat. occasional white cedar or tamarack. Shelter. The garden opens at 10 a.m.The confidence that I had felt the day The plants are usually growing in Monday through Saturday and atbefore had worn off by the time I had semi-shaded sites perched on noon on Sunday and closes one hourarrived at my destination and I had hummocks of Sphagnum, feather before sunset. Admission is free.begun to feel that this long, arduous mosses, or rarely Mnium moss, Sonja Larsen lives near Nisswa.hike would be for naught. Shortly appearing as if not rooted at all. The For many years, she led workshopsinto my search I spotted green basal parts consist of a pseudobulb, at the annual meeting of the Natureadder’s-mouth(Malaxis unifolia), which is a swelling of the stem, Printing Society, and, for the 15thwhich is often known to coexist with covered by the bases of two to five year, will guide her own workshopMalaxis paludosa. I stooped down to alternate leaves. Stems arise from the in June at Driftwood Resort. Sheconfirm this, and to my disbelieving pseudobulb and are typically three to makes her prints directly from theeyes there were also four Malaxis six inches long (including plants, to enable viewers to identifypaludosa in full bloom! I was in such inflorescence). Flowering begins and appreciate the beauty inherent inshock that I just stood there frozen, around mid-July and lasts through the plant life we often take forsaying to myself “this can’t be — the end of August, producing 10 to granted.4
  • 5. most of its life. An aggregate ofA match made in humus? The hyphae is known as a mycelium, which is the “body” of the fungus thatassociation between bolete resides in the soil and humus layers and, in ectomycorrhizal fungi,mushrooms and trees interacts with the roots of plants.by Bryn T. M. Dentinger, University One type, in which the fungus Only when two suitable mycelialof Minnesota graduate student. This envelops the developing lateral roots mates join with each other (fungalis an abstract of his talk at the March but does not penetrate the plant’s sex!) can a mushroom be produced,2, 2006, meeting. cells, is called ectomycorrhizae. It is thus completing the life cycle of a Fungi are one of the most diverse this type of association that is found mushroom-producing fungus.lineages of eukaryotic organisms on in many of the trees that dominate In Minnesota, 20 of 50 knownthe planet. With over 1.5 million the temperate forests of the world, genera of boletes have been recorded.estimated species, only a fraction are most prominently in the Pinaceae, In contrast, we only haveyet known to science. These Fagaceae, Betulaceae and documentation for 9.4 percent of allorganisms, whose ecological roles Salicaceae. In Minnesota, eight described species of boletes. Thisare mimicked by distantly related species of conifers and 24 species of low species diversity is partly oncousins, the water molds and slime angiosperms are known to form account of the limited biogeographicmolds, are instrumental in all living obligate ectomycorrhizal distribution of many boletes, but alsoenvironments as decayers, associations with fungi, including all largely a factor of very poorpathogens, and mutualistic oaks (Quercus spp.), pines (Pinus sampling. Clearly, more mushroom spp.), spruce (Picea spp.) and Balsam hunters are needed to bettersymbionts. fir (Abies balsamea). The state tree document Minnesota boletes. Some One way in which the true fungi of Minnesota (Pinus resinosa) would of the common Minnesota members(not including water molds and slime not exist without these beneficial include the often slimy-cappedmolds) are essential is through an fungi on its roots. Suillus; the pink-spored, bitter-intimate association with plants’ tasting Tylopilus; the kooky “Old The fungi involved in theseroots, known as mycorrhizae. In Man of the Woods” (Strobilomyces mutualistic associations are far morethese mutually beneficial floccopus); the blue-staining diverse than the plants. It has beenassociations (mutualisms), the plant Gyroporus cyanescens; and the false estimated that more than 5,000provides the fungus with sugars it truffle genus Scleroderma. species of fungi formingcreates through photosynthesis in Minnesota also has the strange ectomycorrhizal associations havereturn for water, minerals, and Midwestern endemic Paragyrodon been described! One prominentprotection from pathogens. The sphaerosporus and one species that group of ectomycorrhizal fungi areinterdependence on this mutualism has been collected only once in the called the “boletes,” based on theis so strong that both the fungus and history of the world, Suillus morphology of the reproductiveplant are unable to persist in natural weaverae, named in 1965 in honor structures (mushrooms) that theyenvironments without each other. of the avid mushroom hunter Peg produce. This association is also very old A bolete is a typical-looking fleshy, Weaver.— about 460 million years. It is now stalked mushroom, but with densely One other notable group of boleteswidely believed that a mycorrhizal packed vertical tubes underneath the found in Minnesota are the gourmetassociation facilitated the initial cap, rather than the gill-like edible porcini (genus Boletus sectioncolonization of land by the earliest structures of the stereotypical Boletus). There are at least threeaquatic non-vascular plants. Since mushroom. These tubes give the species known as porcini that arethis arrival on land, the mycorrhizal underside of the cap an appearance found throughout the state: theassociation has dominated the life of similar to a sponge. It is inside of Boletus nobilissimus complex isplants, and at present, more than 90 these cylindrical tubes where the found in oak forests in central andpercent of all plants are involved in numerous spores are produced, southern Minnesota; Boletus edulisa mutual symbiosis with fungi. which, at maturity, are forcibly var. clavipes is found with conifers, There are several types of discharged into the air for dispersal aspen, and birch in the boreal habitatsmycorrhizal associations that are by wind. When a spore lands in a of central and northern Minnesota;characterized by the morphology and suitable environment, it will Boletus subcaerulescens, a rareanatomy of the contact between the germinate to produce filaments of species, has been documented fromfungus and plant roots, as well as the cells known as hyphae. These hyphae a single red pine (Pinus resinosa)plant and fungus species involved. are the form in which the fungus lives plantation. 5
  • 6. Floristic Quality Assessment for Pot your plantsstate wetlands being developed now for June 1by Scott Milburn plant sale The Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) was first introduced in the by Ken ArndtChicago Region in an attempt to provide a standardized method for assessing The annual MN NPS native plantthe quality of natural areas. This methodology is additionally advantageous sale will be June 1, following thein that it can be used to assess restored areas, ecological quality between meeting. Plants will be arrangedsites, and changes to floristic quality over time. outside of the main building, similar The FQA is based on native species conservatism or coefficient of to previous years. Members areconservatism (C-value). This C-value is a numerical gauge of species asked to bring native plants that theytolerance towards disturbance and have propagated themselves fromhabitat fidelity. The FQA provides Meet members at 6 seed or division to the front of thetwo values, a mean coefficient of building at 6 p.m. We need all plantsconservatism and a floristic quality p.m. social hour to be potted individually and labeledindex. The mean coefficient of by Anne McGee,Social Committee with common and scientific names.conservatism is determined by chair Pricing will be done by the plant salecalculating the average C-value for On MN NPS meeting nights, skip volunteers.an area of interest. The floristic your take-out food or home stop, and Now is the time to get out andquality index incorporates the mean come right to the Wildlife Refuge at divide your extra native plants ascoefficient of conservatism in 6 p.m. for a healthy snack and they start to emerge from the soil.addition to species richness. friendly conversation. Our social The longer the plants can be potted committee is working to create an up before the sale, the better the To determine the floristic quality environment which is welcoming toindex, all native species inhabiting new members and encourages condition they will be in for the sale.the subject area or vegetative getting acquainted, professional We ask that only native plants becommunity are documented. Once sharing, and exchange of native donated, not cultivars or otherthe list is compiled, the C-values gardening ideas. We also like whole horticultural selections. In additionderived from the species list would foods and a non-package/garbage to members’ donations of plantbe averaged and multiplied by the emphasis. Bringing your own mug material, we will also be adding tosquare root of the number of native for your beverage will be this year’s sale native plants fromspecies documented. The greater the appreciated. local nurseries that specialize inmean C-value and Index value are, When you arrive for the social native plant material.the higher the floristic integrity is. hour, we will greet you and give you No out-of-state plants can be The floristic quality assessment has a name tag. Help yourself to a filling accepted unless they have beenalready been implemented in Illinois, snack. Beverage will be provided, or certified by the Department ofIndiana, Iowa, Michigan, Missouri, select one from the pop machine in Agriculture of the state in which theyNorth Dakota/South Dakota, Ohio, the entry. Beginning in May, we will were grown. Minnesota hasand Wisconsin. The Minnesota have hot coffee or tea for those who reciprocity with all other statePollution Control Agency’s bring their own mugs. Then join a departments of agriculture, so theyBiological Monitoring Program table hosted by an experienced will let in plants from other states if( w w w. p c a . s t a t e . m n . u s / w a t e r / member, or mix and mingle until you they were certified there. head into the program at 7 p.m. A few volunteers are needed to helpbiomonitoring/index.html) isfunding the project through a U.S. If you would like to join the social with setting up the sales area andEPA wetland program development committee, call Anne McGee at 651- assisting members with their plants. 994-1956. Once the sale begins, volunteers willgrant to develop a consistent andreliable method to monitor the Garden with native plants be allowed to select plants first,quality of the state’s wetlands. The A class, “Using Native Plants in the followed by members who broughtC-values are currently being Garden,” will be taught at the plants, and finally all other membersassigned by a panel of expert Minnesota Arboretum from 10 a.m. and visitors.Minnesota botanists and should be to 12:30 p.m. Saturday, April 29. The Dave Crawford and Ken Arndt arecompleted this year. In addition to instructor will be Douglas Owens- co-chairs of the plant sale. Tothe development of C-values, Pike. For more information, e-mail volunteer, contact Ken Arndt atupdated species distribution maps education@arboretum.umn.edu or karndt@pioneereng.com. or 651-will also be generated. call 952-443-1422. 251-0626.6
  • 7. Plant Lore Back to Bootby Thor KommedahlWhat is wild ginger? Lake SNA for Wild ginger is Asarum canadense,a native plant of Minnesota in the Winter Botanybirthwort family (Aristolochiaceae). by Ken ArndtHow did it get its names? On Saturday, March 11, a group of Asarum is an ancient Greek word 15 MN NPS members enjoyed aof unknown derivation used by morning of winter plantDioscorides. Birthwort refers to its identification at Boot Lake Scientificflowers, which resemble a swollen and Natural Area, located in northernwomb, and wort means the plant was Anoka County. Field triponce used in medicine. Aristolochia, participants were led by Vicein the family name, means birth- President Scott Milburn (botanist)improver. Ginger refers to its taste and Board Member Ken Arndtresemblance to commercial ginger (urban forester) through several(no relation). different plant communities on theWhat does the plant look like? way to Boot Lake, including a The heart-shaped leaves of this tamarack swamp, mature hardwoodlow-growing perennial grow in pairs forest, and stands of large white pine.from the underground stem With temperatures in the 40s and(rhizome), and both leaf blades and very little snow cover, a sense ofpetioles are hairy. In the fork made spring was in the air. The winter wasby the paired leaf stalks, a solitary, gentle to the plants here, with severalreddish-brown flower is borne. Often types of ferns still green from lasthidden by leaves, the flower is year. Small herbaceous plants likedetectable by its foul odor that goldthread (Coptis groenlandica)attracts flies, to foster pollination, and bunchberry (Cornus canadensis)fungus-gnats, and other ground were clearly visible throughout theinsects. tamarack hummocks. Asarum canadense drawing andWhere does wild ginger grow? From the tamaracks, the group was It grows in rich, moist woods, photo by Jason Husveth led into a stand of mature white pineusually in colonies, throughout the — one of the finest stands left instate but is native in similar climates Thank you, volunteers by Ellen L. Fuge, Management Anoka County. As we made our wayof North America, Europe, and Asia. through the woods, we were able to Supervisor, Scientific and NaturalWhat are its medicinal uses, if any? identify many different trees and Areas Program American Indians used root tea for shrubs by their buds, form, and other I want to thank the Minnnesotacolds and for uterine problems. key winter characteristics. Native Plant Society (who’veIndian women used it to regulate We came across several areas that adopted Grey Cloud Dunes SNA)menstrual cycles and for birth are part of a reforestation project and all who showed up on Feb. 10control, influenced by the womb- where deer exclosures have been to cut and burn brush. Thirteenshaped flowers. Pioneers consumed placed to encourage the regeneration volunteers made the four-hour eventit to ease gas formation and as a tonic. very successful. These hard workers of white pine. With the noted highIt contains the anti-tumor compound consolidated many small, unburnable deer population at Boot Lake, a long-aristolochic acid. piles into six burn piles. This cleared term study like the one underway willDoes it have any economic uses? the area of brush that would have provide valuable information about Dried roots have been candied or interfered with the prescribed burn the deer’s effect on the plants. Afterpulverized for use as a kitchen spice. planned for this spring. Additionally, seeing water-willow (DecodonIt is a constituent of some snuffs. they cut and burned more verticillatus) along the banks of BootWild ginger is planted in shaded wild honeysuckle, the dominant exotic Lake, the group headed back throughgardens and to make a ground cover invasive shrub in the savanna that is the forests and wetlands with anin shade. It can be propagated by being restored. appreciation of the many differentdivision and by seeds. Thank you! plant communities in this great SNA. 7
  • 8. Minnesota Native Plant SocietyP.O. Box 20401Bloomington, MN 55420 Spring 2006