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  • 1. Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society NewsletterVolume 24 Number 3 Spring 2005 Monthly meetings Minnesota Valley National Wildlife Refuge Explore natural areas Visitor Center, 3815 American Blvd. East Bloomington, MN 55425-1600 952-854-5900 during five field trips MNPS members will lead five field trips to natural areas this spring 6:30 p.m. — Building east door opens and summer. They are to the Falls Creek Scientific and Natural Area, 6:30 p.m. — Refreshments, Beaver Creek Wildlife Management Area, Hayden Prairie (Iowa) State information, Room A 7 – 9 p.m — Program, society business Preserve, Grey Cloud Dunes SNA, Boot Lake SNA, Helen Allison 7:30 p.m. — Building door is locked Savanna SNA and Cedar Creek Bog. 9:00 p.m. — Building closes Participation may be limited, so early registration is encouraged. Programs Site directions and other information will be provided to registrants. Details and updates for upcoming field trips are available on the The MNPS meets the first Thursday in Society’s Web site, www.mnnps.orgOctober, November, December, February,March, April, May, and June. Check the Sunday, May 15 — Falls Creek SNA Spring WildflowersWeb site for more program information. 10 a.m. to 12 p.m. Arrive by 9:45 a.m. Northern Washington County, Minnesota May 5: Native Grass Identification Led by Barb Delaney, professional botanistWorkshop, by Anita Cholewa, Ph.D, Contact: Doug Mensing, fieldtrips@mnnps.org or 612-202-2252curator of temperate plants, J.F. BellMuseum of Natural History. Plant-of-the This trip was planned as a follow-up to a wonderful winter foray.Month: Bottle Grass (Elymus hystrix), Please join us in exploring a truly unique plant community — virginpresented by Erin Hynes, President of the white pine forest on the ravines of the St. Croix River. We will seeOrnamental Grass Society of Minnesota abundant spring wildflowers, such as trilliums, rue anemone, bellwort,and author of Cold Climate Ornamental and some rare species, such as kittentails.Grasses. Saturday, May 21 — Spring Flora at Beaver Creek WMA and June 2: “Forests, Logging and Plants: Hayden Prairie State PreserveHow forest management and natural 10:30 a.m. to 4 p.m. (12:30 p.m. lunch at Hayden Prairie)history interact to affect northern forest Fillmore County, southeast Minnesota and Howard County, Iowa.understory plant communities,” by Daniel Led by Mark Leoschke, IowaR. Dejoode, senior natural resources DNR state botanist, and Paulspecialist for Peterson Environmental Bockenstedt, Bonestroo natural resources plant ecologist In this issueConsulting, Inc. Annual Plant Sale, open Contact: Paul Bockenstedt, MNPS plant sale...................2to the public. 651-604-4812, or Evelyn Moyle honored......... 2New MNPS Web site pbockenstedt@bonestroo.com Board changes...................... 3www.mnnps.org Bioblitz................................. 3e-mail: contact@mnnps.org Join members of the Minnesota Native Plant Society, Iowa Reed canary grass studies.....5MNPS Listserve Native Plant Society and Iowa Review of Steiner book........ 6 Send a message that includes the word Prairie Network for a day afield Volunteer opportunities........ 6“subscribe” or “unsubscribe” and your on the Iowan Surface as we Toothwort (Plant Lore)........ 7name in the body of the message to:mn-natpl-request@stolaf.edu Continued on page 4 Think Native Grants............ 7
  • 2. Plant sale to be Evelyn Moyle MNPS Board ofafter June 2 meeting named honorary Directors The annual MNPS native plant sale member of MNPS President: Jason Husveth,will be June 2, following the meeting. Critical Connections Ecological by Esther McLaughlin Services Inc., 14758 Ostlund TrailPlants will again be arranged on the Last year Evelyn W. Moyle was N., Marine on St. Croix, MN; 651-low walls in front of the Visitor given a well-deserved honorary 247-0474; jhusveth@ccesinc.comCenter. Members are asked to start membership in the Minnesota Nativebringing native plants they have Plant Society as one of the state’s Vice-President: Scott Milburn,raised from seed or grown in their longest standing experts on and 744 James Ave., St. Paul, MN 55102;gardens at 6 p.m. Plants must be protectors of our native plants. 651-261-4381;individually potted and labeled. smilburn@ccesinc.com She and her late husband, John B. Secretary: Karen Schik, 13860 No out-of-state plants can be Moyle, co-authored the well-knownaccepted unless they have been 236th St. N., Scandia, MN 55073; guide, Northland Wild Flowers: A 651-433-5254 (h), 651-222-2193certified by the Department of Guide for the Minnesota Region. It (w); kschik@fmr.orgAgriculture of the state in which they was first published in 1977 and haswere grown. Minnesota has been reprinted, most recently in Treasurer: David Johnson, 6437reciprocity with all other state 1984. Baker Ave. N.E., Fridley, MN 55432;departments of agriculture, so they 763-571-6278; John was a biologist and research treasurer@mnnps.orgwill let in plants from other states if supervisor at the Minnesota Ken Arndt, 2577 Co. Rd. F, Whitethey were certified there. Department of Natural Resources. Bear Twp., MN 55110; 651-426- A few volunteers are needed to help Evelyn, a wildflower enthusiast, 8174; karndt@pioneereng.comaccept and arrange the plants. When photographer and gardener, tookthe sale begins, these volunteers may most of the photographs in the first Ron Huber, 2521 Jones Place W.,select their plants first; members edition of the book. Bloomington, MN 55431-2837; 952-who brought plants may choose next. 886-0783; huber033@umn.edu The Moyles were charter members Daniel Jones, 208 Linden St. S.,Other members and visitors will of our Society and were present at Northfield, MN 55057-1723;follow. its founding. Evelyn has long been 507-664-9663; Dave Crawford and Gerry Drewry devoted to the principles on which dwjonesecoserv@earthlink.netare chairs of the sale. To volunteer, the MNPS was founded and iscontact Gerry Drewry at 651-463- greatly deserving of honorary Shirley Mah Kooyman, 45208006, or gdrewry@infionline.net membership. Terraceview Lane N., Plymouth, MN 55446; 952-443-1419 (w), 763-559- 3114 (h);Minnesota Native Plant Society’s purpose shirley@arboretum.umn.edu (Abbreviated from the bylaws) Douglas Mensing, 5814 Grand This organization is exclusively organized and operated for educational Ave. S., Minneapolis, MN 55419; and scientific purposes, including the following: 612-926-8637 (H); dougm@appliedeco.com 1. Conservation of all native plants. 2. Continuing education of all members in the plant sciences. Program Chair: Linda Huhn, 3. Education of the public regarding environmental protection of plant 2553 Dupont Ave. S., Minneapolis, life. MN 55405; 612-374-1435 4. Encouragement of research and publications on plants native to Listserv Coordinator: Charles Minnesota. Umbanhowar, ceumb@stolaf.edu 5. Study of legislation on Minnesota flora, vegetation and ecosystems. Minnesota Plant Press editor: 6. Preservation of special plants, plant communities and scientific and Gerry Drewry, 24090 Northfield natural areas. Blvd., Hampton, MN 55031; phone, 7. Cooperation in programs concerned with the ecology of natural 651-463-8006; fax, 651-463-7086; resources and scenic features. gdrewry@infionline.net 8. Fellowship with all persons interested in native plants through Technical or membership meetings, lectures, workshops and field trips. inquiries: contact@mnnps.org2
  • 3. Changing enthusiasm, readiness, and competence serving on the board. Volunteers areFaces on Dianne Plunkett Latham served needed June 10, nearly two years on the board,MNPS board stepping down recently to pursue her 11 for BioBlitzby Karen Schik many other interests, including Minnesota’s second annual While many of our members may travel. But Dianne made up for her BioBlitz will be from 5 p.m. to 5 p.m.not be aware of the “inner workings” shortened term by her engagement in Friday and Saturday, June 10 and 11, the board and her manyof the Society, a lot goes on behind at the Minnesota Valley National contributions, which includedthe scenes. There are nine board Wildlife Refuge. MNPS members coordination of the Think Nativemembers, who spend a considerable Program, chairing the Conservation are invited to assist. The BioBlitz isamount of time on the organization Committee, staffing the booth and a festival, a contest, an educationaland functions of the Society, plus giving presentations at numerous event for the public, and a scientificquite a few members who also events. Perhaps her more core endeavor. While scientists fromvolunteer tremendous amounts of contributions to the society, however, around the state are conducting antime and talent. I want to recognize were the ways that she helped to steer intense biological survey, walks andour departing board members and say some of the board policies and demonstrations will be held at thea huge “Thank You” to each of them operations. She repeatedly broughtfor their many contributions. MVNWR Visitor Center. her expertise as an attorney and her David Johnson served on the board experience serving on other boards The scientific goal of a BioBlitz is to help guide our board. Her to count as many species of plantsas treasurer and membership knowledge, thoughtfulness, and and animals as possible during a 24-database manager this past year, but enthusiasm will be greatly missed. hour biological survey of a naturalhis contributions far exceed one year.He has been providing his services On the flip side of these good-byes, area. More than 750 species wereas treasurer and data manager for the board is very pleased to welcome recorded during the first Minnesotaalmost seven years. We hardly three new members: Daniel Jones, BioBlitz, which was held in 2004 atnoticed what he did because he ecologist at Barr Engineering (who has already stepped in to fill Dianne’s Tamarack Nature Center in Ramseyquietly went about doing it so well County. term), Mary Brown, a long-timethat it just seemed to happen on its member and native plant enthusiast, Volunteers are needed to assist inown. In fact, he updated both the and Sandy McCartney, St. Louis Parkfinancial and membership databases surveys and to help lead walks for tree inspector (who will both startto more useful programs, and has their terms in June 2005). Each the general public. Survey subjectsmonitored all that information all brings talents and experiences thatinclude reptiles, amphibians, birds,these years. David produced the mammals, fish, butterflies, moths, will help the Society to keep growingmembership directories and all the strong. beetles, ants, flies, bugs, spiders,monthly mailing labels, including the mites, centipedes, worms, snails,little “membership expired” grasses, sedges, trees, flowers, andreminders. David will be sorely Treasurer’s Report mushrooms. To volunteer or formissed more information, contact John by David Johnson Doug Mensing served on the board In 2004 we had $13,548.35 of Moriarty at 651-748-2500, or Dr.for the last three years. Doug was income and $9,074.54 of expenses. Susan Weller at 612-625-6253.the one you could count on to help We increased our assets byout with everything, whether to speak $4,473.81, mostly because of the Additional information on theat a conference or to help clean up 2004 symposium. BioBlitz is available atafter it. A busy dad of two young Our assets, as of Dec. 31, 2004, www.bellmuseum.orgchildren and a professional ecologist, were: CD, $1,063.40; Checking, For information on the SaturdayDoug somehow made the time to $11,279.51; Cash, $52.00. morning, June 11, “Rally for thecontribute countless hours for MNPS maintains dedicated fundscountless events, organizing field in the checking account for the Refuge” run, which is sponsored bytrips, and working on the following projects: Refuge Avian the Friends of the Minnesota Valley,symposium. There wasn’t much that Feeder Project, $776.68; Think see www.friendsofmnvalley.org/Doug didn’t do. We will miss his Native, $641.07. rally.htm 3
  • 4. Enthusiastic Field trips Continued from page 1group enjoys explore the prairie, wet meadow, and low oak savannas of Beaver Creek WMA in Fillmore County, and then drive six miles to Iowa to spend anwinter field trip afternoon on the internationally renowned Hayden Prairie. See Beaver Creekby Ken Arndt WMA and Hayden Prairie in full spring regalia. On Saturday, March 12, MNPS Tuesday, June 7 — Grey Cloud Dunes SNA Prairie HikeBoard Members Ken Arndt and Scott 6 to 8 p.m., Cottage Grove, southern Washington County, MinnesotaMilburn led over 25 enthusiastic Led by Karen Schik, Friends of the Mississippi River restorationwinter botanists to Falls Creek ecologist and MNPS board memberScientific and Natural Area to learn Contact: Doug Mensing, dougm@appliedeco.com or 612-202-2252winter woody plant identification. Join members of the Minnesota Native Plant Society for a hike throughWhat started as a slightly chilly one of the metro area’s natural gems — the dry prairies of Grey Cloudmorning turned into a beautiful Dunes SNA. Participants will explore this beautiful remnant native prairiewinter day in northern Washington and learn about restoration efforts underway. This SNA was “adopted” byCounty. the MNPS in 2004, and the Society has intermittent events at the site. The group started out in the Saturday, July 9 — Bogs and Fens Field Tripnorthern part of the SNA, where we 9 a.m. to 2 p.m, East Bethel, Anoka County, Minnesotalearned about the forest restoration Boot Lake SNA and other nearby bogs and fensthat is taking place. From there we Led by Jason Husveth, MNPS president, botanist Contact: Jason Husveth at president@mnnps.org or 651-433-4410.hiked down the first of two forestedravines, identifying trees and shrubs Boot Lake SNA contains a continuum of plant community types includingalong the way. At a lower terrace oak forest, aspen-shrub thickets, and prominent old white pine stands; thealong this first hike, we came across wetland contains wooded bog, wet meadows, floating mats, emergent aquatican area where we observed several plants, duckweed, and algal communities. Rare plant species (water willow,large white pines that were over 26 sea-beach needle grass, and long-bearded hawkweed) are present, alonginches in trunk diameter. Having with occasional sandhill cranes and Blanding’s turtles. Red-shouldered hawks, pine warblers, Louisiana waterthrush and other bird species nest onobtained a special permit from the the site. Woodland wildflowers make a late spring visit memorable. A long-director of the SNA program, we term research project is studying the effects of deer in forest succession.were allowed to take incrementborings of a few of these trees to Sunday, Sept. 18 — Helen Allison Savanna SNA, Cedar Creek Bogdetermine their ages. 2 to 5 p.m., Bethel, Anoka County, Minnesota Led by Hannah Texler, Minnesota DNR regional plant ecologist The second part of the morning, we Contact: Doug Mensing, fieldtrips@mnnps.org or 612-202-2252.hiked, slipped and slid down the Helen Allison Savanna SNA is a prairie and oak savanna. It was namedsteep ravine in the southern part of for Helen Allison Irvine, “Minnesota’s grass lady,” who wrote a text on thethe SNA. A high diversity of plants 180 grasses of Minnesota. This SNA lies within the Anoka sand plain,occurs where one of the creeks flows providing an excellent example of sand dune plant succession, with blowoutspast. Trees such as butternut, and dunes in various stages of stabilization by pioneer species. Communitybitternut hickory, yellow and paper types found on the site include oak sand savanna, dry prairie with bur oakbirch, blue beech, sugar and red and pin oak, thickets of willow and aspen, and sedge marshes in scatteredmaple, pagoda dogwood, red and bur depressions. Trees and shrubs include pin oak, bur oak, American hazelnut,oak, black cherry, and red and white chokecherry, willow, and quaking aspen. Other savanna species includepine were encountered along the way lead plant, smooth sumac, slender willow, steeplebush, aster, and goldenrod.to the east property line. It was here Look on the dunes for pioneer sand plants such as sea-beach, needle grasswhere we came across several and hairy panic grass. Sedge meadows contain tussocks of Hayden’s sedge,populations of downy rattlesnake along with marsh fern and blue-joint grass. Other rare species include long-plantain orchid (Goodyera bearded hawkweed, rhombic-petaled evening primrose, and tall nut-rush.pubescens). By the time we made it A side trip will take participants on a short boardwalk through the nearbyback up the ravine to the parking Cedar Creek Bog, which is located at the University of Minnesota Cedararea, many of us had shed the Creek Research Center. This is one of the most interesting bogs in themultiple layers of clothing we started Anoka sand plain. Common plant species include leatherleaf, cottongrass,out the day with. three-way sedge, and bog cranberry.4
  • 5. Reed canary grass treatments studiedby Craig A. Annen, ecologist, grass often recolonizes treated areas Can we enhance herbicideMichler & Brown, LLC. This is a from its seed bank and rhizomes effectiveness?summary of his Dec. 17, 2004, when treatments are discontinued. I am currently investigatingpresentation to the Army Corps of As a consequence, maintaining whether short-circuiting apicalEngineers. suppression of growth and seed dominance will enhance the Can reed canary grass be production requires multiple-year effectiveness of herbicide treatments.selectively controlled? herbicide applications. Tillage and plant growth regulator Reed canary grass abatement and (PGR) applications are known to Why are multiple-year herbicide reduce the effects of apicalsubsequent native species restoration applications necessary to controlare challenging tasks, for many dominance and promote lateral reed canary grass? growth in perennial grass rhizomes.reasons. One reason is a lack of My next objective was to look attreatments that selectively target reed Tillage overcomes apical dominance reasons why reed canary grass is able by decapitating rhizomes andcanary grass with minimal collateral to quickly recolonize treated areas. breaking them into isolateddamage to non-target species. This One reason may have to do with fragments. PGRs mimic plantis usually not a problem during theearly stages of restoration when reed rhizome apical dominance. Apical hormones, and “trick” the plant’scanary grass is dominant, but can dominance is the promotion of apical molecular signal system intobecome a problem as the restoration growth with corresponding inhibition promoting lateral growth. Onceprogresses and native species begin of lateral growth, and is caused by dormant lateral buds become active,to return from the seed bank or active interactions among limiting factors they are able to receiveplanting. and plant hormones. Apical carbohydrates (and herbicides) from dominance results in both actively the rhizome assimilate stream. I have been exploring selective growing and dormant rhizome budscontrol options for use in transitional in perennial grass stands. I want to find out if either tillageareas where reed canary grass is or PGR pretreatments followed bypresent, but not the dominant species. When herbicides are applied to herbicide application will suppressI began by conducting a feasibility reed canary grass top growth, they reed canary grass to a greater extentstudy to determine if Vantage ™ move throughout the plant along with than herbicide application alone. In(sethoxydim), a grass-specific carbohydrates. Studies with the first field season, PGRherbicide, would reduce seed radioactively labeled herbicides pretreatments failed to improve reedproduction and above-ground show that both glyphosate and canary grass suppression, whilebiomass of reed canary grass without sethoxydim translocate to and coupling tillage (June 2) toharming native species. sethoxydim application (June 23) accumulate within the apical portions reduced reed canary grass stem Early summer (May 29) of rhizomes because the apex has density 35 percent greater thansethoxydim application reduced seed greater sink strength for carbohydrate herbicide application alone, andhead production 98 percent and total when apical dominance is in place. improved native species richness andseasonal above-ground biomass As a result, lateral rhizome buds are abundance.production 56 percent. A late not affected by herbicide Craig A. Annen is a practicingsummer follow-up application (Aug. applications, and reed canarygrass is restorationist and researcher.2) failed to improve biomass able to resprout (resurge) from these Contact him at 608-424-6997 orsuppression, possibly because the lateral buds. annen00@aol.com, or write to 228litter that resulted from the initial Rhizome apical dominance is well South Park Street, Belleville, WIapplication intercepted spray during documented in the scientific 53508.the subsequent application. literature, and rhizome bud Thicket! - A Voice for Sethoxydim application had no dormancy has been reported in reed Integrated Weed Managementeffect on native species abundance, canary grass stands. The end result This newsletter is produced twiceindicating that it may possess a useful of resurgence is that multiple-year a year by the Integrated Weedlevel of species selectivity. herbicide applications are necessary Management Group, which includesHerbicidal effects on reed canary to sustain the suppressive effects of the MDA. For current and pastgrass did not carry over into the chemical treatments and deplete the issues, see: www.mda.state.mn.us/second growing season. Reed canary dormant bud bank. ipm/thicket/default.htm 5
  • 6. Book tells how to landscape Get involved by Karen Schikwith Minnesota native plants Have you noticed new activities atby Karen Schik Overall, I found her plant lists for the Society? Things are happening Lynn Steiner has filled a void with different conditions to be fairly — more field trips, a new Web site,a comprehensive and beautifully accurate, though some designations new opportunities as land stewardswritten book, Landscaping With seemed incomplete. Little bluestem, at Grey Cloud, more Society-Native Plants of Minnesota. While for instance, is listed as a savanna associated events, like the BioBlitzmany books exist on native plant species, and not listed for mesic and the State Fair. Are youlandscaping, most are general and prairie and dry prairie, when clearly wondering how you can be a part ofapply to very large regions of the it is a significant species of dry all this fun? Scan the list below andUnited States. A person interested prairies. The lists provide a good let us know what you are interestedin landscaping with Minnesota native basis, but a gardener should consult in. Contact Karen Schikplants has had to hunt for information other reputable lists as well. Given (kschik@fmr.org or 651-433-5254)from multiple resources. for more information or to sign up. the strong ecological nature of the Steiner ’s book has a strong book, a reference to the presettlement Occasional activities — Sign up; weecological basis, providing vegetation map created by will contact you as the need arises.background information about Marschner would also have been • MNPS Booth. Bring the displayMinnesota biomes, and emphasizing helpful. board to one or more events.the importance of referring to natural • State Fair. MNPS may again Steiner has produced a beautifulareas for gardening inspiration and participate at another organization’s book that clearly demonstrates herinsight. Steiner defines native plants fair booth. Visit with fairgoers. knowledge and passion forbased on The Vascular Plants of • Presentations. Organizations Minnesota native plants. I was,Minnesota, the accepted reference by occasionally request presentations on however, disappointed by theOwnbey and Morley. She describes plant-related topics. Let us know if author’s ready acceptance of non-the types of habitats where they grow, you have a presentation you can give. native cultivars. While I have notheir ecological benefits and issue, per se, with the use of cultivars, Regular Needs — May be onlymisconceptions about them. She also the title of the book implies once.warns the reader about plant dedication to natives. Novices who • Field trips. Lead a field trip to yourconservation issues, such as illegally don’t understand the difference may favorite place, solicit others to leadharvested plants and endangered have little incentive to choose natives trips, or help organize trips.species. She strongly encourages over cultivars. Given the facts that • Submit an article to the Plant Press.understanding and acceptance of the less than one percent of native prairie Long-term tasks — Firmuniqueness of native plants, and (for example) is left in the state, and commitment needed.discourages the use of insecticides that cultivars generally provide less • Database manager. Receive andand other non-ecological practices. nectar and other wildlife benefits, I enter new or renewing members, The layout of the book is easy to would have expected cultivars would generate mailing labels, etc. Thefollow. The first half leads the reader be mentioned only as an aside. computer (laptop) and program arefrom an overview of native plant Furthermore, she did not explain provided, as well as training.communities, to evaluating a garden the importance of local genotype, nor • Annual symposium. Help plan andsite, to selecting plants and designing the fact that nursery location does not organize the 2006 symposium.and installing a garden. Sidebars connote seed source location. This Planning will start this summer.provide tips, including lists of deer- book far exceeds most I have seen in • Coordinate the Think Nativeresistant plants, and plants for regards to plant community ecology, program, a winter activity. Solicitbutterflies, hummingbirds, and but in my opinion, it fell short of participants, go through a selectionspecific conditions. An abundance of educating readers about these issues process, and follow up on results.high quality color photographs and the uniqueness of Minnesota’s • MNPS historian. Compile thebeautifully illustrate the text. The natural heritage. The book is not the history of the society to post on thesecond half of the book is devoted to “one reference” that I had hoped it Web site before the Society’s 25thcomprehensive descriptions and would be, but it is nonetheless an anniversary in 2007.photographs for 350 species of native excellent resource and I would not • Postcard mailer: Produce and mailflowering plants, grasses, trees, hesitate to recommend it as a meeting announcements and annualshrubs, evergreens, ferns, and vines. supplemental resource. “We want you back” postcards.6
  • 7. Plant Lore 2005 Think Native Grantsby Thor Kommedahl by Dianne Plunkett Latham woodland, wetland and rain gardenWhat is toothwort? Five 2005 Think Native Grant seeds remaining from the seed Toothwort is a common name for recipients have been approved by the exchange. They plan to create aDentaria laciniata and D. diphylla MNPS Board of Directors. If you are campus woodland garden at the edgein the mustard family. Some near any of the winners, see how of a jack pine savannah on the top ofbotanists include Dentaria in the the grants are making a difference. a hill above the Mississippi River.genus Cardamine. Both species are Minneapolis This interpretive garden willnative to Minnesota. Anna Dvorak, on behalf of the highlight native grasses, wildflowers,What do these names mean? McKinley Community Garden, in shrubs and trees. Wasniewski’s Dentaria refers to the toothed partnership with the Fellowship students will create pamphlets andrhizomes of some species, whereas Missionary Baptist Church and the place them in at the entrance to theCardamine comes from Dioscordes’ Camden Garden Club, accepted the Think Native Woodland Garden.Greek name for cress. In fact, $200 grant to create a rain garden at Plymouthtoothwort is also called spring cress Cityview School, 3350 Fourth St. N., Linda Miller, on behalf of thebecause it has been eaten as an Minneapolis. Students will help plant Gleason Lake Elementary Schoolalternate to watercress (Nasturtium and maintain the garden, which is on Outdoor Learning Center (OLC),officinale). the border of Perkins Hill Park. accepted the grant of prairie plants remaining from the 2005 MNPSWhat does toothwort look like? Marshall plant sale. The school is located at Toothwort (Cardamine diphylla / Diane Gunvalson, on behalf of the 310 Co. Rd. 101 N., Plymouth. SinceDentaria diphylla) is a perennial with Community Action Partnership in 2002, they have been removinga creeping rootstock (rhizome). Marshall, accepted the grant of invasives and restoring prairie,Leaves are divided into three-toothed prairie seeds remaining from last wetland and woodland habitats.leaflets, and the flowers have four fall’s MNPS seed exchange. The Students help maintain the area;petals, usually white or pale pink. seeds will be used for the wildflower Fortin Consulting providesCut-leaved toothwort (Dentaria hill in Independence Park in oversight, burning and herbicide.laciniata) also has three leaflets per Marshall. They also received a small The PTA hired a naturalist, who takesleaf, but the leaflets are narrower andgrant to purchase native plants from each classroom out into the OLC formore sharply toothed; this is called Prairie Restoration, which they put instruction six times a year.Cardamine concatenata by Gleason along a path. They hope to create Centervilleand Gronquist. Moreover, the petals informational markers. They also Lisa Gilliland, on behalf of theare pale lavender, and the rhizomes partnered with the Biology Club and Wargo Nature Center in Centerville,are segmented. Dr. Desy at Southwest Minnesota accepted the grant of woodland andWhere do toothworts grow? State University to collect seeds wetland plants remaining from the Most are found in moist woods or from the native prairie at the 2005 plant sale. By implementingriver bottoms and bloom about the university. They planted the seeds sustainable native landscapes as atime that hepatica, bloodroot, and in the university greenhouse for community resource, Wargo isDutchman’s breeches bloom, that is, planting on the hillside. The MNPS involved in a community-basedin early spring before shade blankets seed will be germinated in the science project with the Sciencethe forest floor. university greenhouse as well. Museum of Minnesota. Wargo seeks Brainerd to demonstrate the wide variety ofAre toothworts medicinal or plants that could be used as Theri Wasniewski, on behalf ofedible? alternatives to bluegrass lawns. Central Lakes College, Brainerd, Toothwort rhizomes have been Visitors will see the plants in a semi- Minnesota accepted the grant ofused as a folk remedy for toothaches, native habitat and receive printedand the American Indians chewed also was good medicine for the information about them. Wargo willrhizomes for colds. A poltice was stomach. Rootstocks are peppery, have interpretative signs for a birdmade to treat headaches. Menominee and when mixed with vinegar and feeder watch area, a tallgrass prairie,Indians piled masses of rhizomes salt are substituted for horseradish, woodland, and a butterfly garden.under a blanket for three to four days or chopped up are used in salads. The 2005 Think Native Grantto induce fermentation to make them Does it have economic value? Committee consisted of Diannesweet, then cooked them with corn. Not really. It is sometimes Plunkett Latham, chair, DaveThey said this was good to eat and cultivated in wild or rock gardens. Crawford and Linda Huhn. 7
  • 8. Minnesota Native Plant SocietyUniversity of Minnesota250 Biological Sciences Center1445 Gortner Ave.St. Paul, MN 55108 Spring 2005