“AFTER ALL, THERE IS
NOTHING AS INTERESTING AS
PEOPLE, AND ONE CAN
NEVER STUDY THEM
VINCENT VAN GOGH
Depression and Bipolar
Acosta, Marry Rose D.
• Hereditary Factors
• Biochemical Hypothesis
• Stressful Life Events
• Cognitive Styles as Vulnerabilities
• is a mental disorder characterized by a
pervasive and persistent low mood that
is accompanied by low self-esteem and
by a loss of interest or pleasure in
normally enjoyable activities.
In Ancient Greece, disease was thought due to an imbalance
in the four basic bodily fluids, or humors.
Personality types were similarly thought to be determined
by the dominant humor in a particular person.
Derived from the Ancient Greek melas, "black", and kholé,
Melancholia -described as a distinct disease with particular
mental and physical symptoms by Hippocrates in
his Aphorisms, where he characterized all "fears and
despondencies, if they last a long time" as being
symptomatic of the ailment.
Aretaeus of Cappadocia
-is one of the most celebrated of the ancient
There is some uncertainty regarding both his age and
country, he practiced in the 1st century CE, during the
reign of Nero or Vespasian.
-later noted that were "dull or stern; dejected or
unreasonably torpid, without any manifest cause".
-The humoral theory fell out of favor but was revived
in Rome by Galen. Melancholia was a far broader
concept than today's depression; prominence was
given to a clustering of the symptoms of sadness,
dejection, and despondency, and often fear, anger,
delusions and obsessions were included
-His work, The Canon of Medicine, became the
standard of medical thinking in Europe alongside those
of Hippocrates and Galen.
• Kurt SchneiderKurt Schneider
--German psychiatrist coined theGerman psychiatrist coined the
terms endogenous depression and reactiveterms endogenous depression and reactive
depression in 1920, he latter referring todepression in 1920, he latter referring to
reactivity in mood and not reaction toreactivity in mood and not reaction to
outside events, and therefore frequentlyoutside events, and therefore frequently
misinterpreted. The division wasmisinterpreted. The division was
challenged in 1926 by Edward Mapotherchallenged in 1926 by Edward Mapother
who found no clear distinction between thewho found no clear distinction between the
-had likened the state of melancholia to
mourning in his 1917 paper Mourning and
Melancholia. He theorized
that objective loss, such as the loss of a
valued relationship through death or a
romantic break-up, results in subjective loss
as well; the depressed individual has
identified with the object of affection
through an unconscious, narcissistic process
called the libidinal cathexis of the ego.
• -is a mental illness. Individuals with
bipolar disorder experience episodes
of an elevated or agitated mood
known as mania, alternating with
episodes of depression.
• - Bipolar disorder is the name used to
describe a set of 'mood swing'
conditions, the most severe form of
which used to be called 'manic
• The high moods are called mania
or hypomania and the low mood is called
• However, it is important to note that
everyone has mood swings from time to
time. It is only when these moods become
extreme and interfere with personal and
professional life that bipolar disorder may
be present and a psychiatric assessment
may be warranted.
Types of Bipolar Syndrome
• Bipolar disorder I is the more severe disorder in
terms of symptoms- with individuals being more
likely to experience mania, have longer 'highs', be
more likely to have psychotic experiences and be
more likely to be hospitalised.
• Bipolar disorder II is diagnosed when a person
experiences the symptoms of a high but with no
psychotic experiences. These hypomanic episodes
tending to last a few hours or a few days, but
longitudinal studies suggest impairment is often as
severe as in bipolar I disorder.
History of Bipolar Syndrome
The ancient Greeks and Romans were responsible for the terms
“mania” and “melancholia,” which are now the modern day
manic and depressive. They even discovered that using lithium
salts in baths calmed manic patients and lifted the spirits
of depressed people. Today, lithium is a common treatment
for bipolar patients.
The Greek philosopher Aristotle not only acknowledged
melancholy as a condition, but thanked it as the inspiration for
the great artists of his time.
It was common during this time that people across the globe
were executed for having bipolar disorder and other mental
conditions because as the study of medicine advanced, strict
religious dogma stated these people were possessed by demons
and should therefore be put to death
• Robert Burton
• -In the 17th Century, Robert Burton wrote
the book, The Anatomy of Melancholy,
which addressed the issue of treating
melancholy (non-specific depression)
using music and dance as a form of
treatment. While mixed with medical
knowledge, the book primarily serves as a
literary collection of commentary of
depression, and vantage point of the full
effects of depression on society. It did,
however, expand deeply into the
symptoms and treatments of what is now
Signs and symptoms
• There are four types of mood episodes in
• depression, and
• mixed episodes.
• Each type of bipolar disorder mood episode
has a unique set of symptoms.
Signs and symptoms of mania
• In the manic phase of bipolar disorder,
• feelings of heightened energy, creativity, and
• euphoria are common
• People experiencing a manic episode often talk
a mile a minute, sleep very little, and are
• They may also feel like they’re all-powerful,
invincible, or destined for greatness.
• Hypomania is a less severe form of mania.
• People in a hypomanic state feel euphoric,
energetic, and productive, but they are able to
carry on with their day-to-day lives and they never
lose touch with reality To others, it may seem as if
people with hypomania are merely in an unusually
good mood. However, hypomania can result in bad
decisions that harm relationships, careers, and
reputations. In addition, hypomania often escalates
to full-blown mania or is followed by a major
Common symptoms of bipolar
• Feeling hopeless, sad, or empty.
• Inability to experience pleasure
• Fatigue or loss of energy
• Physical and mental sluggishness
• Appetite or weight changes
• Sleep problems
• Concentration and memory problems
• Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
• Thoughts of death or suicide
Signs and symptoms of a mixed
• A mixed episode of bipolar disorder features
symptoms of both mania or hypomania and
• Common signs of a mixed episode include
depression combined with agitation, irritability,
anxiety, insomnia, distractibility, and racing
• This combination of high energy and low mood
makes for a particularly high risk of suicide.
• Hospitalization for mania, severe
• Lifestyle change
• Substance abuse treatment
• Therapy that can help you overcome your
• Electric shock treatment
• Interpersonal therapy
• Psychodynamic therapy
• Cognitive behavioral therapy
• Natural ways to overcome your depression
• Get enough sleep
• Three types of therapy are especially helpful
in the treatment of bipolar disorder
• Cognitive-behavioral therapy
• Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy
• Family-focused therapy
• Complementary treatments for bipolar
• Light and dark therapy
• Mindfulness meditation
NEVER GIVE UP
It will help patient to be
inspired by us, rather than the
other way around.
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