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  • A VLE is a software system used to support education. A VLE normally includes content pages, discussion forums, chat, quizzes and exercises such as multiple-choice, etc.   A VLE usually runs on a web server, and it is accessible via the Internet
  • www.icbl.hw.ac.uk

    1. 1. Joining Up: Virtual Learning Environments Digital Libraries and Interoperability Issues Santy Chumbe
    2. 2. Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) <ul><li>Commercial, e.g. Blackboard </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source, e.g. Moodle </li></ul>students teacher Web server Internet <ul><li>content pages, </li></ul><ul><li>discussion forums, </li></ul><ul><li>chat, </li></ul><ul><li>quizzes and exercises, </li></ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul>* Perhaps “A Virtual Environment of Learning” ?
    3. 3. Digital Library (DL) ” scientific academic scholar“ The digital library vision: &quot;Universal Access to Human Knowledge&quot; A digital library (DL) is a unified , coherent , organized collection of learning and teaching resources, usually accessible via the Internet . Wait a minute!
    4. 4. Digital Library (DL) <ul><li>Is there really such a Digital Library (DL)? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you used one before? </li></ul>No and Yes ( Hybrid DLs ) <ul><li>Unified (a single point access) </li></ul><ul><li>Coherent (always valid metadata) </li></ul><ul><li>Organized (e-journals, books, theses, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Is DL just about search (&quot; can I find it? &quot;) and access (&quot; can I get it?“ )? </li></ul>Digital Library (DL) That is basic and important, but DL is also about: <ul><li>Long term preservation </li></ul>&quot;googlization&quot; of digital libraries ? <ul><li>Community ( knowledge exchange ) </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional Repositories </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability (VLEs) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Scenario : a lecturer wants to provide some background reading for her students by making a list of some relevant reading resources Catalogue Library File Upload VLE without embedded DL (the ‘traditional’ way?) VLE – DL Integration
    7. 7. VLE with embedded DL DL middleware VLE system VLE <ul><li>DL </li></ul><ul><li>OPAC </li></ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul><ul><li>Scirus </li></ul><ul><li>e-Jurnals </li></ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul>Scenario : a lecturer wants to provide some background reading for her students by making a list of some relevant reading resources VLE – DL Integration
    8. 8. What are the big challenges for effective VLE-DL integration? <ul><li>VLEs are still monolithic and closed enterprise-level-applications, making difficult the integration of their native functionality with external services such as a DL </li></ul><ul><li>We do need open and effective DL implementations ( “first operability, then interoperability” ) </li></ul>
    9. 9. “ Rigid computer systems played a big part in the decline of the British motor industry and the eventual collapse of Rovers ” MG XPower SV Prof. Matthias Holweg, author of “ Who Killed MG Rover? ” Normandy Fort, France, which was an almost immediate white elephant when it was built, because the Napoleonic wars ended before it was completed.
    10. 10. How integration is possible in life? Plug and Play ! Standards and Norms
    11. 11. VLE – DL Integration <ul><li>VLE : Content created using standard e-Learning Objects (EEE LOM, SCORM, IMS CP) </li></ul><ul><li>DL : Software developed using DL reference models (5Ss) </li></ul><ul><li>DL : Content created using metadata standards for harvesting, retrieving and searching (OAI, Z39.50, SRU) </li></ul>are both partners ready for marriage? <ul><li>I deally both, VLE and DL , are SOA -compliant. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>VLE : Full ( client ) Web Services support (SOAP / REST (XML, HTTP)) </li></ul><ul><li>DL : Full ( server ) Web Services support (SOAP / REST (XML, HTTP)) </li></ul>VLE – DL Integration are both partners ready for marriage? <ul><li>Middleware : SOA compliant with full XML support. </li></ul><ul><li>DL : e-Publishing identification and retrieving (DOI, openURL, crossRef) </li></ul>
    13. 13. SRU server SRU client SOA middleware PerX and Blackboard VLE Integration Diagram PHP/Apache Java/Tomcat VLE – DL Integration
    14. 14. <ul><li>VLE-DL integration using WS and SOA is a &quot;future-proof“ solution. </li></ul>Technical joined up-ness? <ul><li>Connect to third-party databases and full-text services without inputting my ID and password </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of standards, models and specifications for DLs and VLEs </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary solutions are now beginning to appear (Building Blocks (Blackboard), PowerLinks (WebCT)) </li></ul><ul><li>Search and access e-learning objects directly from and within VLE’s modules </li></ul><ul><li>See the library status of items on reading lists without going into the library catalogue </li></ul><ul><li>Read around in the ‘research’ literature (inter-linking) </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of standards, models and specifications for DLs and VLEs </li></ul><ul><li>VLE-DL integration using WS and SOA is a &quot;future-proof“ solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary solutions are now beginning to appear (Building Blocks (Blackboard), PowerLinks (WebCT)) </li></ul><ul><li>Search and access e-learning objects directly from and within VLE’s modules </li></ul><ul><li>See the library status of items on reading lists without going into the library catalogue </li></ul><ul><li>Read around in the ‘research’ literature (inter-linking) </li></ul><ul><li>Connect to third-party databases and full-text services without inputting my ID and password </li></ul>
    15. 15. References A little bit &quot;old&quot; but still a good book to understand the principles of DL http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=863700 DL study at Master and Phd Levels: http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1141787 An early experience of VLE-DL integration in the UK: http://library.ulster.ac.uk/4i/deliverables/outputs/Uhomoibhi%20Informatica.pdf Practical experiences: Creating VLE content with standards http://www.reload.ac.uk/interop.html
    16. 16. <ul><li>Metadata standards </li></ul><ul><li>Digital objects: EEE LOM, SCORM, IMS CP </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability: OAI-PMH, Z39,50, SRU </li></ul><ul><li>SOA (Service-oriented architecture) </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Service-oriented_architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Web Services (SOAP, REST (SRU/SRW)) </li></ul><ul><li>http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/freeabs_all.jsp?arnumber=991449 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue40/morgan/ </li></ul>Standards and Specifications
    17. 17. Thank you [email_address] <ul><li>These slides are available at: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.icbl.hw.ac.uk/~santiago/vle-dl/ </li></ul><ul><li>Please tell us what you think of VLE-DL integration </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.techxtra.ac.uk/index.html?action=feedback </li></ul>(http://business.scotsman.com/ebusiness.cfm?id=207612007 ) <ul><li>A pilot for VLE-DL integration at HWU, is here: </li></ul><ul><li>http://vleap2.hw.ac.uk </li></ul>

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