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SOA: Service Oriented Architecture


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  • 1. SOA: Service Oriented Architecture White Paper (Technical Appendix) A real technology for a new collaborative philosophy between applications and business processes 1
  • 2. CONTENTS (TECHNICAL APPENDIX) 1 SOA in J2EE 4 Introduction to Java 4 J2EE Components 5 Construction of the SOA Service Layer in J2EE 6 Security in Web Services 7 Interoperability in Relation to Security and possible Problems 9 Transactionality in SOA and J2EE 10 BTP 11 WS-Transaction/WS-Coordination 11 JAXTX 11 Monitoring in SOA and J2EE 11 2 SOA in EAi 13 MOM Characteristics 13 EAI Architecture 15 The Adaptor 17 Web Services 17 Security in EAI 18 Message Broker-based Security 20 Connector-based Security 20 Security based on the Proxy between Connectors and the ESB 21 The ACL Management Service 21 Transactionality in EAI 21 3 SOA in .nET 23 Working with Services 23 Web Services 23 Security 25 Monitoring 25 Transactionality 26 SOA Realities with .NET 27 What does the Future hold for us? 27 Indigo: Windows Communication Foundation 27 Avalon: Windows Presentation Foundation 28 Windows WorkFlow Foundation 28 4 SOA in lEgAcy TEchnOlOgy EnvirOnmEnTS 29 CICS Environments 29 Environments involving Procedures stored on Databases 31 Environments with ANSI C or VISUAL C++/Visual Basic Applications 32 Alternative environments 33 5 cOnclUSiOnS 34 6 linE Of BUSinESS in ATOS ApplicATiOn ArchiTEcTUrE 35 2
  • 3. ABSTRACT SErvicE OriEnTEd ArchiTEcTUrE (SOA) iS in ThE prOcESS Of implEmEnTATiOn in ThE lEAding mArkET cOmpAniES. These forms of architecture are characterized by the fact that they are composed of functional units – services – rendered by service businesses. Although initially, the definition of SOA only covered web services, corporate reality often implies extending this definition to cover other services that include ad-hoc development (Cobol/CICS, Visual Basic, Fortran, and C... transactions) and software packages (SAP, Documentum, Staffware...). The present document represents the Technical Appendix to the White Paper entitled SOA: Service Oriented Architecture, supplementing it with a technical review of these forms of architecture in the different environments existing in companies nowadays. 3
  • 4. SOA CONCEPTS inTrOdUcTiOn TO JAvA New technologies are incorporated into the Java platform through the JCP, by means of a "Java Specification Currently, Java is one of the leading platforms for the Request" (JSR). In order to create a JSR, the need for creation of corporate software. The evolution of the Java the new technology or for the modification of an existing programming language has been extraordinary (see the technology must be explained in a document, along figure below). It has progressed from its role as a tool for with how this change will affect the rest of the platform. developing small applets for execution on browsers to Although it is not necessary, it is also recommendable become a standard multi-platform programming model, to propose a group of experts who will take charge of now capable of implementing the critical applications of developing the JSR, if this is accepted. Anybody, whether large companies. or not is a member of the JCP, may propose new JSRs. The Java platform is not a specific software, but rather, a In this manner, the open and coordinated evolution of set of specifications defining each and every one of the the standard is guaranteed, without the impositions of technologies comprising the platform. a single manufacturer. This constitutes a guarantee of stability over the medium and long term when it comes to It is necessary at this point to underscore that Java, and selecting this platform as against other possibilities. specifically J2EE, are neither commercial products nor a sole manufacturer’s alternative for business software Below is a more detailed description of the J2EE platform development, but rather a set of specifications in which reflecting its capacity to accommodate SOA services. the main software manufacturers of the world participate, nowadays referred to as the JCP (Java Community Process). The figure below summarises the process of evolution that Java has undergone since it appeared, (when Sun Microsystems held all the rights to the “SErvicE OriEnTEd platform), until it became the current free standard. ArchiTEcTUrE (SOA) iS in ThE The Java Community Process is the organism that prOcESS Of implEmEnTATiOn governs the evolution of the Java platform through the creation of new specifications and the maintenance of in ThE lEAding cOmpAniES On those already existing. The JCP defines its own operation ThE mArkET.” and the standards by which it is regulated, standards that have been evolving since its creation in December 1998. The current JCP version is version 2.6. divErSE STAgES ThrOUgh which A JAvA SpEcificATiOn rEqUEST pASSES on ati e ific ote ed ec eleas t t Sp R raf allo vie w CV orm the inal al D l B Re pti on &E pF t ete aft F eview Fin rovaleae ce ce Exce iew aft rou af pl r d pp e an an m ion ev Dr rt G ly Dr m D R te se en nten Ite tat PR rly pe r Co blic ublic C Voropo inal ainal R int i te Ini JS Ea Ex Ea Pu P E P F F Ma Ma EC Vo 1 2 3 4 ys ys ys ays ys ys ys da da da d da da da 14 -90 -90 last 7 14 30 t7 30 30 las 4
  • 5. J2EE cOmpOnEnTS transaction coordinators (DTCs), messaging systems (message queues), models of objects distributed (ranging Distributed applications require access to a serie of from RPC, through DCOM or CORBA up to Java’s own company-hosted services. Typical services include RMI), transaction monitors (like CICS or TUXEDO), etc. transaction processing, high availability and load J2EE has not invented anything new in this sense, but balancing, access to databases, messaging, multi- simply defines a standard way of accessing previously tasking and multi-threading, etc. J2EE architecture dispersed functions that obliged developers to depend unifies access to these services in a service API. on specific suppliers. J2EE changed this restriction, Nonetheless, instead of having to access these services permitting competence between companies and giving over a customised or non-standard interface, application rise to new business models, such as those based on the programs based on J2EE are able to access these APIs offer of free, open-code J2EE platforms, where benefits through the J2EE container. are not obtained from the sale of user licenses but from consulting or support services. A typical J2EE platform (or J2EE applications server), whether commercial or free of charge, includes one or more containers, and access to company APIs is determined by J2EE specifications. These define the multi-layer execution environment and provide the specifications that facilitate the developers’ work for each layer. Within the presentation layer we find specifications such as servlets, JSP (Java Server Pages), JSF (Java Server Faces), whereas in the business layer, “ThE OBJEcTivE Of ThE J2EE the main specifications are those defining the structure plATfOrm iS TO pErmiT and behaviour of reusable objects (components) called Enterprise Java Beans (EJB). In addition, there are prOgrAmmErS TO cOncEnTrATE specifications regarding, among other things, database AS fAr AS pOSSiBlE On ThE access (JDBC), directory service access (JNDI), SMTP messaging service (JavaMail), access to a Message SpEcific dETAilS Of BUSinESS Oriented Middleware or MOM (JMS), access connectors And TO dElEgATE lOw-lEvEl to legacy environments (JCA), connectivity between objects lodged in the same machine or in others (RMI SErvicES TO ThE cOnTAinEr.” and RMI-IIOP, which maintain compatibility with CORBA), and a long line of others. The objective of the J2EE platform is to permit programmers to concentrate as far as possible on the specific details of business and to delegate low- level services (transactionality, concurrence, security, persistence, high availability, monitoring, integration, transparency with regard to location, etc.) to the container. J2EE architecture, and more specifically EJB, aspires to solve this type of problems by substituting the programming of this type of low-level service with their declarative syntax. Their encapsulation as components favours their reuse or substitution with a lower level of impact. The container takes charge of maintaining the life cycle of the objects created. Basically, J2EE may be understood as a set of standardized APIs for working with technologies that have been around for a long time as distributed 5
  • 6. cOnSTrUcTiOn Of ThE SOA SErvicE lAyEr in Support for JAX-RPC is included among the principal J2EE application servers compatible with J2EE 1.4, such as (in alphabetical order) Apache Geronimo 1.0, BEA Weblogic The advent of SOA brought the world of IT a conceptual Server 9.0, IBM WebSphere Application Server v6, Jboss evolution in the manner of tackling interconnectivity Application Server 4.0, Jonas ObjectWeb 4.4, Oracle between applications and components, rapidly giving rise Application Server Containers for J2EE 10g (OC4J) to new services of a higher level. J2EE did not ignore this 10.1.3 and Sun One Application Server 8. movement and included several aspects regarding web services in its J2EE 1.4 specifications. Web services are Interoperability is one of the key aspects of service the elements that make up SO architecture. oriented applications. In order for services to be interoperable, they must be able to communicate One characteristic that differentiates web services from not only with other J2EE platforms, but also with other J2EE specifications is that these are designed to implementations based on other technologies such as present interfaces based on independent open multi- .NET. Once a web service has been deployed and its platform protocols belonging to the manufacturer, existence published, registered for instance in a directory while at the same time providing a vehicle for building service (such as UDDI), any client may find it and invoke interconnected services, with the added advantage that it. Hence, it is impossible to anticipate the type of client these were loosely coupled. that will act as service consumer. Thus, an SO architecture may be divided into four layers, In consequence, it must be ensured that the web as against the traditional three layer arrangement: services created comply with the standard WS-I Basic Profile (Web Services Interoperability Basic > Presentation Profile). WS-I is an open consortium of suppliers such > Service as Oracle, IBM, Microsoft and Sun who emphasize > Business interoperability between the web services of different > Persistence platforms, operating systems and languages. J2EE 1.4 establishes compatibility with the WS-I Basic Profile as a The service layer is marked by the characteristics of loose requirement for the certification of an applications server, coupling and completeness. J2EE provides a complete which means that the applications server must generate platform on which to build the service layer in an SO interoperable web services. architecture through web service APIs, among which JAX-RPC and JAXP stand out. JAX-RPC provides a simple, stable platform for building and deploying applications that use web services, concealing the complexity of mapping the correspondence between XML and Java data types “SOmE Of ThE mEmBErS Of from the J2EE developer. In addition to the details of low OASiS fOrm pArT Of ThE Jcp level management of SOAP and JAX-RPC messages, it introduces a new paradigm that offers two programming (Java Community ProCess). ” models: one server-side model for developing supplier web services using Java classes or stateless EJB session components, and one client-side model for creating consumers who may access the web services as local objects. JAX-RPC 1.1 establishes the use of the standard SOAP 1.1 protocol, permitting interoperability with web services done in other technologies such as Microsoft .NET. 6
  • 7. SEcUriTy in wEB SErvicES Authentication: Implementing digital certificates on the server resolves the problem of its authentication. By Due to the dissemination of web services and their rapid configuring this server, it is possible to require the client adoption in the framework of e-business, information to present his own certificate, thus performing mutual technology companies have found themselves authentication. confronted by the need to introduce aspects relating to security in web services that go beyond what is set forth Encryption: The information transferred is encrypted by in the WS-I Basic Profile. This has affected all service means of a key (generated during the SSL negotiation) providers, not only those centred on J2EE. During an using a symmetrical key algorithm capable of encrypting initial phase, every software manufacturer (Microsoft, large volumes of information in very little time. Sun Microsystems, IBM, etc.) had its own security implementation, creating a climate of confusion in this Integrity: The unnoticed passage of intentional or regard while awaiting the deployment of a de facto accidental modifications in the information as it travels standard. through internet is impeded. This is achieved by using an asymmetric encryption key employing a MAC (Message Regardless of the business problem to be resolved by the Authentication Code). This MAC would be the hash web service, it is necessary to tackle the same problems summary of the message concatenated by a secret of security that exist in the technologies of distributed SSL session number shared between the client and the integration or computing. Problems relating to security server. are fundamentally as follows: Non-repudiation: In order to solve non-repudiation, > The client must be authenticated with respect to the it is necessary to resort to the electronic signature of server. transactions. This is achieved thanks to the WS-Security > The server needs to be authenticated with respect to specification that describes a standard way of signing the client. SOAP messages, since SSL does not resolve this > It is necessary to guarantee the integrity and security problem. confidentiality of the messages exchanged. > It is necessary to guarantee non-repudiation of the WS-Security deals with a way of ensuring a secure transaction. context by means of a multi-point message route. > It is necessary to determine a client's rights of access, verifying not only his identity, but also his level of The WS-Security specification includes a standard set of authorization against internal access control policies. SOAP extensions that make it possible to secure a web Security mechanisms based on HTTP are insufficient, since there are scenarios involving the dispatch of messages in dialogues more complex than that of the simple petition/response pattern; for example, over intermediary routes. Transmissions without the “ThE wEB SErvicES crEATEd intervention of HTTP also exist (such as web services over SMTP or message queues). HTTP and its security mUST cOmply wiTh ThE mechanisms (SSL and HTTPS) solely respond for Ws-i BasiC Profile STAndArd, point-to-point security. It is necessary for more complete solutions to incorporate an end-to-end security concept. which rEvOlvES ArOUnd ThE The identity, integrity and security of a message and inTErOpErABiliTy Of wEB its sender must be protected in the different kinds of SErvicES.” transactions, including those scenarios. Throughout the route, it is possible to use various encoding keys. Domains of confidence may intersect with each other. These needs are enumerated below, and an analysis is made of up to where these may be resolved with SSL: 7
  • 8. service in order to guarantee integrity and confidentiality. the need for defining a complete security solution in This in turn is open to other security models including WS-Security, as it takes advantage of the fact that the PKI (Public Key Infrastructure), Kerberos and SSL. WS- industry has already resolved many of these problems. Security provides support for multiple security tokens, multiple formats of electronic signature, multiple secure > Kerberos and X.509 take charge of the subject of domains and multiple encryption technologies. authentication. Likewise, X.509 uses the existing public key infrastructure (PKI) in administering keys. > XML Encryption and XML Signature describe different forms of encrypting and signing the content of Applying security to XML messages. web services > XML Canonicalization analyses ways of preparing XML for the process of signing and encryption, such that the introduction of changes in format (carriage returns, blank spaces, tabulators) does not pose any SOAP message Transport channel problems. security (SSL) security level Example: (WS Security) Encryption of entire message (for HTTP this means encrypting the entire HTTP message) What WS-Security contributes to existing specifications is a framework in which to incorporate these mechanisms to a SOAP message. This task is carried out neutrally with respect to the transport protocol. Authorization Confidentiality Integrity Example: Example: Example: WS-Security defines a SOAP heading element for the Username Password Message encrypting Security token transport of data related to security. If XML Signature is used, this heading may contain the information defined by XML Signature that transmits the signature algorithm of the message, the key used, and the resulting value of the signature. Likewise, if an element of the message is encrypted, the information regarding this encryption, such The specification includes the propagation of as, for example, that transmitted by XML Encryption, security tokens, message integrity and confidentiality. may be included in the WS-Security heading. This does Nonetheless, these mechanisms by themselves alone not specify either the format or the encryption of the do not cover all the aspects of a complete secure signature, but rather determines the mode in which the solution. Thus, WS-Security represents only one of the security information contributed by other specifications design layers of a sophisticated security solution for web may be incorporated into a SOAP message. services. Fundamentally, WS-Security is a specification for a The WS-Security specification is one of the first standards security metadata container based on XML. among web services to support, integrate and unify multiple security models, mechanisms and technologies, Apart from making use of other existing authentication, permitting a great variety of systems to interoperate integrity and message privacy protocols, WS-Security neutrally in what refers to language and platform. specifies a mechanism for transferring simple user Organisms such as OASIS and different companies have credentials through the UsernameToken element. In order participated in its definition. In April 2002, Microsoft and to send binary symbols used for encryption or message IBM created a roadmap for WS-Security called “Security signatures, the BinarySecurityToken element is also in a Web Services World: a Proposed Architecture and defined. Messages can store information regarding the Roadmap”. In September 2002 WS-Security v1.0 was caller and the mode in which the message was signed published and it was approved in April 2004. and encrypted in this heading. WS-Security presents an end-to-end solution for web service security that WS-Security tackles the theme of security making use of preserves all security information in the SOAP part of the existing specifications and standards. This circumvents message. 8
  • 9. EvOlUTiOn SEcUriTy TO wEB SErvicES This problem is illustrated by a specific example below: Given a scenario with the products IBM WebSphere August 2002 6.0 and Microsoft WSE 2.0 SP3 (the principal founding April 2002 WS-Security WS-Security members of OASIS), it is verified that, in principle, both Addendum support the same version of WS-*, SOAP, and WSDL specifications. Three basic scenarios of WS-Security supported by these products are presented below. 1. Use of UsernameToken for client authentication. Here it is seen that both products are interoperable. OASIS September 2002 ACTIVITIES WS-Core Draft 1 2. Signature with X509 certificates: The client signs a request using the private key associated with its x509v3 certificate. The receiver verifies the message signature using the client’s public key associated to its certificate. It is detected that interoperability in this scenario is not May 2003 February 2003 WSS: SOAP Message WSS: Usename Toke 100%, since by default WebSphere 6.0 literally follows an Security Draft 3 Profile Draft 2 errata in the specification on indicating the value of the BinarySecurityToken element. 3. Mutual authentication with X509 certificates, signature and encryption. Both the client and the server have a certificate representing their identities. Authentication is carried out with each presenting its inTErOpErABiliTy in rElATiOn TO SEcUriTy And certificate. The request is signed using the private client pOSSiBlE prOBlEmS key. This in turn encrypts the request with the public key of the server certificate. The response is signed using There are instances of existing WS-Security the private key of the server certificate, and encrypted implementations in commercial products such as with the public key of the client certificate which is IBM WebSphere, Bea Weblogic Server, SUN JWDP encapsulated in the response. In sum, typical scenario in (Java Web Services Development Platform), among B2B communication. others, or in open-code products such as the Apache WSS4J extension in the case of Java, and in the WSE It is observed that in this scenario, it is not possible for the extension in the case of Microsoft, distributed separately specific products mentioned to interoperate correctly. This on Microsoft .NET Framework 1.1, but already fully is due to the differences between the OASIS WSS X509 incorporated into its version 2.0. Token Profile 1.0 standard implemented by Microsoft WSE2.0 SP3 and the OASIS WSS X509 Token Profile 1.0 In theory, the purpose of all these implementations is non-normative errata followed by IBM WebSphere 6.0. to adhere to the specification standard and ensure OASIS and IBM also know the problem, and this latter interoperability, fundamental when dealing with entity plans to publish a fix in the next service pack of its SO Architecture, in which heterogeneity is usual. product to enable OASIS WSS 1.0 support. Unfortunately, at present, maturity is still insufficient in this regard, and it may happen in a real scenario These types of incompatibilities are being resolved as that a product implements a concrete version of the such new specifications mature and grow in acceptance specification, while the other end follows a different and dissemination. version or an errata of the specification, continuing to raise questions about interoperability in this field. The conclusion is that the scenarios in which SO Nonetheless, rapid advances are being made in this architecture and its applications are implemented should connection. be carefully verified. It is convenient to formulate pilot 9
  • 10. projects to verify that problems of interoperability will > Loose coupling. The loose coupling of its components not arise and, if applicable, to seek assessment from a implies little involvement with the environment. It may technological partner experienced in the market situation. happen that an SOA component invokes other SOA components executed in outside companies and that the business process obliges the consolidation of each TrAnSAcTiOnAliTy in SOA And J2EE and every party involved. The case is complicated when the components are lodged in heterogeneous One of the desirable characteristics of SOA lies in the systems and are developed in different technologies. fact that its components present loose coupling, so that they are able to form part of diverse business processes > Very extensive transactions in terms of time. The on the basis of reutilisation without the need for change, concept of transaction isolation applied to transactions preventing too much impact on the process into which that are extensive in terms of time brings several they are integrated in case they are substituted by problems with it, such as the possible blocking of another equivalent component. This requirement has resources. facilitated an evolution in the concept of transactions. > Optional transactions. Some business processes may In traditional models, the transaction is carried out within require that the failure of one operation will not imply the scope of a specific business, taking different sources the failure of the entire transaction. of data and the need to maintain the coherence between them into account. In the world of J2EE, this model of > Propagation of the context of the transaction. If transaction is implemented through the JTA and JTS the transaction extends to several organisations, a specifications, which define the contract between the mechanism for the propagation of the transaction transaction managers, the applications and the J2EE context should be provided. containers. These specifications provide interfaces for managing data sources by means of X/Open standards. The previous points underscore that the typical characteristics to a traditional transaction (ACID) are In the world of SOA, the definition of a transaction is complicated in the case of an SO architecture. Thus, complicated, due to the fact that, conceptually, the way efforts have been made to standardize a scenario that applications operate in this architecture differs from permits the use of transactions within SO architecture. the way they operate in the traditional model. These differences lie in aspects such as: Atomic set es Reserv HOTEL ation EXPENSIVE Res Reserv (participant) erv made AIRLINE B mad ation (participant) e Res Reserves erve s Reservation AIRLINE A made (participant) s Prepare OVERBOOKING Res ble erve AIRLINE C Unavaila s (participant) Res COORDINATOR / erv COMPOSER mad ation CAR RENTAL e (participant) 10
  • 11. BTp JAXTX OASIS defined BTP (Business Transaction Protocol) J2EE responds to the new needs of transactionality by to coordinate transactions between independent launching its reference specification, JAXTX. This seeks services. The basis of BTP is the fact that none of the to isolate the programmer and the J2EE containers from parties controls the transaction, but rather, that this is the complications of complex transactions, although this propagated between them and each party decides aim cannot be covered in the same way as in the case whether or not to participate in the transaction. If a of JTA/JTS, since this new scenario contemplates that party opts to join the transaction, it should provide a it may be necessary to add application logic in order to mechanism for cancelling or confirming this. Each party is deal with these complex transactions. responsible for its internal blockages. BTP uses XML messages sent between the coordinators mOniTOring in SOA And J2EE of each party involved in the transaction in order to function. Two different types of transactions are defined: One of the most important aspects of an SO architecture is the information monitoring and auditing > atomic transactions (all the parties are obliged to finish process. This process may be carried out efficiently the transaction successfully) in J2EE by means of the JMX (Java Management > cohesion transactions (not all the parties are obliged to eXtensions) specification. finish the transaction successfully). JMX is the technology defining management Although BTP is not only thought out for operation with architecture - the API, the design patterns and the web services and leaves the messaging protocol open, services for monitoring and administering Java-based the use of SOAP makes it possible to use BTP in practice applications. in web services. The first industrial implementation of BTP is ascribed to HP, with HP Web Services Transactions The application processes, configuration parameters and (HP WST) trace levels may be remotely monitored. This makes it possible, for example to make the wS-TrAnSAcTiOn/wS-cOOrdinATiOn traditionally used focus more sophisticated in order to administer services and applications, making it Microsoft, IBM and Oracle-BEA on their side defined the possible, for example, to make changes to the status/ WS-Transaction and WS-Coordination specifications to information of a clustered application in the framework cope with the problems arising from changes of scenario. of a high availability environment with several servers in WS-Coordination takes charge of defining general cluster. Indeed, the most significant applications servers mechanisms to create, coordinate and record the activities on the market use JMX technology to manage their carried out by several web services. Each service creates own internal processes. IBM, Oracle-BEA, and Jboss, and records its activity and its coordination protocol. among others, have followed this scheme for their administration architecture. WS-Transaction/WS-Coordination are oriented towards web services since it is built on the basis of SOAP and WSDL. JMX facilitates the management of applications and services. This technology permits Java developers to Both BTP and this model respond to the same needs, integrate their applications with existing management the most important difference between them is that WS- and operation solutions, making it possible to administer Transaction/WS-Coordination are linked to web services, (by changing application configuration parameters) as while BTP has no limitations as to underlying architecture. well as monitor these (by obtaining statistics and error notifications from them). WS-Transaction/WS-Coordination define two types of elementary transactions – “atomic” and “business” – the characteristics of which are similar to those of BTP. 11
  • 12. JMX architecture defines three levels: Managed Beans or MBeans are the JMX objects that present the manageable information in the form of > Instrumentation Level (Application Layer): The properties and operations. As a previous requirement to application layer (called instrumentation level) is the implantation of JMX, the components that perform where the components that facilitate the information services that may be subject to instrumentation are necessary to administer an application reside. These codified as MBeans or at least have their interface components are developed in accordance with the published in the form of an MBean, such that the management needs of each application. For example, invocation of an MBean method updates component a component may have a method to stop a service status. within an application. There are several types of MBeans (Standard MBean, > Agent Level: The agent level is that which facilitates Dynamic MBean and Model MBean). The selection of an interface for the administration of the components of one or another must be done according to our needs of the instrumentation level. instrumentation. > Adaptor Level: The adaptor level consists of one or more connectors (or protocol adaptors) that provide access from remote monitoring systems. JmX ArchiTEcTUrE REMOTE MANAGER JMX WEB SNMP Manager Browser Manager SERVER CONNECTOR LEVEL RMI HTTP SNMP Adaptor Adaptor Adaptor AGENT LEVEL MBean Server INSTRUMENTATION LEVEL MBeans MBeans Application 12
  • 13. SOA IN EAI EAI (Enterprise Application Integration) is understood to wait for certain information if this is not available at as the use of methods, principles and technology to the moment of consultation. In this way, the applications make applications, generally from the Business Support can continue to resolve other tasks and even attend Systems (BSS) environment of a specific company, to other clients while the consultation being made is work together jointly or in an integrated manner. resolved. The term EAI, coined during the 90s, has undergone The manner in which asynchronous communication considerable evolution with the passing years, from the is resolved within a MOM accounts for the difference original concept of point-to-point connection between between the two fundamental philosophies of the applications and systems in a company to the most presentation middleware at present. These two recent approaches using web services and the internet tendencies are message queuing and message passing. to present fully distributed services to companies and clients. Its final objective has always been that of Message queuing is defined as a model of indirect attaining the most flexible, efficient and competitive way communication in which the communication takes of integrating processes between applications in order place over a queue. Messages coming from a specific to provide services to clients. application are sent to a specific queue, which is identified by its name. Once the message has been During the years prior to the start of this technology, stored in the queue, the queue manager takes charge connection was resolved by means of point-to-point of conveying it up to the application of destination. connections between applications. This highly simple scheme lost its feasibility as the number of applications The message passing paradigm is associated to and services increased. a mechanism of direct communication, since the information is sent to the applications that require it without the participation of any intermediary element. mOm chArAcTEriSTicS Of the three principal types of existing middleware – that is to say, Remote Procedure Call (RPC), Object Request Broker (ORB) and Message Oriented Middleware (MOM), we shall focus on this latter as the technology that has undergone a greater expansion over the last few years. “middleWare introduCes A fUndAmEnTAl EAI emerged in the knowledge of the problems inherent cOncEpT, ASynchrOnOUS in the focus on point-to-point connections, whereby it rapidly allied with the concept of messaging – and cOmmUnicATiOn.” hence the term Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) – which describes the paradigm by which the applications interchange information through the dispatch of data packets (messages) over a homogenous medium (middleware). Message Oriented Middleware introduces a fundamental concept when it comes to focussing on and resolving application integration. This concept is Asynchronous Communication. Asynchronous Communication provides a certain degree of freedom to the applications participating in the integration, since they do not oblige any application 13
  • 14. One characteristic proper to systems based on applications in an organised manner, thus building message passing is the capacity to implement a Service Bus. The most puristic definitions of EAI publication/subscription mechanisms. This publication/ contemplate the interconnection of applications subscription based paradigm makes it possible for a with the medium and the management of message group of applications interested in specific information exchanges as its sole responsibility. Nonetheless, this to subscribe to the said information. The application perception has been expanding and currently also that issues the information publishes it under a specific includes the feature of orchestration. “topic” or “subject” agreed upon with subscribers, such that the message reaches the appropriate addressees. The publication/subscription paradigm introduces another fundamental concept when it comes to working with the integration of applications in real time. This concept is that of event, and refers to that occurrence that accompanies the reception of a message to which a certain action has been “EvEnT OriEnTATiOn And associated. rEAl TimE ArE fEATUrES The messaging-based model gives EAI with the prOvidEd By ThE pUBlicATiOn/ capacity to connect to the services provided by the SUBScripTiOn pArAdigm.” BUSinESS prOcESS AGENT CALL ADDRESSED ADDRESSED CRM BPA CENTER SySTEM 1 SySTEM 2 Search for client Search for client Create Client in System 1 Does Create Client it exist? Error? NO YES Create Client in Create Client System 2 Gather client Create Client data Error? Send Send Send confirmation confirmation confirmation to client to client to client Business Process (User) User interaction DEFINITIONS Business Activity Business service application Integration Business Process Business service integration 14
  • 15. EAi ArchiqUEcTUrE BPA permits the reception of a high-level definition of a business process and its rapid implementation on the Typically, the basic architecture deployed to integrate basis of UML-based schemes. EAI based applications consists of positioning a series of connectors or adaptors that connect the applications The figure of the page before, 'Business Process', to be integrated into the integration bus with an presents an example of a Business Process and shows orchestrator or BPA (Business Process Automation) how this would be schematically represented within a mechanism, the component charged with performing BPM tool. the transformations and message passing paradigm in accordance with the rules established for the execution As may be observed in the figure at the foot of the of the Business Process. page, EAI is currently built around diverse components and tools that transcend the simple concept of BPA has been fundamental in advancing EAI, more application integration and provide facilities for the specifically, its implementation in company integration management, deployment and maintenance of suites. The capacity that these tools provide to design integration and development. These elements are what business processes such as the orderly and conditioned comprise the current Integration Suites. execution of the services provided by the different applications has revolutionised the development of application integration projects, enabling them to achieve very high performance levels. “BpA hAS BEEn fUndAmEnTAl in AdvAncing EAi.” cOmpOnEnTS Of An inTEgrATiOn SUiTE APPLICATION 1 APPLICATION 2 APPLICATION 3 APPLICATION 4 ADAPTOR ADAPTOR ADAPTOR ADAPTOR SERVICE BUS Business Activity Monitoring and Monitoring / Business Process Business Process Deployment and Configuration Control Complex Event Management Automation management and Status Correlation Repositories 15
  • 16. The role played by the business process manager in process, the execution status of the said process resolving automated processes has already been set would be stored for its subsequent recovery. From this forth. A further step in the search for the total integration point onward, the supervisor can be informed of the of company procedures incorporates elements that are reasons why the exception occurred and can take the capable of administering long-term processes where appropriate measures to draw up an incident report for human intervention generally occurs. The workflow the interested parties capable of resolving it. These tools facilitates the elements necessary to manage these in turn provide facilities for obtaining the message data processes and, furthermore, introduces the pertinent and manipulating these in order to recover the process layer of information persistence required to recover the and continue its execution from the point at which the status of the process the moment it is reactivated. incident occurred. The current tendency in the evolution of integration suites is the incorporation of BAM (Business Activity Monitoring) and CEP (Complex Event Processing) tools. BAM permits business analysts to collect and present information about the execution of the business processes integrated by the company in real time. “ThE cUrrEnT TEndEncy in Statistics are measured by means of the identification ThE EvOlUTiOn Of inTEgrATiOn of the Key Performance Indicators (KPI). The KPIs are distributed along the strategic points of the business SUiTES iS ThE incOrpOrATiOn Of process and provide the information that the BAM BAm And cEp.” needs to prepare the pertinent reports. Lastly, CEP makes it possible to capture events in real time and correlate them to determine events on the Bus. One of the main applications of CEP is to detect regular deficiencies in the service and determine the adoption of immediate compensatory measures to maintain degree of client satisfaction. Modern tools provide the management capacity for complex application integration projects through the use of the proper version of the elements developed, facilitating the deployment of development. The start-up and configuration of the different elements making up integration development is performed from a centralised console with access to all the network servers belonging to the Service Bus. The observation of the physical parameters of each server as well as of each process or application executed to support to the business processes making up each and every one of the applications is supported by the monitoring consoles, which present differing solutions. Currently, moreover, monitoring of the business process in course is supported, such that if there were a failure in the execution of a specific petition in a business 16
  • 17. ThE AdApTOr The adaptor specifically adapts to each application as it incorporates the mechanism through which it The connection with the services provided by the establishes contact and accesses the services that the applications takes place over the connectors or application wants to present. It likewise provides the adaptors of each application. The adaptor is a part communication mode between the service bus and the that may be supplied by the manufacturer, developed application, such that those services that are defined by a third company or custom-built on the basis of the in the adaptor container become public and thus may development kit supplied by the manufacturer. be invoked from any other application connected to the service bus, as is shown in the following figure. The adaptor, on another hand, is the tool that establishes the relationship between channels, subjects or topics, and the application services, CONFIGURATION Start-up Manager as the mechanism by which the services become public. The adaptor acts as a bridge between the Configuration Manager independent worlds of the application and the Service Bus, translating between protocols in order to establish communication. Event Loop Service Container wEB SErvicES The recent rise of web services has brought about a clear convergence of integration suites towards Trace Management the principles on which this technology is based. In consequence, all the principal manufacturers of integration suites within the scope of EAI have Monitoring Stop incorporated SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) Manager and its interfaces for permitting WSDL (Web Services Description Language) service definition and coupling ADAPTOR between them from other applications. Nevertheless, web services go much further beyond the mere definition of new service access protocols and The preceding figure shows the main components of an their service definition language. adaptor, which are as follows: As is set forth in the next figure, Web Services define > Modules for adaptor start-up and stoppage. a series of standards to implement the operability > Module for loading configuration from the record or necessary to provide access to the services. repository. > Module for managing event loops. > Container module for services or call-backs that provide the functionality necessary to resolve a bus Business Service. “ThE rEcEnT riSE Of wEB > Trace management module. SErvicES hAS BrOUghT ABOUT > Monitoring module. > Error management module. A clEAr cOnvErgEncE Of inTEgrATiOn SUiTES TO ThiS TEchnOlOgy.” 17
  • 18. SEcUriTy in EAi In the SOA model, applications are integrated to the business service producer applications and the REGISTER OF responses that these provide by means of message SERvICES UDDI dispatches. Normally, applications are distributed on different machines, possibly belonging to several network segments, which fact facilitates possible WSDL attacks against authenticity, confidentiality and the Find Publish integrity of the information exchanged. For this reason, it is necessary to protect both the SOAP message dispatch to producers and the responses SERvICE SERvICE that these producers provide the consumer, in such as CONSUMER PRODUCER Link way as to guarantee the identity of whoever is sending a message to the information bus (authenticity), to ensure that no unauthorised party may have access to message contents (confidentiality) and to assure that no one can modify a message in transit without this being detected (integrity). Regardless of the security measures adopted to The standards of communication (SOAP) and interface protect the machines on which the applications and definition (WSDL) have been rapidly assumed and the measures designed to protect communications incorporated into integration suites, due in part to the between them reside, applications must adopt their own maturity of their specifications. This notwithstanding, mechanisms to protect information. These mechanisms the register of services continues to be a pending will include the encryption of the information, digital task in which, at present, the Universal Description, signatures, or the codes guaranteeing message Discovery, and Integration (UDDI) standard has not integrity. enjoyed the same degree of acceptance as its other two companions. It must be pointed out that these protective mechanisms imply a slowdown in message processing As a result, integration suites have resisted the that can become considerable, such that they should incorporation of implementation elements that would be applied only when necessary. provide the cataloguing and registration capability of services such as are specified in UDDI, and it is Following is a description of these mechanisms and only very recently that they have begun to opt for how to apply them in the development of SOA. largely individual solutions, partly due not only to the incorporation of web services as an alternative for application integration, but also to the fact that SOA implantation based on EAI has reached considerable volumes and that the service suites implemented in companies are requiring a significant management effort “ThE EncrypTiOn mOdUlE since they are not completely automated. inTErcEpTS ThE mESSAgES EXchAngEd BETwEEn ThE ApplicATiOn And ThE ESB And dETErminES whEThEr Or nOT ThESE ShOUld BE EncrypTEd.” 18
  • 19. With a view to securing integration through SOA The need for an existing connectivity between the services, EAI requires the following components that, on applications and the ACL management module in occasion, may be included in the existing middleware: order to execute access control tasks should be taken into consideration in this scheme. > A module providing an API for access to security functions such as encryption/deciphering of messages or of the digital signature in messages. > A module charged with message encryption through the security API. This module shall have facilities for the selection of the encryption policy to apply to each message type. Depending on the characteristics of the platform employed, the module may form part of the ESB itself, may be located in the connectors, or, if neither of the previous options is possible or a modification in its functional characteristics is desired, it may be developed on a specific proxy. > A module providing access control list (ACL) “SEcUring ThE SErvicES mechanisms, both with regard to list administration (list creation, modification, deletion) and list access on rEqUirES SpEcific SEcUriTy Apis, the part of the applications (consult user permits). mOdUlES fOr EncrypTiOn And The following figure shows the security scheme to employ in integrating applications to SOA, along with Acl AccESS And mAnAgEmEnT the three possibilities for invoking the Security API. mEchAniSmS.” cOmpOnEnTS Of An inTEgrATiOn SUiTE HOST A HOST B HOST C HOST D APPLICATION 1 APPLICATION 1 APPLICATION 1 ACL ACL DB CONNECTOR CONNECTOR CONNECTOR CONNECTOR Security Security Security API API PROXy API ESB 19
  • 20. Api for Security functions to be able to consume the information supplied through This API provides the services of message this mechanism, all the systems must be mounted on confidentiality, authentication and integrity and makes the same security paradigm. it possible for these services to be included in the applications, more specifically in the connectors linking A refinement to this mechanism would be to deploy a the applications to the ESB. tool kit permitting the configuration or programming of this message broker, such that only certain messages The API conceals the implementation details of the are encrypted, on the basis, for instance, of channel or security services from the application developers, topic used for publication. such that application programmers centre on the implementation of their functions, leaving the security Encryption would thus be more selective and it would personnel to configure security requirements (encryption not be necessary for all the systems to be included algorithms to use, length of keys, etc.) and user access among the secure channels, thus reducing the load that privileges. the encryption of all information may imply. Normally, APIs may be used in two different ways: In the preceding figure, the message broker is The programmer may explicitly invoke the security represented by the segment of ESB belonging to each services provided by the security API, such as for host. example, the encryption and deciphering of every message sent or received. cOnnEcTOr-BASEd SEcUriTy It is possible to opt to perform these security operations implicitly, such that programmers limit themselves to Normally, this case arises in the developed connectors sending and receiving messages over a secure medium in which it is easy to include a security management of transport. module. Its advantage in comparison to message broker-based security is that it is easier to control which module for message Encryption parts of messages should be encrypted and which This module intercepts the messages exchanged parts should not. between the application and the ESB and determines whether or not these should be encrypted. Where the module is integrated into the ESB itself – specifically in the message broker – the messages are encrypted or not depending on the type of message mESSAgE BrOkEr-BASEd SEcUriTy The message broker is the element that sends or receives information between the connector and the ESB. “AdminiSTrATiOn ThrOUgh Acls mAkES iT pOSSiBlE This component can be capable of establishing secure channels between systems and thus depositing duly TO AUThEnTicATE SErvicE encrypted information in the ESB. One example of BUS AccESS, ApArT frOm this would be the use of SSL in TCP/IP to perform the information exchanges. AUThOriSing ThE USE Of SErvicES On ThE BASiS Of The direct use of this mechanism implies the encryption of all the data contained in all messages. Consequently, cliEnT idEnTiTy.” 20
  • 21. SEcUriTy BASEd On ThE prOXy BETwEEn cOn- “inTEgrATiOn SUiTES USE nEcTOrS And ThE ESB TrAnSAcTiOn mOniTOrS ThAT The use of security proxies is a specific case of implEmEnT ThE XA STAndArd TO connector-based security that will be indispensable prOvidE TrAnSAcTiOnAliTy TO where connectors that do not support security services are employed, as well as connectors in which BUSinESS prOcESSES.” no development is to be done that will permit the incorporation of such services. The proxies will have the following characteristics: > Security proxies will be installed in all those machines housing applications that need to secure message extent, so as not to affect its response time and comply transmission. with the “real time” maxim. > Each application needing authentication shall have its own security proxy for exclusive use. This is due to This characteristic accounts for transactionality not the fact that the proxy may use digital certificates that being one of the mandatory points to comply with authenticate the proxy with respect to the ESB. in suites that implement EAI, but rather, being an > Each security proxy shall have a different identifier that optional feature which, at times, may even have to be is unique in the network. resolved by bringing in solutions belonging to third-party > The communication channel established between manufacturers. applications and their security proxy must be protected. It may certainly be said that there are EAI solutions > The proxy will make use of the security API to protect on the market that provide transactionality as a serial messages before sending them and to remove the feature, but in fact, these solutions are not EAI solutions protection from messages received. properly said, but rather, transaction monitors, used > The proxy must be able to record the information for their capacity to connect to databases in order to about messages sent and/or received. perform application integration through data exchange. These solutions do not present the characteristics ThE Acl mAnAgEmEnT SErvicE proper to EAI as we have described it in previous chapters, but even then, they may be used to This service is a server process that distributes implement service oriented architecture, albeit in a very security information to the applications connected to basic way. the ESB. This information is managed by the security administrator and is based on the establishment of Currently, integration suites admit the creation of relationships with users (roles) and user groups with transaction islands within their business processes. access permits. A transaction island is a container that holds all the transactions or operations with other systems that The security information will refer solely to user require compliance with ACID paradigms (Atomicity, authorisation for access to certain resources. Consistency, Isolation, and Durability). This means that the process imbedded into the transaction container will be carried out only if it is possible to successfully TrAnSAcTiOnAliTy in EAi perform each and every one of the actions inside the container. Otherwise, the container itself is charged to CAs has been previously remarked, the clear event perform the roll-back actions necessary to undo the orientation of EAI leads it to dispense with storing status operation and restore the entire system to its status reports, or at least to do so only to a very restricted prior to the beginning of the transaction block. 21
  • 22. Integration Suites use transaction monitors that When the applications, or resource managers according implement the XA Standard to provide transactionality to the scheme set forth by XA, do not observe these to those business processes that require it, such that principles, it is impossible to comply with the guidelines when the BPA reaches a transaction block in the course established by DTP, and consequently, it is necessary of executing a business process, it cedes execution to attempt to execute a transaction roll-back through to the transaction monitor, which is the element that the adequate organisation of the business process, by resolves that specific part of the process. implementing the pertinent rules that undo that part of the procedure that has been executed. XA is the protocol proposed by X/Open for the management of transactions in distributed environments (Distributed Transaction Process, DTP), as it is reflected in next figure, and proposes the interface to follow in order to effect the connection between the transaction manager (TM) and the resource managers. Noteworthy instances of the implementation of this protocol may be found in CICS, Tuxedo and JTA. Lastly, solutions have appeared on the market that implement object oriented transaction processing monitors, as may be exemplified by OrbixOTM based on CORBA, MTS based on DCOM and Encina based on DEC. “if ThE ApplicATiOnS inTEgrATEd It is nonetheless necessary to indicate that the dO nOT cOmply wiTh ThE XA transactionality is only valid for those applications and STAndArd, iT iS nEcESSAry TO systems compliant with the XA Standard. Typically, these applications are the database managers, and at rESOrT TO prOcESS EnginEEring present, many applications forming part of company in OrdEr TO mAnAgE ThE infrastructure are based on client/server models, making it rather difficult to maintain these principles. cOnSiSTEncy Of OpErATiOnS.” cOncEpTUAl viEw frOm X/OpEn’S dTp mOdEl 2 1 The application defines the APPLICATION 1 The application uses the requirements of the transaction with resources of a set of managers the Transaction Monitor Interface (TX) TRANSACTION MONITOR RESOURCE MANAGER 3 The Transaction Monitor and the Resource Managers exchange information over the XA interface 22
  • 23. SOA IN .NET The leading software manufacturers are directly involved the while that their content will always remain the same, in the processes of defining the new standards that regardless of the transport. And… how do we publish guide the development of IT. our services? Each of them implements the standards defined in its When it comes to publishing a service, it is possible own way, enriching their functions with respect to the to opt for different alternatives depending on how the functions of other manufacturers, competing so that service is going to be used. Depending on the platform their products may be the winners… and Microsoft is no on which the clients or consumers of the service are exception. Its involvement in the adoption of XML as a executed, it may turn out to be of more or less interest support for communication between systems is shaping to think about publishing the services in the server GAC up as a winning option. or in SOAP. If all my applications that consume the service are developed on .NET, the easiest workaround Along with the principal software manufacturers, would appear to be to register the assembly containing Microsoft belongs to the consortium called OASIS, an the function in the GAC so that other applications organisation set up for the purpose of developing and may use it automatically. But what happens when the orienting the adoption of new IT standards. consumer is not executed on the .NET Framework? There may be applications developed in other XML support may be found in all Microsoft products. technologies that cannot use this Framework resource. Due to broad acceptance on the part of other The new standards indicate that web services have an manufacturers, every day there are increasingly more advantage over other forms of publication, and their language specifications for the exchange of information adoption on the market is, without a doubt, the best based on XML. Many sectors have their own specific support that they can rely on. languages: the health sector has the new version of HL7, the chemical sector has CML, the graphic design sector has SVG or SMIL, and XBRL exists for the financial sector. Every field has an XML base, whether in wEB SErvicES an original version or a new version. Microsoft clearly backs a web service oriented platform Microsoft maintains its other tactic, namely, simplicity in based on XML. This medium for publishing services the handling of its tools. For this purpose, it continues makes it possible for any platform capable of generating to facilitate the administration and configuration of all its a SOAP request to consume web services developed products from user-friendly interfaces, contributing SSO on a different platform. mechanisms throughout its technological platform and making other software manufacturers seek compatibility in their products, not only with the J2EE platform, but also giving support to the .NET platform. “micrOSOfT, AS A fOUnding mEmBEr Of OASiS, pArTicipATES wOrking wiTh SErvicES in dEfining All TypES Of In order to consume a service, it is necessary to have STAndArdS lArgEly rElATEd TO a client that acts as a service requester. The client SErvicE OriEnTATiOn.” generates a message containing the request and waits for another message containing the response. Depending on the service interface, the request and response messages will be encapsulated according to the channels or protocols used for communication, all 23
  • 24. Using two of the most widespread technologies published in the web server with the .DISCO extension. currently in circulation – communication by hypertext These can contain both the URL to locate the WSDL transfer protocol (http) and message structuring by file representing the operations of the web service to means of XML – web services are similar in certain be invoked and references to other .DISCO files that aspects to .NET Remoting, over which they have a reroute the request. crucial difference: the potential for interoperability with other platforms. While the implementation of a service In the design phase, if access is had to the through .NET Remoting implies that the consumer implementation of the web service, various Microsoft process must be executed on the .NET platform, the IDE tools make it possible to generate a web service use of web services enables any execution platform proxy, in such a manner as to compile the service call. other than .NET that manages SOAP/HTTP to invoke On other occasions, it becomes necessary to invoke the services. Doing so requires the adoption of three the service in a dynamic way, by creating the proxy for standards already mentioned: SOAP as communication invoking the service operations dynamically. protocol, WSDL for the description of the functions offered by the web service and, optionally, UDDI for the There are other manners of requesting the execution business catalogue based on XML lists. of a service without using SOAP for communication. Microsoft has its own implementation of a messaging In addition, there are a large number of specifications system based on message queues, Microsoft regulating the evolution of web services. These MQ. The possibility of using message queues as a specifications affect transactions, security, messaging, communications mechanism adds persistence, a etc. factor that can be crucial on a service platform. When a service is not available, the use of communication As a complement to the discovery of web services in mechanisms that provide persistence makes it possible the absence of a UDDI catalogue, Microsoft offers the to maintain the information about the request so as to function of dynamic discovery through the Discovery process it when the service becomes accessible once protocol. The definition of the web service container in more. a WSDL file is only useful when we know how to locate and use it. Where there is no service catalogue such However, when it is necessary to execute more than as UDDI, the files of the Discovery protocol may be one service to resolve a business process, how do we SOA prOTOcOlS TRANSACTIONS SECURITy TRANSACTIONS METADATA > WS-Coordination > WS-Security SECURITy MESSAGING > WSDL > WS-AtomicTransaction > WS-SecureConversation > WS-ReliableMessaging > WS-Policy > WS-BusinessActivity > WS-SecurityPolicy > WS-PolicyAssection > WS-Trust > WS-PolicyAttachment > WS-Federation > WS-Discovery > WS-Single Sign-On > WS-MetadataExchange MESSAGING > SOAP > MTOM (Attachments) > WS-Eventing > SOAP-over-UDP > WS-Addressing > WS-Enumeration > WS-Transfer XML > XML > Namespaces in XML > XML Information Set 24
  • 25. ensure coordination during execution? By means of mOniTOring transactionality? And what happens to security? Service orchestration may be designed by In service oriented architecture, it is indispensable to programming, whereby the developer coordinates the be aware at all times of the availability of resources and calls to the operations offered by different services. This their employment status. requires an environment that facilitates the coordinated execution of the services required by the process, that Visual Studio, with its types of System.Diagnostics simplifies the management of security on all levels, that namespace, facilitates the design and development brings about the monitoring of the resources employed of parts of the architecture for tracing and auditing, throughout the execution process and, above all, that making it possible to configure levels of detail for the is supported by a transaction manager capable of information, apply criteria for the consumption of the processing several operations as a single transaction events generated, or assign different repositories for the unit. logs as MSM Queues, DBs, or text files. And how are services executed? Visual Studio also SEcUriTy offers an extensive set of performance metres that make it possible to obtain service status “shots” indicating Microsoft participates together with Sun in the memory, consumption, number of execution threads process of defining the basic specifications for and requests processed… providing a complete the implementation of Single Sign–On. This type perspective that makes it possible to measure service of authentication enables a user to obtain access implementation quality on the basis of the resources privilege to several systems through a single petition for consumed. authentication. In order to have a thorough knowledge of the status When several services offered by multiple platforms of service provider resources, it is possible to use the are executed in a coordinated manner, this way of advantages of Windows Management Instrumentation. functioning simplifies security management. This monitoring infrastructure makes it possible to measure the transaction load that a process requires, Microsoft integrates SSO into its server products (IIS, the memory consumption involved in the execution of SQL Server, BizTalk Server etc.), such that once a user an operation, or its response time. is validated against an Active Directory in the domain, he does not have to log in as a user and give his password again when he wants to access a protected resource. Using the Windows integrated security function, the authentication ticket obtained during initial validation is transmitted to other servers in subsequent requests without the need for the user to log in once more. “ThE pOSSiBiliTy Of USing mESSAgE qUEUES AS A mEchAniSm Of cOmmUnicATiOnS AddS pErSiSTEncE, A crUciAl fAcTOr On A SErvicE plATfOrm.” 25
  • 26. TrAnSAcTiOnAliTy the operations. When the response indicating that all the managers are available is received, the confirmation The execution of a business process that involves the phase is initiated, in which the transaction coordinator invocation of several services is usually linked to the sends another message to the managers to perform concept of distributed transactions, the management the confirmation. Should any manager not send a system whereby all the operations executed in one satisfactory response to this second request, all the and the same transactional context may act as a single transactions initiated in the context will be cancelled. atomic transaction in which confirmation is performed for all the transactions or for none of them. The manner of working with the objects that manage transactions was upgraded starting from version 2.0 of Microsoft facilitates coordination of distributed .NET Framework. By using the classes of the System. transactions through the COM+ model. Using MSDTC Transactions package, developers will not have to (Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator), it is distinguish between objects that will give support to a possible to administer several distributed transaction simple transaction (operations over one and the same operations provided that the transaction resource connection to a repository) and objects employed to that each operation represents is compatible with manage distributed transactions in programming. the standard specification on distributed transaction management (X/Open XA). This compatibility is Developers will not need to know the type of transaction enriched by the protocol known as Two-Phase Commit they wish to manage during the design phase. When or 2Pc: confirmation is produced simultaneously on the first transaction is created, the framework will all the transaction managers only if all the elements petition a lightweight transaction designed for simple involved are available for the purpose. Once operations transactions. When a new transaction is added to the have been executed, during the preparation phase, context, the framework will automatically promote the the MSDTC, transaction coordinator asks about object to a TxTransaction type of request capable of the availability of the managers integrated into the coordinating transactions on more than one transaction transaction context so as to confirm the execution of manager… all this without obliging the developer to take it into consideration. cliEnT SySTEm Application Server “ThE mAnnEr Of wOrking wiTh Resource Resource ThE OBJEcTS ThAT mAnAgE Manager Manager Proxy DTC Proxy TrAnSAcTiOnS wAS UpgrAdEd STArTing frOm vErSiOn 2.0 Of .nET frAmEwOrk.” DTC DTC Server Server System 1 System 2 26
  • 27. SOA rEAliTiES wiTh .nET whAT dOES ThE fUTUrE hOld fOr US? Microsoft has deployed a series of products around The short-term future shapes the guidelines for service the .NET platform using Framework as a context of orientation. As it has been said in the preceding execution that facilitate the task of implementing SO section, the new Microsoft product versions share this architecture in companies. philosophy, including components specifically designed for adaptation to the new architecture. The Microsoft IDE, Visual Studio, has undergone substantial modification throughout its existence. Microsoft applications architecture rests on three new Microsoft offers a set of tools for Visual Studio called pillars: the Windows Communication Foundation, the Web Service Enhancements as a development Windows Presentation Foundation and the Windows component specialised in the design of web services. WorkFlow Foundation. Outstanding among its principal features is security management and the adoption of the latest standards indigO: windOwS cOmmUnicATiOn fOUndATiOn related to web services. The new specifications come integrated into the new versions of the package. Indigo offers a framework oriented toward service development and integration, clearly defining the Another feature to underscore is the possibility of manner of consuming the service. The development of developing web services without the need to publish a service is much simpler. The interaction between a them on an IIS. The web services may be deployed on consumer and the service takes place exclusively over console applications or on Windows services and may XML. The only restriction in this communication is the be invoked using TCP/IP. service interface itself. The Yukon project known as SQL Server 2005 A WCF service will be composed of the class that demonstrates the influence of service orientation based groups together the functions of the service offered on the integration of several channel adaptors on SQL through methods, an application and a process that servers. By using a new service as a broker, it will permit shape the service execution context, and some points the queuing of requests for the execution of sentences in asynchronous mode. It also integrates other SMTP messaging services, .NET alerts or http requests – everything necessary to connect database servers to SErviciO wcf the service bus. host When it comes to linking systems, BizTalk Server is PROCESS the EAI tool on which the integration platform rests. Thanks to its ease of process configuration, its multiple adaptors – supplemented by routing – and the design of APPLICATION integrated solutions with a visual client, the functionality DOMAIN of BizTalk Server helps when it comes to publishing and consuming services as well as integrating systems or distributing information. Sevice METhODS Class Endpoints INDIGO 27
  • 28. of access to the functions in order to interact with Data suppliers will obtain the information from relational consumers. Communication between the consumer or other repository types of XML sources that may and each function of the service at these points is be used by developers. This makes possible a client regulated by a service contract. So as to facilitate architecture in which the server transmits screens the consumption of the service, a series of contracts represented in XAML in order to generate controls. defining its features is established. There must be at least one service contract through which the consumer may obtain the information necessary in order to windOwS wOrkflOw fOUndATiOn construct the call to a service method. On another hand, another type of contract will indicate the data Microsoft is planning to incorporate this into its structures that the service manages. Communication products such as its new operating system, Windows with the service will be regulated by a message contract Vista, the Microsoft Office Suite or BizTalk Server, in specifying the composition of the message elements. order to increase its functionality. Its name reflects its In principle, the elements of a message are the heading function: the management of workflows, understanding and the body, although it is possible to create other workflows to refer to the orderly execution of activities elements by means of a contract customising the on the basis of business rules. definition of the message structure. This would give rise to a “typed” message. It provides a set of resources for programmatically controlling the flow of information that the execution Indigo services principally employ resources for security, of a process involves. It is equipped with a visual serialization and transaction management… Indigo designer of workflow processes that will facilitate the will functionally replace the development done with task of coordinating the execution of activities using web services and .NET Remoting, and will become a the advantages of the new framework, above all those fundamental component in the development of services. utilities related to transaction management and service consumption. AvAlOn: windOwS prESEnTATiOn fOUndATiOn Microsoft presents a whole new range of integrated products for developing, implanting and maintaining a This is the new programming interface for heavy client highly solvent service oriented architecture, with tools applications. Equipped with a package of new controls based on common components. to increase user-machine interaction, it integrates the new XAML (eXtended Application Markup Language) specification, the programming language for graphic interfaces in both 2D and 3D. In combination with the usual .NET programming languages, the developer will be able to control programmatically the look and feel of the client application with XAML as though he were working with the styles of a web application, except that the results will be much more attractive. “indigO OffErS A frAmEwOrk But this is not the sole advantage of WPF… All OriEnTEd TOwArd SErvicE applications have to process the information that they handle in one way or another. When the application dEvElOpmEnT And inTEgrATiOn.” design separates the data presentation into different layers, it is necessary to manage a link between both sections. WPF has several data management services to facilitate the link and the information management. 28
  • 29. SOA IN LEgACy TECHNOLOgy AND OTHER ALTERNATIvE ENvIRONmENTS Although J2EE and .NET technologies are the area of the memory known as the “COMMunications principal options when it comes to implementing an AREA”. The programs may be written in COBOL, SO architecture, it is normal for companies to have PL/I, C, C++, Java, etc. Usually they do not store software assets developed in other technologies that it any status information between invocations (they are would also be of interest to take advantage of as SOA stateless) and they delegate transactionality or the services. security context over a CICS runtime. The said technologies may normally fall into two > Programs oriented toward invocation from a 3270 categories. On one hand, we have the category of terminal. These are programs that receive a data legacy technologies (classic or inherited systems), which stream along with the user request (which may may be exemplified by CICS/Cobol transaction systems, include characteristics of the input device) and procedures stored in Oracle databases or applications generate a data stream with the response (which may developed in C or Visual Basic. On another hand, we also include characteristics of the output terminal). have the category of relatively minority technologies that Every request- response usually corresponds to an represent alternatives to J2EE and .NET, such as PHP interaction between the user and his terminal. The set or, recently, Ruby, among others. of programs invoked make up the “conversation” of the user with the application. One of the principal promises of SOA is to permit the use of web services encapsulating the underlying Although each transaction or program may be technology in a non-relevant form. Some strategies monolithic, it is recommended that these be internally when it comes to tackling implantations of this type are structured with a distinction between these levels: set forth below. > Message Adaptor Level (encapsulating the specific In the first place, it must not be forgotten that SOA communication with a specific client), if one exists deals with the interconnection of business services. > Integration Level The first step is to correctly identify and select them. > Business Logic These should be services with a relevant business > Data Access Logic function to the company, an appropriate granularity (a high granularity is not convenient, since each web Thus, the adaptation of the program to different clients service invocation implies a certain penalisation due to is facilitated and its capacity for reutilisation improves. the transformation and transport of the information), and a self-contained and adaptable character (it must be possible for them to evolve or be substituted by other equivalent services without any impact outside the service; i.e., without affecting the rest of the processes “iT iS nOrmAl fOr cOmpAniES of which they form part). TO hAvE SOfTwArE ASSETS dEvElOpEd in OThEr cicS EnvirOnmEnTS TEchnOlOgiES ApArT frOm CICS environments currently enjoy a widespread JAvA And .nET, And ThAT iT mAy presence in sectors such as Public Administration, AlSO BE Of inTErEST TO TAkE Banking or Insurance, where a significant part of the AdvAnTAgE Of AS SOA SErvicES.” business services is based on this technology. Two large categories of CICS applications are taken into consideration: > COMMAREA-based programs. These are programs that receive requests and send responses over an 29
  • 30. The need to contemplate certain aspects of the input/ If the applications server is intended to execute within output terminal, which is present in the second type the mainframe, this must be an IBM WebSphere of CICS program, is an inconvenience with respect Application Server. If the applications server is located to its utility in services (in which the dependencies of on another platform outside the mainframe, this may be a terminal make no sense). The ideal scenario is for any J2EE applications server with JCA support (J2EE programs only to concern themselves with aspects of Connector Architecture), in order to be able to use the context and session. CICS Transaction Gateway. For this reason, IBM provides characteristics such as This server would take charge of the tasks of incoming Link3270 and BMS (Basic Mapping Support) in CICS message validation, conversion into the appropriate Transaction Servers that make it easy to prepare even format for CICS, invocation of the program through the those programs that have to dialogue with terminals CICS Transaction Gateway, recovery of the response in such a way that they are internally based on message, and conversion into the output format. The COMMAREA, facilitating their use as services. said tasks would be implemented by means of Java servlets. On another hand, the normal practice is for CICS programs to be the ones setting themselves up as In the event that our applications server is in the .NET services to be invoked from external clients. They do technology, there are similar products on the market not, for their part, usually behave as direct web service such as Microsoft Host Integrator, which make the clients. server environment par excellence accessible to the distribution environments, making it possible to request Typically, a service residing on a CICS Transaction for the execution of a transaction, pick up the result, Server may be accessible over external connectors and return the response to the consumer. (for example, CICS Transaction Gateway and the JCA connector), internal adaptors (such as web adaptors or In this manner, CICS programs take charge solely of WebSphereMQ, a socket listener, or Java ORB). the business process, and the rest is delegated to the front-end, allowing for greater flexibility when it comes To use CICS programs in an SOA environment – i.e., to to incorporating new standards. This also prevents invoke it from SOAP clients (i.e., web service clients), burdening the performance of the CICS environment the normal practice is for the SOAP request to be with additional validation and formatting tasks. received by the web adaptor (HTTP listener) or the WebSphere MQ adaptor for CICS Transaction Servers, which pass the request over to the “SOAP for CICS” engine, which in turn processes the headings and establishes context, finally passing the XML message “AnOThEr STrATEgy Of rApid on to a message adaptor, which converts it into a COMMAREA structure. Once the business logic is AdApTATiOn TO wEB SErvicES executed, the response is left in COMMAREA; the fOr A cicS EnvirOnmEnT mAy message adaptor converts it into XML, and “SOAP for CICS” adds the necessary headings, dispatching the BE TO SiTUATE An ApplicATiOnS response over the pertinent listener (web or MQ). SErvEr AcTing AS A frOnT-End IBM provides tools to facilitate the conversion of XML BETwEEn ThE SOAp cliEnT And messages into COMMAREA structures and vice-versa ThE cicS prOgrAmS.” in its development suite. “SOAP for CICS” also makes it possible for CICS programs to act as web service clients, although this is not such a frequent scenario, as has already been indicated. 30
  • 31. The following figure summarises the different Thus, the principal database administration possibilities formulated: manufacturers (Oracle, IBM, Microsoft, etc.) are incorporating web service runtimes and environments cicS/390 ApplicATiOnS into their products in such a way that codes may be placed in the current databases to act as web service consumers or providers. The choice of the optimum technological solution for building and starting up these services usually depends on each case, making it convenient to do a prior XML XML XML analysis of a functional as well as technical type that can identify the aspects to be evaluated (granularity, quality Internet, Intranet of service, security, performance, scalability, etc.). It is highly recommendable to select and prepare a pilot solution. J2EE App Srv + JCA. CTG In the case of Oracle, there are several alternatives to enable the database to operate with web services, win, unix either acting as client or as server. Recourse may be taken to low-level libraries such as the UTL_HTTP Websphere CICS and UTL_DBWS packages, which make it possible to OS/390 TRANSACTION course HTTP and SOAP invocations. Nonetheless, it is + SERvER JCA, CTG recommendable to resort to the higher level tools made available in the new versions (Oracle 9i and 10g). CICS/390 APPLICATIONS To enable an Oracle database to consume web services, it is possible to install the “Database Web OS/390 Service Callout Utilities” that the manufacturer offers free of charge. These Java-based utilities install the necessary classes to avail of the SOA stack in the Given that in companies using a CICS environment, this database and (using the JPublisher utility) make it usually takes charge of the critical transactions of the possible to generate a Java proxy or a PL/SQL wrapper, business, it is important to evaluate carefully whether on the basis of a description of the service in WSDL there will be an impact in performance, in the light of the format, which facilitates the process of invoking the foreseeable increases in requests and the added overload said service from procedures stored in one or another that enabling access through web services presupposes. language. EnvirOnmEnTS invOlving prOcEdUrES STOrEd On dATABASES “in ThE cUrrEnT vErSiOnS Of In many companies, another large group of software dATABASE SErvErS SUppliEd By assets are implemented in the form of procedures ThE principAl mAnUfAcTUrErS stored in the database, such as, for example, PL/SQL (OrAclE, iBm, micrOSOfT), iT procedures in the case of Oracle databases. iS pOSSiBlE TO plAcE cOdES These stored procedures often reflect business logic ThAT cAn AcT AS wEB SErvicE that may be offered in the form of services. On another hand, it may also be necessary for the said business cOnSUmErS Or SUppliErS.” logic to invoke other web services external to the database as part of their processes. 31
  • 32. If what is necessary is to convert the database into With respect to consuming web services, an IBM a web service provider, the usual practice is to seek WebSphere Studio plug-in provides tools that make support from an applications server that will act as it possible to convert an existing WSDL interface into intermediary. The JPublisher utility also serves to a DB2 function (which returns a table or scalar value). encapsulate database operations, generating a Java This way, it is possible to access a web service directly proxy class which in turn may be deployed on the said from SQL sentences without the intervention of an applications server (OC4J) in the form of a web service. applications server. The Web Service Assembler is used for this. When a client invokes the web service that is executed in OC4J, Lastly, as was already remarked in the .NET section, the Java proxy class in turn calls the operation from Microsoft provides similar features through SQL Server the database over JDBC. The result is converted into a Web Services Toolkit, available for SQL Server 2000 and SOAP message and returned to the client. equipped with more functions in the new version, SQL Server 2005 (Yukon). Upon using the Java proxy generated, the implementation is aligned with the SO architecture proposed by Oracle with its “Oracle Fusion EnvirOnmEnTS wiTh AnSi c Or viSUAl c++ / Middleware”. This family of products provides the viSUAl BASic ApplicATiOnS following advantages: One example of legacy applications developed in ANSI > Interoperability compliant with WS-I Basic Profile 1.0 C and considered as candidates for conversion into > Guarantee of delivery as per the WS-Reliability services could be exemplified by algorithms that form standard part of a very specific business process for which > Security compliant with WS-Security implementation through ANSI C was chosen for reasons > Web services management over Oracle Web Services of performance at that moment, before the modern Manager Java compilers had achieved comparable performance > Integration with Oracle BPEL Process Manager results. Algorithms for the annulment of tenders in liberalised and dynamic markets, or rate calculators for Although it could be technically possible for the insurance policies, for example, would fall under this database to be a direct web service provider without the group. need for an intermediate applications server, it is more flexible to be supported by one, not only for reasons of scalability, but also because, given the fast pace of upgrades and adaptations of standards related to SOA that the manufacturers are introducing into their “AlThOUgh dATABASES mAy products, it seems more prudent for the applications dirEcTly OffEr And cOnSUmE server to be the one recording the upgrades instead of the database, in which greater stability is desirable. wEB SErvicES, iT iS mOrE flEXiBlE TO SEEk SUppOrT frOm In analogy with what is indicated for Oracle, IBM DB2 also incorporates capabilities for producing or An ApplicATiOnS SErvEr fOr consuming web services. In the case of the service rEASOnS Of ScAlABiliTy, And provider, it is supported by the features Webservices Object Runtime Framework (WORF) and Document BEcAUSE ThiS lATTEr BETTEr Access Definition Extension (DADx), which make it AdApTS TO ThE UpgrAdES in ThE possible to generate WSDL interfaces for those SQL STAndArdS.” sentences or invocations to stored procedures that it is desired to present as services. To do this, a DADx file is generated and installed together with its associated runtime (Apache SOAP 2.2) on any applications server. 32
  • 33. The most flexible option for their conversion into web In what concerns web services developed under these services is to use an intermediate applications server languages, there are currently basic implementations of that will take charge of supporting the standards and the SOAP protocol that permit the generation of web validating and converting input and output formats. service clients and servers. Some examples are: If, for some reason, direct integration is necessary > SOAP::Lite (Perl) without the presence of an applications server, > NuSOAP, SOAPx4 (PHP) recourse may be taken to market, commercial or free > TclSOAP (Tcl) libraries. One example could be Axis CPP and Axis2. > SOAPpy, ZSI (Python) Nevertheless, degree of maturity and support of the > SOAP4R (Ruby) said products, which, like the standards, are in constant evolution, should be evaluated. However, when it comes to dealing with the preparation of SOA services based on these languages and these With regard to applications developed with Microsoft SOAP implementations, it is important to study their Visual C++ or Visual Basic for the Windows platform, degree of maturity and interoperability in relation to the whether these are user applications that now require currently valid standards. There are portals such as invoking a service or components that it is currently SOAPBuilders where it is possible to verify degree of desirable to convert into services, these may be interoperability between different free and commercial incorporated into service architecture over different implementations in different languages (Java, C, Perl, paths. This may be done, for example, by migrating PHP, Tcl, and Ruby). the code of the application into .NET or by employing the utilities of the .NET platform to create CCWs (COM Likewise, the Web Services Interoperability Organization Callable Wrappers). Using this type of proxy, a COM (WS-I) provides tools (called “Testing Tools”) to verify client can communicate with .NET components and whether a web services implementation is compliant make them take charge of the details regarding web with the WS-I Basic Profile, the WS-I Attachments services (client or server). In the same way, a service Profile and the WS-I Simple SOAP Binding Profile. offered by a COM component may be consumed by a .NET application, in this case, over an RCW (runtime callable wrapper) type of proxy that will allow the application to handle the unmanaged code of the COM component. In any case, the reasoning applicable may be very diverse, and hence could require previous study. AlTErnATivE EnvirOnmEnTS During the last few years, there has been a proliferation “wS-i prOvidES TOOlS (cAllEd of alternative languages with respect to the classical or majority languages for the execution of diverse tasks, TESTing TOOlS) TO vErify such as: whEThEr A wEB SErvicE > fast generation of dynamic web pages > complete web applications exemplified by forums, implEmEnTATiOn iS cOmpliAnT content managers, weblogs or incident tracking wiTh ThE wS-i BASic prOfilE.” systems > preparation of system administration scripts > preparation of testing scripts. These generally involve extendable, multi-platform, interpreted execution script languages. Some examples are PHP, Perl, Tcl, Python and Ruby. 33
  • 34. CONCLuSION Service Oriented Architectures are a reality that is being need on the global economy. Following this line, implemented in the leading companies on the market. it has been created at the European continent a Regardless of sector and the size in which they are Technology Platform, NESSI (Networked European found, a large number of companies are now in the Software & Services Initiative), whose objective is to process of migration to this architecture type. define a development frame for services architectures incorporation, sharing and adding services through all Although SOA was perceived as a technology for future the European countries and all the industrial sectors. implementation in the past, it has currently matured and At this moment, Atos Origin is in charge of the NESSI is enjoying great market support, being able to rely on Executive Committee Vice-presidency. On the other mature solutions among different manufacturers. hand, on a country level, it has been established the Spanish Technology Platform INÉS, with Atos Origin like This situation of maturity does not preclude the a founding member and whose objectives are aligned existence of different aspects in which it is necessary to with those from NESSI about promoting and adopting continue developing, such as Security, Transactionality SOA with a nation-wide application. and Interoperability, where certain problems may still be found in some situations. Lastly, we should indicate that SOA adoption is possible and beneficial in the majority of companies, regardless Likewise, in certain cases, aspects of performance in of their size and the technology they employ. Although in Service Oriented Architecture have been alluded to. many cases, talking about SOA evokes considerations Evidently, the use of services incorporating layers and about J2EE and .NET, other environments and protocols in communication are going to imply a degree products can be accommodated in this architecture, of penalisation with respect to direct and tightly coupled particularly in the case of EAI products, where different communication (for example, the incorporation of a manufacturers have adapted their products to operate library with functions into our projects), but the benefits in Service Oriented Architecture. to be obtained from the adoption of SOA compensate these possible absences which – on another hand – always appear whenever layers are incorporated into a systems architecture. As has been analysed in the preceding chapters, the adoption of SOA by a company requires a detailed analysis of its current situation so as to discover the most appropriate manner of carrying out such a project. The problems and complexity of the project as well as the solutions proposed will vary to a great degree “AlThOUgh SOA wAS pErcEivEd depending on the size of the company, the technologies that it handles and its integration with third parties. AS A TEchnOlOgy fOr fUTUrE implEmEnTATiOn in ThE pAST, Likewise, in the majority of companies, SOA adoption will be gradual and progressive. It will be important in ThiS TEchnOlOgy hAS cUrrEnTly this process for both the applications developed in the mATUrEd And iS nOw EnJOying new architecture and those existing in the previous grEAT mArkET SUppOrT, BEing environment to be able to interact as transparently as possible. ABlE TO rEly On mATUrE SOlUTiOnS AmOng diffErEnT The services oriented architectures incorporation to enterprises is broadly recognise like a high relevant mAnUfAcTUrErS.” 34
  • 35. BuSINESS LINE IN APPLICATIONS ARCHITECTuRE OF ATOS ORIgIN On the basis of our experience with clients since our of NESSI Technology Platforms in Europe and INÉS in first internet implementations, Atos Origin has consoli- Spain. The R+D activities have been oriented to develop dated a numerous group of architects whose expert new technology solutions to convert to SOA legacy know-how is integrated into our applications architec- applications within the wide Atos Origin’s added value ture line of business, configured along the following services offering. service lines: 1) Multi-Channel Platform (MCP): The Atos MCP ABOUT ATOS Origin originated in 2000 as the result of a project financed Atos Origin is an international information technology with PROFIT funds. Since then, it has matured continu- services company. Its business is turning client vi- ally, with production installations on clients. It is currently sion into results through the application of consulting, available in J2EE and .NET, and presents excellent systems integration and managed operations. The levels of productivity and performance (7,200 concur- company’s annual revenues are EUR 5.8 billion and it rent users and 190 pages per second, according to the employs 50,000 people in 40 countries. Atos Origin is SUN benchmark for December 2004). The MCP is also the Worldwide Information Technology Partner for the used as a reference model in consultation projects. Olympic Games and has a client base of international blue-chip companies across all sectors. Atos Origin is 2) J2EE, .NET, SOA Corporate Application Archi- quoted on the Paris Eurolist Market and trades as Atos tectures: Consulting Services to define models for Origin, Atos Worldline and Atos Consulting. corporate applications adapted to each client, based on market standards. For more information, please visit 3) Rehosting: System consultancy and integration services oriented towards the migration of critical busi- ness applications from mainframe environments to open systems, based on market tools and the company’s own experience. AUThOrS 4) Applications Auditing: Analyses of the technical reasons that provoke deterioration in the performance Ana Coca, Agustín Domínguez, Esdras Martín, Javier of critical applications. Proposals for corrective action Fernández, José Luís Núñez, José María Cavanillas, and their implementation. Ignacio Pérez, Israel Marcos y Roberto Gutiérrez. 5) High Availability Architecture: Architectural con- figurations to achieve the level of availability demanded, pUBliShing And EdiTing using technologies of failure tolerance, load sharing, and crash recovery. This White Paper is a product of the Thought Leadership Division of Atos Origin. 6) IT Consolidation Strategies: Optimisation studies on IT resources by way of infrastructure consolidation. For more information: Assessment in contracting basic HW and SW. 7) Research & Development on Service Engineering: an important part of the Enterprise R+D activity is invested into the consecution of new implementation, adoption and deployment paradigms of All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including services architectures, as well as service discovery and information storage, without prior permission in writing from Marketing & aggregation, aligned with the Research Strategic Agenda Communications department of Atos Origin S.A. Española, Unipersonal. 35
  • 36. Atos Origin Albarracín, 25 28037 Madrid Tel.: +34 91 440 88 00 Fax: +34 91 754 32 52 © Marketing & Communications, Spain 12.08 Atos, Atos and fish symbol, Atos Origin and fish symbol, Atos Consulting, and the fish symbol itself are registered trademarks of Atos Origin SA. December 2008.