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Service Oriented Architecture Service Oriented Architecture
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Service Oriented Architecture Service Oriented Architecture


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  • 1. Achieving Business Agility with SOA/BPM: Enabling the Service Oriented Enterprise Richard Mark Soley, Ph.D. Chairman and CEO Service Oriented Architecture Wikipedia: SOA is… “…a perspective of software architecture that defines the use of services to support the requirements of software users. In an SOA environment, resources on a network are made available as independent services that can be accessed without knowledge of their underlying platform implementation.”
  • 2. SOA Solves All Our Problems? n InfoWorld: Desperately Seeking SOA (Alan Zeichick, 30 December 2004!) n Zapthink: Why is SOA Taking So Long? (October 2005) n Gartner 18 July 2006: SOA is entering the “trough of disillusionment” Service Oriented Architecture
  • 3. Here’s a Thought… Perhaps we should focus on • agility • reusable design • performance metrics • expected change. Some More from Gartner n “Organizations implementing SOA’s should pay close attention to the MDA standards and consider acquiring tools that automate models and rules.” n “By reinforcing the business-level focus and coupling MDA’s with SOA concepts, you end up with a system that is inherently more flexible and adaptable.”
  • 4. Why “Model Driven” ? n Models—abstractions—are ancient in n Engineering n Architecture n Ship-building n Traffic control n Workflow n Maintenance n… People Talk to Computers with Symbols while (x < 10) { printf (stdout, array[x]); x++; } What’s wrong with this (non)-picture? This isn’t how engineers design systems.
  • 5. How to Build Inflexibility First, fill your mould (requirements & schedule) with wet concrete (code): Now React to Changes When you’ve finished, you have a big, rigid, monolithic thing that has one very specific purpose, and • there are no identifiable parts that can be reused for something else • it’s incomposable • it’s completely inflexible • it’s difficult to change • if you try, it breaks.
  • 6. Heterogeneity is Permanent n Programming languages n ~3 million COBOL programmers n ~1.6 million VB programmers n ~1.1 million C/C++ programmers n Operating systems n Unix, MVS, VMS, MacOS, Windows (all 8!), PalmOS… n Windows 3.1: it’s still out there! it’ n Embedded devices (mobile, set-top, etc.) n Networks n Ethernet, ATM, IP, SS7, Firewire, USB Firewire, n Bluetooth, 802.11b, HomeRF The integration picture is always changing Executive decisions, mergers & acquisitions have a way of surprising us…
  • 7. How Can We Deal with This? Make adaptability the design center for your architecture. Design systems as collections of services. Services add flexibility n Improve agility of the enterprise system by mirroring the enterprise n Take an order n Ship a product n Report accounts n Forecast sales n Each business process becomes a service n Modularity leads to flexibility n New processes can use old services
  • 8. Service Oriented Architecture n Service: a (generally) coarse-grained business function, some or all of which is automated n Composable: may be orchestrated into a new business function without unexpected side- effects n Modular: each service represents a self- contained business function with a well- defined interface n Precisely defined: public metadata describes the functionality of the service, how it can be composed, and expected outcomes. SOA is a Business Decision n The decision to structure the business around well- defined services is related to, but not the same as, an IT decision to use SOA n The business decision is tougher than the technical decision.
  • 9. “Precisely defined metadata”? Back up a minute, what is that? Modeling is the Focus n Modeling, especially graphical modeling is n A natural human approach to design n Thousands of years old n Allows expression of design separate from implementation, as implementations change n Allows for long-term maintenance & integration n Is an accelerator of implementation n Is technology-independent 18th century B.C. multiplication table
  • 10. OMG’s Mission Since 1989 n Develop an architecture, using appropriate technology, for modeling & distributed application integration, guaranteeing: n reusability of components n interoperability & portability n basis in commercially available software n Specifications freely available n Implementations exist n Member-controlled not-for-profit Who Are OMG? ABN Amro Ericsson Kaiser Permanente PRISM Adaptive Fujitsu KDM Analytics SAP BEA General Electric MITRE SAS Institute Borland Harris NASA Select Software Boeing Hewlett Packard NEC Siemens CA Hitachi NIST Softeam Citigroup IBM NTT DoCoMo Sun Compuware IONA Northrop Grumman Unisys DaimlerChrysler io Software OASIS Visa EDS Kennedy Carter Oracle W3C
  • 11. OMG’s Best-Known Successes n Common Object Request Broker Architecture n CORBA® remains the only language- and platform-neutral CORBA® language- platform- interoperability standard n Unified Modeling Language n UMLTM remains the world’s only standardized modeling language world’ n Common Warehouse Metamodel n CWMTM, the integration of the last two data warehousing initiatives n Meta-Object Facility n MOFTM, the language-defining language n XML Metadata Interchange n XMITM, the XML-UML standard Going “Up The Stack” n OMG’s history has been to address the “technology stack” from the bottom up: n Object orientation n Distributed middleware n Modeling n Vertical market models n Business management: process & rules
  • 12. The Model Driven Architecture n OMG’s Model Driven Architecture (MDATM) initiative is aimed precisely at modeling “up and down the stack” n You have an opportunity to increase your bottom line by integrating your assets n Industry standards support that goal by future-proofing your application design n The MDA will help you integrate the mix you have today, and give you an architecture to support the unexpected n Focus on integrating legacy applications n Ensure smooth integration of COTS applications n Models are testable and simulatable n The aim: a 20-year software architecture What is Model Driven Architecture? n A Better Way to Specify and Design & Develop n Based on modeling standards like UML, MOF n Is extensible to all modeling problems n Supports full lifecycle: analysis, design, implementation, deployment, maintenance, evolution & integration with later systems n Builds in Interoperability and Portability n Lowers initial cost and maximizes ROI
  • 13. Model Driven Architecture n An initiative of the Object Management Group (OMG) n A brand for tools based on OMG’s UML and MOF open standards n A set of specifications defined by OMG’s open, worldwide process. Modeling: Key Concepts n Emphasis on transformation techniques n Based on a standard metamodeling framework; there will be many metamodels, and plenty of modeling languages (including UML) n Clear semantics, expressed consistently n Potentially many levels of abstraction n Enduring architectures are the focus n Maintenance and integration aren’t pretty, but they are the main job of IT n Graphical languages as well as textual ones n Some generic, some domain-specific, just like the textual language world
  • 14. Model Driven Architecture Shared Languages are Important n The Unified Modeling Language is the successor to the dozens of OO A&D notations of the early ’90s n UML is broadly adopted, as are other key OMG modeling languages: BPMN, CWM, MOF, XMI n Initial UML 1.x standardized in 1997 n Vendor-neutral worldwide certification easily available n Standardization primed the market n Hundreds of books n Dozens of commercial tools n Widely available training n Supported by an open process n UML 2.0 updates came from 54 companies
  • 15. UML & MDA Books Proliferating UML Certification Program (OCUP) § OMG/UTI UML Certification Program § Started November 2003 § Worldwide (English & Japanese) § Books available in Japanese & German § Three levels of accomplishment § Focused on UML 2.0 § New Realtime/Embedded on the way OMG Endorsed!
  • 16. MDA is Proven n Many excellent proofs-of-concept: n Banks, railroads, trading, insurance, manufacturing, healthcare, etc. n Adopted by UN/CEFACT, SWIFT, ACORD, HL7 and other key standards players n Careful studies prove the point n The Middleware Company (TMC) n Electronic Data Systems (EDS) MDA is Fractal n There is a general pattern to MDA: n Discover multiple syntaxes for a single semantic n Derive & design a model which underlies that semantic n Develop transformations between those models.
  • 17. Back to BPM… n Business process management is gaining attention due to the need to organize, outline, implement and measure business processes n Central tenet of the Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) movement is managing processes (and related IT) to increase agility—that requires process management Modeling is Pervasive s ent m pon ss Co BPMN, etc. e si n Bu UML re ctu rc hite dA MOF, CWM, etc. nte -O r ie ce Ser vi
  • 18. Merger of OMG and n Natural combination of groups that had been working together for years n Pulled together metamodeling, modeling & notation n Integrates business process management, process modeling & business rules OMG Business Modeling Activity n Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Rules n Adopted OMG standard n Business Motivation Metamodel n Adopted OMG standard n Business Process Modeling Notation n Adopted OMG standard (2.0 underway) n Business Process Definition Metamodel n In process; expected completion shortly n Organization Structure Metamodel n In process; expected completion shortly n Production Rule Representation n In process; expected completion shortly n Business Process Maturity Model under discussion
  • 19. Business Process Definition Metamodel (BPDM) n Defines an abstract language for specification of executable business processes (with or without human involvement) and may collaborate between otherwise-independent business processes executing in different business environments BP Language BPDM BP Language Business Semantics of Business Rules (BSBR) n Allows business people to define policies and business rules in their own language and to capture those rules in an unambiguous language that is readily translatable to other representations
  • 20. An Underlying MOF Model BPMN: A Core Example § BPMN was designed to bridge the gap between business process design and process implementation § To support both abstract and executable processes: not just automation § BPMN is supported by more than 40 vendors § Process engines support BPMN natively § Tools map BPMN to BPEL and other execution langauges § Also in use by BPM practitioners in the end user community
  • 21. Status of the Standard Ø BPMN 1.0 originally released by BPMI in May, 2004 Ø Fast-tracked by OMG, adopted in only 90 days Ø Specification & information at Simple & Straightforward
  • 22. Circling Back: SOA, BPM & MDA n Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) is an executive decision that requires commitment to discovering, mapping, and executing repeatable processes n Business Process Modeling (BPM) is a requirement for mapping, executing and measuring repeatable processes n Model Driven Architecture (MDA) is a way to share concepts, designs and languages in a world of constantly changing infrastructure and requirements n Tools supporting that stack are in use today. Sneak Peek: SOA Consortium n The SOA Consortium is n An advocacy group helping CIO’s and line- of-business managers make the transition to SOA n A community of practice helping architects share best practices, success & failure stories
  • 23. To Get More Information n BPM Activities Pages n n MDA Information Page n n OMG General Information n n SOA Consortium Information n n Contact the Author n