Basically, all business processes can be modeled, but not all processes has IT support. Of the IT supported processes – e.g. abatch process, an online set of transactions – some are workflow based. Those are the ones of interest here
Different workflow systems focus on different aspects – some of these aspects are listed here. When selecting a workflow system, care must be taken to evaluate the business needs and workflow system capability. BPEL based workflow engines tend to balance these aspects
IBM reference architecture defines the relationship between major components and how they interact thru a Service Oriented Architecture with an Enterprice Service Bus as the transport layer.
The first point to make is that the key focus is on ease of use – we want the business analysts who know the business to be able to do the modeling without them needing to have an in-depth awareness of something like BPEL. We have the ability to model a lot of detail, however the tool allows you to model at just the right level of detail you need to model Collaborative modeling allows for the modeler to communicate their designs with the wider enterprise and allow their participation in the modeling exercise via feedback mechanisms. Another usage pattern of the Collaboration support is for training of users – the To-Be process can be communicated with a wider audience to help them understand the changes made and how that impacts them in their interaction with the process. The model can then be transformed and exported for consumption within the IT tools – principally WebSphere Integration Developer v6.0. The Integration Architect/Specialist will then add further levels of IT detail to the model to prepare it for deployment to the runtime environment.
The key point to take away from this slide is that there are multiple facets required to provide business understanding and WebSphere Business Modeler addresses this by providing multiple complementary models.
A typical BPM project requires integration with many key components
Business subject matter experts are involved in defining the AS-IS and TO-BE processes. Technical ressources skilled in the services being invoked add specific technical information (e.g. which CICS trancode to invoke, parameter setup). Also, the WPC modeling is done by technical people skilled in WPC and Java (some java knowledge required). Typically, the business people model at a somewhat higher level using Powerpoint, Visio or WBI Modeler.
This is an example of a menu based case processing application. Notice that the sequence of activities is not the same as the listing of the menu items – experienced users have learned which sequence, activities must be performed in. Also notice on the animation that step E is not executed for this particular case.
The drawbacks of menu based processsing are listed here. The process state is in the head of the user and the state is not well defined if the user freely choose the sequence of activities. If the state is not well defined, it is hard or impossible to let other users do some of the activities – they dont know what has been done. Therefore, the same user runs the whole case. The users must learn the sequence of steps and the condition for executing each one and they must know the business rules – hence users must be told when a rule changes. If something goes wrong e.g. if an inexperienced user does activities out of sequence, the user has to correct the mistake. Finally, automation is rarely done, because automation requires context and rules as seen from the next slide
This slide illustrates several points: First, with the state and sequence of activities build into the flow, different users can be requested to do different activities – specialization that will free up skilled ressources and let lesser experienced people do the simple tasks. That does not prevent freedom of choice of sequence for the users – where it makes sense.
Secondly, workflow leads to automation of low risk activities freeing up ressources – often in the range 25%-40%. Activity E could be an approval of a low risk situation where the amount is low. Also, by changing the business rule from amount>100000 to >200000 further optimization can be done, and the users dont have to be instructed in this changed rule, reducing learning time and errors. Errors are reduced by allowing only valid sequence of activities and error handling can also be automated for different error types.
Business Process Management IBM – Vision, Tools and Experience 5. December 2006 Copenhagen, ITU Bo Ebro Christensen, Executive IT Architect
The term Business Process Management refers to activities performed by businesses to optimize and adapt their processes .
Although it can be said that organizations have always been using BPM , a new impetus based on the advent of software tools which allow for
direct execution of the business processes without a costly and time intensive development of the required software.
In addition, these tools can also monitor the execution of the business processes, providing managers of an organization with the means to analyze their performance and make changes to the original processes in real-time
BPM has a tight link to componentized and service oriented IT architecture
BPM landscape - Workflow Classification User Experience Document Centric WF systems Collaboration Based WF systems Business Process Manager (BPEL Engine) Department or single user WF systems Collaboration Documents and forms Processing Data and Function Integration
Workflow – what is it ? Service X Service U Service Y Service Z Workflow Workflows implement business processes Workflow engine navigates the network of activities Typically invoking automatic (service choreography) or manual activities Mostly visual programming/modeling Human Task A Human Task D Human Task F Human Task B Human Task C Invoke Invoke Invoke Invoke
Cost Benefit Benefit sample: Pilot project: 1 hour saved/process instance, 400 instances pr day 400 H/day = 60 FTE Implementing an enterprice wide BPM Infrastructure is a major strategic investment.
Business benefits from the Process Oriented Approach
Process modeling - a new approach to application and service development – a radical change from traditional application development
Key benefits :
Visibility & commonality of processes
Processes as the common ”language” between IT and business
Cost reduction through flexible automation – typically 20+%
Process optimization and streamlining across applications and the enterprise
Continuous, nondisruptive process improvement
Monitoring provides understanding of WHERE the employees spend their time
Base for new automation
Faster implementation of changes in processes – typically 30+%
Optimizing skills usage in the business
Excellent match & synergy with SOA/ESB
BUT : Users think in ”Cases” – same person for the whole case – takes time to start thinking in processes / activities ”best man for the job”
Document processes for use by a business to understand the business process
Customers use output for training, collaboration, documentation requirements for compliance regulations ( Sarbanes-Oxley and Basel II )
Linkage to real-time monitoring provides a feedback mechanism for reporting requirements needed for compliance
Modeling For Redesign
Document both the current state and future state business process and the comparison to determine Return on Investment (ROI) analysis
Six Sigma and process improvement are common methodologies
Modeling For Execution
Future state business process has runtime characteristics associated to it, so the model is passed to application, workflow and business process development tools.
IBM WebSphere Integration Reference Architecture Infrastructure Management Services Business Application Services Development Services Interaction Services Partner Services Access Services Business Performance Management Services WebSphere Business Modeler Rational/WebSphere Tools WebSphere Information Integrator WebSphere Process Server WebSphere Portal Server WebSphere BI Connect WebSphere Application Server WebSphere Business Monitor Information Services Process Services WBI Adapters HATS WebSphere II Classic Enterprice Service Bus Modern BPM is based on a Service Oriented Architecture Business Analyst Solution Architect J2EE Developer Integration Developer
The Cycle of Business Process Management Establish process modeling methodology Create the As-Is Process Create the To-Be Process Build business measures Communicate and verify business process model Simulate processes to verify model
Build the implementation model (BPEL)
Integrate and connect implementations
Monitor the Processes IT and Business Perspective Monitor Key Performance Indicators Add corrective actions, automatic or manual Feed the model for ‘as-is’ cycle initiation Accelerate With Best Practice Models Integrate Transform Manage Monitor Model
Business Process Management Programmes CBM Business Modeler Publish Server WID (Eclipse) Rational (RAD) (Eclipse) WPS WebSpere Process Server Business Monitor
Component Business Model (CBM) + Modeler: identify and define processes and scope of project
WID + Modeler: Specify workflow part of the process
Rational RAD: Define and implement services in the SOA
WebSphereProcessServer (WPS) – runtime – execute the workflow processes on a WAS server
Monitor – Follow up on KPI, SLA and process effieciency
WSRR – WebService Registry & Repository for stuff like WSDL, XSD, Processes
WebService Registry & Repository (WSRR) (Eclipse) The process of developing processes
From Component Business Models to Services To services From components To services To Services Processes Produkt- valg Behovs- analyse Kunde analyse Beslut Efekt- uer Forvalt Evaluer Kunde Udfør plan Kredit- plan Start Sag Udfør Sag Udfas Sag ..... .... ... ..... .... ... ..... .... ... ..... .... ... ..... .... ... ..... .... ... ..... .... ... ..... .... ... Division Shared Service Customer Supplier Outsourced
The Graphical model provides the pictorial representation of the process model.
The Resource Model
Allows you to define all of the different resource types and instances of those resources so that they can be associated to the model
The Information Model
Provides a view of data and how data is used within a business process.
The Organization Model
Provides the definition and structure of all of the organization units and their associated resources
The Analysis Model
Definition of key process metrics and attributes are defined and then analyzed in both a static and dynamic manner.
The Collaboration Model
Allows for both model time and deployment time collaboration on a process model
The Business Measures (Observation) Model
Definition of Key Performance Indicators and Metrics that represent the critical performance characteristics of how business performance is monitored
True Business Understanding Requires Multi-Dimensional Business Models
Danske Bank Process Management Project 2000 2001 2002 2003 SOA decided SOA in production Workflow in production Process Choreographer decided Handling bad debts Processes Implemented: 200+ 2004 2005 2006 Processes pr day 10000 Customer Packages Debt Collection Sales Counselling (8000 employees) Direct Customer product Ordering Retirement engagements
FI-1 Process Management Project 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 SOA Process Methodology Modeler Monitor ? Approach: Step by step, each step takes 2 years. Goal: Implement processes as workflow as part of new development Procesess: Approx 200 Governance: Not much needed
The traditional IT development process – AS-IS Business IT This is what I want This is what I’ll get
elongated. Length> height
with a hole
width > height
The traditional IT development process TO-BE Business IT This is the process I want implemented OK, come back and test in 3 weeks Fast, solution oriented
FI-2 Process Management Project 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 SOA IBM Broker Process (WID/WPS) SOA/Process Methodology Modeling QLM/Modeler Monitor ? Process (non-IBM) Portal (WebSphere) Document Management /Journaling (IBM CM) Shift of platform / batch in J2EE Approach: Full blast on all projects Goal: Total replacement of core systems, applications and platform Processes: Several hundred Governance: Highly needed
Overall Runtime Architecture - implementing the infrastructure SOA Workflow Management API End User Interface (Portal) Staff Resolution Work Item Mgr Workflow Engine Workflow Management Business Applications End User Interface Application Services Infrastructure Support Document Manager User Registry A r c h i v e Management Information WareHouse M o n i t o r Case Service Obj reference
Overall Runtime Architecture Process Organization And Roles Application Core System Application Document Management Application Accounting Application Core Systrem SOA – Enterprice Service Bus Human Task Human Task Human Task Human Task Human Task Human Task Human Task Human Task Invoke Invoke Invoke Invoke Invoke Invoke Invoke Invoke
Process Development Model Model AS-IS Model TO-BE Technical Enrichment Process Choreography Process Testing Business Testing Business ressources Technical ressources Design Service Define In UDDI Create Service Design GUI
We have had workflow technology for years – so what’s new ?
Customers are very focused on business processes and the process oriented approach right now
Based on standard WebSphere run-time – no new run-time platform required – no proprietary run-time
Based on Eclipse – no new development platform required
Based on Open Standards (IBM, Microsoft, BEA, ++)
Excellent fit with SOA, emerging WebServices standards while still supporting existing integration requirements (CICS, IMS,++)
Process Choreographer is an excellent product – taking the best from MQWF, WICS and other workflow products from the last 15 years
BPM landscape - future direction User Experience Business Process Manager (BPEL Engine) Collaboration Documents and forms Processing Extending BPEL with additional model elements Data and Function Integration
BPM landscape - future direction – extending the BPEL Model User Experience Business Process Manager (BPEL Engine) Collaboration Documents and forms Processing Extending BPEL with additional model elements II4BPEL Work-place Forms Page-flows GUI Genera-tors Single Person Flows BPEL is inherently extensible BPEL4 People Follow-on & Subtask Data and Function Integration
BPM landscape - software products versus customer patterns Customer 4 Customer 2 Customer 3 Customer 1 IBM BPM Product Scope Best Practice Patterns Best Practice Patterns Best Practice Patterns Best Practice Patterns
Not one size fits all
Local model extensions provide agile, customized ”best practice”
Example: Validation Eclipse plug-in flags violation to customer standards