Plant Floor to Enterprise Application Integration – OAGIS vs

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Plant Floor to Enterprise Application Integration – OAGIS vs

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration ISA-95 and OAGIS White Paper Series White Paper #2: OAGIS, ISA-95 and Related Manufacturing Integration Standards A Survey Authors Charlie Gifford, GE Fanuc Americas David Noller, IBM Corporation O: (208) 788-5434; C: (208) 309-0990 866-405-7060 charlie.gifford@ge.com nollerd@us.ibm.com Em delaHostria, Rockwell Automation Lorenzo Childress, IBM Corporation 440-646-7324 845-231-3093 egdelahostria@ra.rockwell.com childrel@us.ibm.com Alan Boyd, IBM Corporation 561-862-2774 alboyd@us.ibm.com Key Words ANSI/ISA-95, OAGi, OAGIS, EAI, Open Application Group Inc. Open Application Group Integration Specification, Enterprise Application Integration, System Integration, MES, Manufacturing Execution System, Supply Chain Integration, B2MML, Production Management, System Life-Cycle Cost, Software Integration Methods, Manufacturing Schema, Manufacturing Data Modeling Abstract Manufacturing organizations attempting to integrate the plant floor with ERP, supply chain, scheduling, quality and other systems in their enterprises today have difficult choices to make to base that integration on standards – specifically, what standard to choose. Unfortunately (or maybe fortunately, depending on your point of view) there are several choices available, all of which have strengths and weaknesses, and all of which overlap to some extent. The first paper in this series compared two predominant standards for integrating applications – or, in today’s language, for implementing composite applications based on SOA (Services Oriented Architecture): 1. OAGIS1 (current version 9.0) from the Open Applications Group Incorported (OAGi, www.openapplications.org) 2. ISA-95, Enterprise-Control System Integration Standard, from ISA1, (www.isa.org).
  2. 2. Manufacturing Integration Standards Survey This paper is White Paper #2 of the series Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration, ISA-95 and OAGIS where White Paper #1 is An Overview and Comparison (of ISA-95 and OAGIS). The purpose of this paper is to explain the related standards that overlap or work in conjunction with ISA-95 and OAGIS in developing manufacturing system architectures. White Paper #3 of this series, Possible Convergence Directions for ISA-95 and OAGIS, presents a convergence path and alternatives for manufacturers currently constructing application integration architectures and for standards committees and working groups working through convergence discussions. This paper provides a brief overview of standards in use that address the manufacturing operations (Level 3) in full or part, with some description of how they relate to ISA-95 and OAGIS. This paper is intended to provide a reference point for manufacturers developing application integration methods and for standards groups going through the analysis necessary to make convergence decisions. © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 2
  3. 3. Manufacturing Integration Standards Survey Table of Contents Chapter 3.........................................................................................................................................1 Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration .........................................................................1 ISA-95 and OAGIS..........................................................................................................................1 White Paper Series..........................................................................................................................1 White Paper #2: ..............................................................................................................................1 OAGIS, ISA-95 and Related Manufacturing Integration Standards...............................................1 A Survey...........................................................................................................................................1 Overview ....................................................................................................6 ISA-95........................................................................................................7 OAGIS1......................................................................................................11 Related Manufacturing Integration Standards and Initiatives.....................................14 B2MML......................................................................................................14 BatchML....................................................................................................15 EDI...........................................................................................................16 Java Message Services (JMS)............................................................................17 MIMOSA/ OSA-EAI.........................................................................................17 MQTT........................................................................................................18 OASIS / ebXML.............................................................................................18 OPEN O&M.................................................................................................19 OPC (and derivatives)....................................................................................19 PSLX.........................................................................................................21 RossetaNet.................................................................................................21 SCOR........................................................................................................23 STEP.........................................................................................................25 Web Services/SOAP.......................................................................................26 Conclusion.................................................................................................27 Appendix A: White Paper Reviewers and Contributing Editors....................................28 © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 3
  4. 4. Manufacturing Integration Standards Survey Appendix B: Glossary / Acronyms......................................................................28 Appendix C: 1Trademarks...............................................................................30 Appendix D: References ................................................................................32 © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 4
  5. 5. Manufacturing Integration Standards Survey List of Figures Figure 3-1: Manufacturing Integration Standards – An Overview.................................................7 Figure 3-2: ISA-95 Domain Hierarchy from Purdue Reference Model........................................10 Figure 3-3: ISA-95 Physical (Work /Resource) Hierarchy............................................................10 Figure 3-4: Example OAGIS Integration Scenario.......................................................................12 Figure 3-5: Standard OAGIS BOD Structure................................................................................13 Figure 3-6: OAGIS Scope..............................................................................................................14 Figure 3-7: BatchML Master Recipe.............................................................................................15 Figure 3-8: BatchML Equipment Model.......................................................................................16 Figure 3-9: SCOR Organized around Five Major Management Processes..................................24 Figure 3-10: SCOR’s hierarchical model with Three Level of Process Detail..............................24 Figure 3-11: Types of STEP Systems.............................................................................................25 © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 5
  6. 6. Manufacturing Integration Standards Survey Overview Manufacturing organizations attempting to integrate the plant floor with ERP, supply chain, scheduling, quality and other systems in their enterprises today have difficult choices to make to base that integration on standards – specifically, what standard to choose. Unfortunately (or maybe fortunately, depending on your point of view) there are several choices available, all of which have strengths and weaknesses, and all of which overlap to some extent. The first paper in this series compared two predominant standards for integrating applications – or, in today’s language, for implementing composite applications based on SOA (Services Oriented Architecture): 1. OAGIS1 (current version 9.0) from the Open Applications Group Incorported (OAGi, www.openapplications.org) 2. ISA-95, Enterprise-Control System Integration Standard, from ISA1, (www.isa.org). This paper is White Paper #2 of the series Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration, ISA-95 and OAGIS where White Paper #1 is An Overview and Comparison (of ISA-95 and OAGIS). The purpose of this paper is to explain the related standards that overlap or work in conjunction with ISA-95 and OAGIS in developing manufacturing system architectures. White Paper #3 of this series, Possible Convergence Directions for ISA-95 and OAGIS, presents a convergence path and alternatives for manufacturers currently constructing application integration architectures and for standards committees and working groups working through convergence discussions. This paper provides a brief overview of standards in use that address the manufacturing operations (Level 3) in full or part, with some description of how they relate to ISA-95 and OAGIS. This paper is intended to provide a reference point for manufacturers developing application integration methods and for standards groups going through the analysis necessary to make convergence decisions. Until recently, real-world applications of OAGIS and ISA-95 by innovative manufacturers, industrial, and enterprise software vendors have not effectively responded to their customers’ needs. Customers are demanding lower cost of ownership for application-to-application interfaces within their plant, as well as between the enterprise and the plant. The goal of an integrated suite of applications has been difficult and expensive to realize for vendors and end- users alike. Most manufacturing operations management (MOM) applications involve legacy systems with vendor-specific data models and terminology, lacking standards to create transformations using a common data schema and making interoperability across applications too large of a task. Currently, the MOM software market includes a large number of point solutions. With the evolving distributed supply chain networks from global manufacturing, companies are now focusing on the entire canonical model across their information application architecture. Consequently, mapping data (tags, forms, types, and frequency) between applications has been the root-cause problem with the implementation of performance-based MOM systems. Many standards organizations have been addressing the many aspects of manufacturing integration issue. This paper reviews the primary manufacturing integrations standards that global manufacturer are using to solve their business integration challenges. Figure 3-1 shows an overview of how the standards map to the ISA-95 domain hierarchy. © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 6
  7. 7. Manufacturing Integration Standards Survey The paper first provides a brief overview of the OAGIS and ISA-95 standards and moves into a description of related manufacturing integration standards. Business Document Format Transport Messaging Protocol OAG BOD,, Rosetta Net, EDI, ANS.1, , ebXML, XML/XSLT, B2MML, AS1, AS2, RNIF, SOAP, JMS HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, SMTP, , BatchML, OSA-EAI, OSA-CBM FDT, EDDL OPC TCP, UDP, MQ, MQTT Inter- Company SCOR ebXML EDI Level 4 OAG OSA- Rosetta Business BOD EAI Net Logistics (MIMO STEP OPC SOAP JMS SA) UA MQTT WBF HTTP XML Asset Level 3 B2M FTP Mgt. Mfg. ML Product SMTP (ISA-95 WBF Models Operations TCP Mgt. ) Batch UDP ML OPC: MQ (ISA-8 DA & Level 2 OSA- 8) XMLDA SCADA CBM (MIMO SA) FDT EDDL Level 1/0 Plant Control Figure 3-1: Manufacturing Integration Standards – An Overview ISA-95 See White Paper #1 in this series for more details on ISA-95 in Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration, ISA-95 and OAGIS, White Paper #1: An Overview and Comparison. Brief History of ISA-95 (AKA: IEC 62264) Performance-based management for production has been slow to move into practice due to the lack of accepted standards for workflow and missing standards for information exchange interfaces between enterprise business applications and manufacturing management applications. Starting with ISA-88, Batch Control, in 1986 and followed by ISA-95 in 1995, ISA has been progressively addressing the required pieces to the integration puzzle. In particular, the ISA-95 standard has adopted the following: 1. A functional and physical model of an application hierarchy 2. Terminology for manufacturing operations management 3. Methodology to describe information exchanges within Level 3 and between Levels 3 and 4 4. A common data object model for use within Level 3 5. An activity model for manufacturing operations management within Level 3 © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 7
  8. 8. Manufacturing Integration Standards Survey In 1988, Dr. Ted Williams of Purdue University began the 15-year process to develop the working solution for integrated manufacturing. The International Purdue Workshops on Industrial Computer Systems he conducted produced the Purdue Reference Model for Computer Integrated Manufacturing, which became a foundation for the ISA-95 standardized data schema and functional workflow models. The Purdue work contributed to developing the current approved three parts of the ISA-95 Enterprise-Control System Integration standard over the last 10 years. Assembling an expert group of industry practitioners, the ISA-95 standard addresses the interface or exchange of data between enterprise systems (planning, master scheduling, and procurement) and manufacturing operations management (MOM) systems (detailed work scheduling, dispatching, plant data collection, analysis, tracking, and execution). Developing the Business-to-Manufacturing-Markup-Language (B2MML) by WBF, Inc. followed approval of the ISA-95 Parts 1and 2. B2MML is being developed by WBF with the following considerations: • XML (Extensible Markup Language) was a new technology (circa 1999-2001) that required experimentation by developers where quick releases would be needed. As with HTML, XML can be considered a derivative of SGML (ISO 8879), an international standard, but at the outset, it was not ready for international standardization. B2MML is being developed separate from the SP95 committee because: • XML was a new technology (circa 1999-2001), which required experimentation by developers where quick releases would be needed. This did not fit the international standards process well. • B2MML was and is viewed as a “technology dependent implementation” of the ISA-95 standard. In the future, new technology will be developed where people may want to make a newer implementation. The ISA-95 standard worked hard to be technology independent, so it did not want to be tied to one technology (e.g., XML). The B2MML schemas, from the WBF’s XML working groups, have matured and are being incorporated into industrial and enterprise software markets. Some software vendors such as GE Fanuc1, Rockwell Automation1 and Siemens1 have implemented a common component framework across their respective MOM products to create a common data model based on the terminology, object models, and XML schema described in the ISA-88 and ISA-95 specifications. ISA-95 is quickly becoming a tool for expressing application requirements between the corporate cultures: production, corporate IT, business analysts, maintenance, procurement, quality, etc. Each corporate area has its specific terminology and is now able to use ISA-95 to translate between areas through a common terminology baseline. The ISA-95 definitions and models assist in organizing disparate application requirements into a manufacturing application framework based on developing ISA-95 best practice methods and technical applications. Today, the basic use of ISA-95 within a manufacturing company is to characterize internal and external process flows (product/data flows, schema, and work flow use cases) between the production and enterprise workflows. This mapping is typically very difficult. In today’s existing MOM applications, both domestically and internationally, the organizational structure of most companies do not reflect to any high degree the generic ISA-95 functional and object models. This is intentional. Business processes and MOM work flows vary dramatically across © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 8
  9. 9. Manufacturing Integration Standards Survey companies as they depend on the type of industry, process type (batch, discrete, continuous, and/ or hybrid), or the production type (make-to-stock, make-to-order, engineer-to-order, mix ratio). Regardless, the ISA-95 functional and object models are a good starting point for conducting the necessary baseline analysis of a company’s specific process flows. ISA-95 is intended to help communicate data elements and requirements. Having a starting point is a huge benefit compared to the previous disparate situation. ISA-95 models and terminology provide the required descriptive tools for production, corporate IT and business analysts to jointly develop integrated systems that truly characterize the workflow in an enterprise and to organize and distribute plant work data into MOM and enterprise systems. ISA-95 is changing manufacturing best practices through these advancements. Description of ISA-95 Structure Parts 1 and 2, Models and Terminology Boundaries are defined for information exchange between functional domain levels within an enterprise’s application hierarchy with focus on the boundary between Level 4, the enterprise business level, and Level 3, the plant floor or manufacturing operations management system level. Examples of domains and the types of information handled, including the time frames involved, are shown in Figure 3-2. A physical (equipment or work resource) hierarchy is defined that structures the functional domain levels into an application hierarchy within an enterprise. In Figure 3-3, each level in a physical hierarchy is associated with the notion of an equipment (or work resource) entity that includes elements of work procedures and associated required resources. Although ISA-95 does not detail the entities below a Work Unit level, the reader is reminded that the types of equipment (work or resources) differ across various industries and production processes types. In most cases, activities and functions at Level 3 are concerned with management of resources and work performed by the work centers. Part 3, MOM Activity Models Part 3 defines detailed activities of several MOM application categories and their interrelations (work flow) within Level 3, as well as interactions with Level 4 applications. A generic detailed activity model is defined and used to elaborate on four (4) key MOM activities: production, maintenance, quality testing, and inventory handling. Functions and high-level data exchanges are defined for each MOM activity. Each detailed function in an activity supports information exchanges with other functions and activities. © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 9
  10. 10. 4- Establishes the basic plant schedule - Manufacturing Integration Standards Survey Business Planning production, material use, delivery, and Level 4 & Logistics shipping. Determines inventory levels. Plant Production Scheduling, Time Frame Operations Management, etc Months, weeks, days ISA-95.01, .02, & .05 Standards 3- Work Unit defined. Work Manufacturing flow/recipe control produces desired end ISA-95.03, Level& .06 .04 3 Operations Management products. Analyzes Work Data, Maintains Standards Dispatching Production, Detailed records and optimizes the production Production process. Time Frame Days, Shifts, hours, minutes, seconds 2- Work Unit (operation): Monitor, Level 2 Contin- supervisory control and automated control of Batch Discrete uous the production work process Control Control Control Level 1 1- Sensing of production work process, manipulate the production work process Level 0 0- The actual production work ANSI/ISA-95.00.01 Copyright © 2006 ISA. Used with permission. www.isa.org process Figure 3-2: ISA-95 Domain Hierarchy from Purdue Reference Model Figure 3-3: ISA-95 Physical (Work /Resource) Hierarchy ANSI/ISA-95 Copyright © 2006 ISA. Used with permission. www.isa.org Part 4, MOM Activity Object Models and Attributes Part 4 of ISA-95 is in early draft stages and will define additional object models and attributes to those already defined in Part 2, in order to describe and organize information exchanged between © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 10
  11. 11. Manufacturing Integration Standards Survey MOM functions defined in Part 3. These object models and attributes are intended to be used in designing and implementing interface standards to enable interoperability within the MOM (Level 3) domain. Part 5, Business-to-Manufacturing (B2M) Transactions Part 5 of ISA-95 defines B2M transaction models and messaging structures formed from a subset of OAGIS verbs and ISA-95 nouns composed of objects defined in Parts 1 and 2 of ISA-95. The messages deal with both scheduled and actually performed manufacturing tasks. These message exchanges can occur at all levels within the enterprise, but the focus of Part 5 is on transactions involving messages that cross the interface between MOM Level 3 and enterprise Level 4 systems. The defined transaction models are intended to provide visual tools to explain information flows and functional coordination between the business and manufacturing processes. OAGIS1 See White Paper #1 in this series for more details on OAGIS in Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration, ISA-95 and OAGIS, White Paper #1: An Overview and Comparison. The goal of the Open Applications Group Integration Specification (OAGIS) standard is to provide a cost effective way for organizations to integrate their applications with each other, with third-party applications and with applications belonging to other organizations (e.g., suppliers). The vision is to go beyond simply providing technology that facilitates integration (e.g. XML, messaging, web services) to establishing a common canonical standard for information to be exchanged between those applications, as well as a standard way of “packaging” that information. OAGIS is primarily focused on content to be exchanged, not the mechanism (e.g., web services, messaging, FTP) by which information is exchanged. OAGIS attempts to encapsulate an application playing a role in an integration scenario (e.g. ERP supplying production orders to the plant floor) as a black box with information flowing in and out of the black box, based on the standard. Thus, information is transformed to a standard format (OAG Business Object Document – BOD) as it passes into the integration cloud, before it is delivered to receiving applications. As a result, the plant floor application (in this example) does not receive an ERP system specific order; it receives the order as an OAGIS BOD. Because of that, if the ERP system is replaced by a different brand, or if the orders are at some point produced by another source application, the receiving application should not need to be changed (so the point-to-point interfaces have been removed). This should also hold true if the ERP system remains the same while the plant floor application is changed. OAGIS has approached the integration problem by first establishing integration scenarios for a set of applications, for example,: © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 11
  12. 12. Manufacturing Integration Standards Survey Figure 3-4: Example OAGIS Integration Scenario The flows shown between the applications consist of OAGIS BODs that are defined as part of the standard, e.g., Sync ProductionOrder. Each BOD has a standard structure with a standard header and a body that is unique to the BOD as shown in Figure 3-5. As of June 2006, the BODs (434) are reusable across integration scenarios and are constructed using reusable verbs (12) and nouns (77). As seen in the diagram, the nouns reduce to components, which in turn reduce to fields and compound structures. All of this is represented in (free) downloadable XML schema. Corresponding WSDL files are available as well. The entire OAGIS standard is available today as a free download to anyone who registers on the website. © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 12
  13. 13. Manufacturing Integration Standards Survey Figure 3-5: Standard OAGIS BOD Structure OAGIS is built as a horizontal business language, enabling it to be used in many industries worldwide. The scope of OAGIS extends the enterprise’s reach across the organization, for A2A, down into the organization for enterprise application to execution systems, and outside the organization for B2B functions. The scope of OAGIS is depicted in Figure 3-6. • eCommerce • Logistics  e-Catalog  Orders  Price Lists  Shipments  RFQ and Quote  Routings • Order Management • CRM  Purchasing  Opportunities  Invoice  Sales Leads  Payments  Customer • Manufacturing  Sales Force Automation  MES • ERP  Shop Floor  Financials  Plant Data Collection  Human Resources  Engineering  Manufacturing  Warehouse Management  Credit Management  Enterprise Asset Management  Sarbanes/Oxley & Control © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 13
  14. 14. OAGIS® Scope The Enterprise A. To Extra-Enterprise Systems B. Between Enterprise Applications C. To Special Purpose Applications Figure 3-6: OAGIS Scope Related Manufacturing Integration Standards and Initiatives B2MML Business-to-Manufacturing Markup Language (B2MML) is an XML implementation of ISA-95. B2MML is developed and published by the WBF organization (The Forum for Automation and Manufacturing Professionals, formerly the World Batch Forum). WBF is focused on development of applications and best practices for manufacturing operations across all hybrid processing environments. The following schemas are included: • Equipment • Extensions • Maintenance • Material • Personnel • Process Segment • Product Definition • Production Capability • Production Performance • Production Schedule Note: Any changes to ISA-95 schema should have a one-to-one change in B2MML. The latest version as of June, 2006 is Version 03. Version 04 is currently being developed to include OAGIS content.
  15. 15. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration For further information, please see: http://www.wbf.org/Content/NavigationMenu/General_Information/Partners_and_Affiliates/WB F/Working_Groups2/XML_Working_Group/B2MML/B2MML.htm BatchML Batch Markup Language (BatchML) is an XML implementation of ISA-88 that was developed by the WBF. The ISA-88 standard is recognized worldwide as the standard for the batch processing industry. BatchML provides a set of XML type and element definitions that may be used in part or in whole for batch, master recipe and equipment data. BatchML is also published by the WBF organization. BatchML is not widely used by vendors, but end users are using it. The latest version is V2. For further information, please see: http://www.wbf.org/Content/NavigationMenu/General_Information/Partners_and_Affiliates/WB F/Working_Groups2/XML_Working_Group/BatchML/BatchML.htm Master Master Recipe Recipe 1 0..N 0..N 0..1 0..N 0..N Equipment Equipment Procedure Procedure Recipe Recipe Other Other Header Header Formula Formula Requirements Requirements Logic Logic Element Element Information Information 0..n 0..1 References 0..N 0..N 0..N 0..1 Link Link Transition Transition Step Step Figure 3-7: BatchML Master Recipe © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 15
  16. 16. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration 0..n May connect to Equipment 0..n other equipment  Equipment Element Element 0..n May be made up of Information About Equipment Equipment Equipment Equipment 0..n 0..n Class Equipment Class May inherit the properties and procedural elements of Has Contains Defines 0..n values for 0..n 0..n Equipment Equipment Equipment Equipment Equipment Equipment Property Property Procedural Procedural Procedural Procedural Element Element Element Class Element Class 0..n May use the 0..n May use the definition of  definition of  Information About Enumeration Enumeration Set Enumeration Sets 0..n Set 0..n Figure 3-8: BatchML Equipment Model EDI Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) is a mechanism for exchanging structured information, by agreed message standards, from one computer application to another by electronic means and with a minimum of human intervention. EDI is often used to refer to specific interchange standards for transferring business transaction data. Automated purchase of goods would be one example. Despite the widespread and growing use of XML and Web services, EDI is still the data format used most often for electronic commerce. There are three major sets of EDI standards. UN/EDIFACT is the only international standard and is predominant in all areas outside of North America. ANSI ASC X12 (X12) and the Uniform Communication Standard (UCS) are popular in North America and are similar to each other. UCS is widely used in the grocery industry. These standards prescribe formats, character sets, and data elements used to exchange documents and forms, such as purchase orders (called "ORDERS" in UN/EDIFACT and an "850" in X12) and invoices. © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 16
  17. 17. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration An EDI message will be smaller in size than an equivalent XML message but the XML message will be easier to read for a human. This gives XML an advantage when troubleshooting. The self-describing nature of XML also makes integration easier between different companies. XML also has the advantage of being able to handle variable length data, due to the usage of tags for fields, than does EDI, which uses fixed size fields. The Accredited Standards Committee (ASC) X12 is developing a new architecture called Context Inspired Component Architecture (CICA) to enable building XML business documents in a cross-industry environment. CICA uses context-independent generic components stored in a repository. Examples would be name or date. The components gain additional contextual meaning, depending on where they are placed within the process (for example: “date of birth”). The latest (ASC) X12 version as of June, 2006 is 5030. For further information, please see: http://www.x12.org JAVA Message Services (JMS) The JAVA Message Service (JMS) API is a messaging standard that allows application components based on the JAVA 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE), to create, send, receive, and read messages. It enables distributed communication that is loosely coupled, reliable, and asynchronous. JMS Messages may be consumed by message-driven beans (MDBs) and may participate in JAVA Transaction API (JTA) transactions, allowing distributed transaction support. Note that JMS is a specification, and that implementations may provide additional support, including persistence. JMS may be used as the transport mechanism for SOAP messages. The latest version is 1.1. For further information, please see: http://java.sun.com/products/jms/ MIMOSA/ OSA-EAI The Open System Architecture for Enterprise Application Integration (OSA-EAI) architecture is a specification published by the Machinery Information Management Open Systems Alliance (MIMOSA) organization. Its focus is on asset management. MIMOSA is a not-for-profit trade association dedicated to developing and encouraging the adoption of open information standards for Operations and Maintenance (O&M) and collaborative asset life-cycle management (CALM). MIMOSA’s membership includes both process and discrete manufacturing corporations, as well as suppliers of asset management software. MIMOSA publishes XML-based specifications for Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) and Condition-based Maintenance (CBM). © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 17
  18. 18. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration MIMOSA appears to have a more detailed model of assets and equipment than either ISA-95 or OAGIS. For further information, please see: http://www.mimosa.org/ MQTT WebSphere MQ Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is a lightweight publish/subscribe protocol flowing over TCP/IP for remote sensors and control devices through low bandwidth communications. MQTT provides an assured delivery messaging system with JAVA and ‘C’ implementations that can be used at levels 0,1, and 2, and can be bridged to other messaging systems (such as JMS) at higher levels. MQTT can be used in conjunction with the business document formats mentioned. MQTT is a proposed standard by IBM. As is often the case, vendor work evolves into standards. For further information, please see: http://mqtt.org/ http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/wbihelp/v6rxmx/index.jsp? topic=/com.ibm.etools.mft.doc/ac10840_.htm OASIS / ebXML OASIS (Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards) is a not-for- profit, international consortium that drives the development, convergence, and adoption of e- business standards. The consortium produces more Web services standards than any other organization, along with standards for security, e-business, and standardization efforts in the public sector and for application-specific markets. Founded in 1993, OASIS has more than 5,000 participants representing over 600 organizations and individual members in 100 countries. Electronic Business using eXtensible Markup Language (ebXML), is a modular suite of specifications, providing a standard method to exchange business messages, conduct trading relationships, communicate data in common terms and define and register business processes. ebXML was started in 1999 as an initiative of OASIS and the United Nations/ECE agency CEFACT. There are five layers of data specifications, including XML standards for: • Business processes • Core data components • Collaboration protocol agreements • Messaging • Registries and repositories ebXML Business Process Specification Schema(BPSS): This schema provides a framework for business transactions and collaborations. Each Business Transaction can be implemented using one of many available standard patterns. © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 18
  19. 19. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration ebXML Core Data Components: ebXML has core data elements defined for core components, including: • Person • Organization • Location • Financial account • Product service ebXML also has a naming convention for core components (as does OAG), and a dictionary of core components. ebXML Collaboration Protocol Profile and Agreement (CPPA): ebXML CPPA describes how trading partners engage in electronic business collaborations through the exchange of electronic messages. ebXML Message Services: ebXML Message Services Define the transport, routing and packaging of e-business transactions. Latest version as of June, 2006 is ebXML V2.0 For further information, please see: http://www.ebxml.org http://www.oasis-open.org OPEN O&M The Open O&M Initiative is an umbrella of multiple industry standards organizations. Initiative members include: • Open Applications Group Inc. (OAGi) • ISA/ISA-95 • World Batch Forum • MIMOSA • Open Process Foundation The intent of Open O&M is to provide a common set of information standards to exchange Operations & Maintenance (O&M) information. For further information, please see: http://www.openapplications.org/downloads/meetings/20051101- RedwoodCity/Tuesday/2005%201028%20Open%20O&M%C2%AE%20Initiative.ppt OPC (and derivatives) OLE for Process Control (OPC1) is a series of standards specifications. The first standard (originally called simply the OPC Specification) is now called the Data Access Specification (OPC-DA). OPC started as vendor specific, but has developed into an industry standard. © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 19
  20. 20. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration OPC Data Access OPC-DA is primarily based on Microsoft's OLE COM (component object model) and DCOM (distributed component object model) technologies. It provides an abstraction layer to hide heterogeneous device protocols. The OPC-DA specification defines a standard set of objects, interfaces and methods to enable process control and manufacturing automation applications to facilitate interoperability. OPC is generally used to move real-time data at ISA-95 levels 0, 1, and 2. It is often used to gather information for process control systems through human machine interfaces (HMIs), controllers (PLCs and DCS), data historians, and other display clients. The latest OPC-DA version is 3.0. OPC-XML-DA OPC-XML-DA provides a web services interface specification to exchange plant information with manufacturing applications running over the Internet. Note: OPC XML DA is an Interface and can be implemented using a variety of underlying transports/protocols (e.g. MQTT). The latest OPC-XML-DA version as of June, 2006 is 1.0. Other OPC Specifications include: OPC Alarms & Events OPC Alarms & Events provides alarm and event notifications on demand (in contrast to the continuous data flow of Data Access). These include process alarms, operator actions, informational messages, and tracking/auditing messages. The latest OPC Alarms & Events version as of June, 2006 is 1.1. OPC Batch This specification carries the OPC philosophy to specialized needs of batch processes. It provides interfaces for exchanging equipment capabilities (corresponding to the S88.01 Physical Model) and current operating conditions. The latest OPC-Batch version as of June, 2006 is 2.0. OPC UA The OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) is a new proposed standard from the OPC Foundation. The focus of OPC UA is enterprise integration. OPC UA is based on SOA, web services, XML based architecture, including WS-* standards. While based on these standards, the intent is to provide a proprietary OPC binary transport for performance reasons. The OPC standards currently have different objects and methods, depending upon the type of server: • Alarms and Events • Data Access • Historical Data Access • Commands • Complex Data © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 20
  21. 21. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration For example, every server currently has a “Browse” method, but the syntax is different for each. OPC UA proposes a unified object model that would expose a common set of variables, methods, and events across the multiple different types of existing OPC servers. The proposed stacks to be supported include .NET, Java, C/C++. For further information, please see: http://www.opcfoundation.org PSLX The PSLX Consortium was founded July 2001 to support manufacturing management in Japan. The objective of the consortium is to establish Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) standards for collaborative manufacturing and support manufacturers implementing the recommended APS systems. The Planning and Scheduling language on XML (PSLX) recommendation specification was published June 2003. Sections pertinent to the OAGIS / ISA-95 discussion include: • PSLX-03: PSLX Domain Objects • PSLX-04: XML Specification and Data Exchange PSLX is: • A reference architecture for APS software development • A set of communication protocols and ontology among APS software • An XML schema for planning and scheduling problems • A common terminology of planning and scheduling problems How to use PSLX: • Package vendors develop their software product for shop floors (e.g., scheduler) according to the PSLX standard • ERP vendors make their database schema using the PSLX domain object model, and clarify the mapping processes • System Integrators develop mapping modules to integrate PSLX software and legacy systems Benefit of PSLX: • Schedule can be viewed graphically from different places outside the factory • Planning and scheduling problems of different business components can be federated • Manufacturing execution systems can be developed with a common interface for schedulers or shop floor software • Many kinds of integration with ERP will be dynamically available for floor level management • APS systems have more design flexibility by using scheduler as a connectable component For further information, please see: http://www.pslx.org RossetaNet © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 21
  22. 22. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration RosettaNet XML based standards define how to implement collaborative business process between supply-chain trading partners. The specifications include business process definitions as well as specifications for interoperability and communication. RosettaNet is widely used in the semiconductor industry. RosettaNet Standards: PIPs RosettaNet Partner Interface Processes (PIPs) define business processes between trading partners. PIPs fit into seven Clusters, or groups of core business processes, that represent the backbone of the trading network. Each Cluster is broken down into Segments – cross-enterprise processes involving more than one type of trading partner. Within each Segment are individual PIPs. PIPs are specialized system-to-system XML-based dialogs. Each PIP specification includes a business document with the vocabulary, and a business process with the choreography of the message dialog. To access PIP specifications, click on a Cluster name to view its Segments, select a Segment for a listing of the PIPs it contains, and click on a PIP to download a version. Information on published PIPs is available to everyone, while information on PIPs that are being developed is only available to RosettaNet partners when they are logged in. PIPs are specialized system-to-system XML-based dialogues. Each PIP specification includes a business document with vocabulary, and a business process with choreography of the message dialogue. PIPs are categorized into seven (7) clusters: • RosettaNet Support • Partner Product and Service Review • Product Information • Order Management • Inventory Management • Marketing Information Management • Service and Support • Manufacturing PIP Directory The PIP Directory provides easy (human readable) access to PIP information. Dictionaries RosettaNet dictionaries provide a common set of properties for PIPS. • The RosettaNet Business Dictionary designates properties used in business activities • RosettaNet Technical Dictionaries provide properties for defining products © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 22
  23. 23. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration RosettaNet Implementation Framework (RNIF) The RosettaNet Implementation Framework (RNIF) specifies packaging, routing and transport of PIP messages and business signals. Trading Partner Implementation Requirements Trading Partner Implementation Requirements enable trading partners to constrain schema-based PIPs, and view, create, and respond to RosettaNet PIPS without requiring backend integration. RosettaNet versions vary by PIP. For further information, please see: http://www.rosettanet.org SCOR The Supply Chain Operations Reference-model (SCOR®) has been developed and endorsed by the Supply-Chain Council (SCC), an independent not-for-profit corporation, as the cross-industry standard for supply-chain management. The SCC was organized in 1996 by Pittiglio Rabin Todd & McGrath (PRTM) and AMR Research, and initially included 69 voluntary member companies. Council membership is now open to all companies and organizations interested in applying and advancing state-of-the-art supply-chain management systems and practices. Member companies pay a modest annual fee to support Council activities. All who use the SCOR model are asked to acknowledge the SCC in all documents describing or depicting the SCOR model and its use. The complete SCOR model and other related models of the SCC are only accessible through the members’ section of the www.supply-chain.org website. SCC members further model development by participating in project development teams- SCOR and other related SCC Models are collaborative ongoing projects that seek to represent current supply chain and related practice. Further information regarding membership, the SCC and SCOR can be found at the Council’s web site: www.supply-chain.org. Scope The SCOR-model has been developed to describe the business activities associated with all phases of satisfying a customer’s demand. The Model itself contains several sections and is organized around the five primary management processes of Plan, Source, Make, Deliver, and Return (shown in Figure 3-9). By describing supply chains using these process building blocks, the Model can be used to describe supply chains that are very simple or very complex using a common set of definitions. As a result, disparate industries can be linked to describe the depth and breadth of virtually any supply chain. The Model has been able to successfully describe and provide a basis for supply chain improvement for global projects as well as site-specific projects. SCOR spans: all customer interactions (order entry through paid invoice), all physical material transactions (supplier’s supplier to customer’s customer, including equipment, supplies, spare parts, bulk product, software, etc.) and all market interactions (from the understanding of aggregate demand to the fulfillment of each order). It does not attempt to describe every business process or activity. Specifically, the SCOR model does not address: sales and marketing (demand generation), product development, research and development, and some elements of post-delivery customer support. © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 23
  24. 24. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration Figure 3-9: SCOR Organized around Five Major Management Processes Supply Chain Council Copyright © 2006 ISA. Used with permission. www.isa.org It should be noted scope has changed and is anticipated to change based on SCC member requirements. With the introduction of Return, the model has been extended into the area of post-delivery customer support (although it does not include all activities in that area). Figure 3-10: SCOR’s hierarchical model with Three Level of Process Detail Supply Chain Council Copyright © 2006 ISA. Used with permission. www.isa.org © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 24
  25. 25. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration As shown in Figure 3-10, SCOR is designed and maintained to support supply chains of various complexities and across multiple industries. The SCC has focused on three process levels and does not attempt to prescribe how a particular organization should conduct its business or tailor its systems / information flow. Every organization that implements supply chain improvements using the SCOR-model will need to extend the model, at least to Level 4, using organization- specific processes, systems, and practice. The model is silent in the areas of human resources, training, and quality assurance among others. Currently, it is the position of the SCC that these horizontal activities are implicit in the model and there are other highly qualified organizations that are chiefly concerned with how an organization should train, retain, organize, and conduct their quality programs. Just as SCC recognized the requirements for marketing and sales in commercial organizations, the SCC is not minimizing the importance of these other activities. STEP The Standard for the Exchange of Product (STEP1) Model Data is an ISO standard (ISO 10303) describing how to exchange digital product information. STEP is used to exchange data between computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided engineering (CAE), and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) systems. The original (and main) focus of STEP is on the exchange of geometric data (solid models). In the U.S., the most commonly used protocol is AP-203, while AP-214 is most commonly used in Europe. Both are used to exchange data describing designs represented as solid models. In design and manufacturing, many systems are used to manage technical product data. Each system has its own data formats, so the same information has to be entered multiple times into multiple systems leading to redundancy and errors. The problem is not unique to manufacturing but more acute because design data is complex and 3D, leading to increased scope for errors and misunderstandings between operators. The National Institute of Standards has estimated that data incompatibility is a 90 billion dollar problem for manufacturing industry. Figure 3-11: Types of STEP Systems Over the years, many solutions have been proposed. The most successful have been standards for data exchange. The first ones were national and focused on geometric data exchange. They included SET in France, VDAFS in Germany and the Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES) in the USA. Later a grand unifying effort was started under the International Standards © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 25
  26. 26. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration Organization (ISO) to produce one International Standard for all aspects of technical product data. STEP was named to be the Standard for Product Model Data. Nearly every major CAD/CAM system now contains a module to read and write data defined by one of the STEP Application Protocols (AP’s). In the U.S., the most commonly implemented protocol is called AP-203. This protocol is used to exchange data describing designs represented as solid models and assemblies of solid models. In Europe, a very similar protocol called AP-214 performs the same function. For further information, please see: http://www.steptools.com/library/standard/ Web Services/SOAP Web services are Web-based enterprise applications that use open, XML-based standards and transport protocols to exchange data with calling clients. The J2EE platform provides tools to create Web services and clients that can run on any platform. Web services/XML APIs include: The Java API for XML Processing (JAXP), http://java.sun.com/webservices/jaxp/index.jsp, supports the processing of XML documents using Document Object Model (DOM), Simple API for XML Parsing (SAX), and XML Style sheet Language Transformation (XSLT). The Java API for XML Registries (JAXR), http://java.sun.com/webservices/jaxr/index.jsp, enables access to registries on the Web. JAXR supports ebXML Registry/Repository standards as well as UDDI specifications. The Java API for XML-based RPC (JAX-RPC), http://java.sun.com/webservices/jaxrpc/index.jsp, defines how to make remote procedure calls (RPCs) over the internet using SOAP and HTTP. JAX-RPC also supports WSDL, allowing interoperability with clients and services running on non-JAVA-based platforms like .NET. The SOAP with Attachments API for Java (SAAJ), http://java.sun.com/webservices/jaxrpc/index.jsp, allows production and consumption of messages conforming to the SOAP 1.1 specification and SOAP with Attachments. JAVA Web Services Development pack latest version is V2.0. For further information, please see: http://java.sun.com/webservices SOAP is a lightweight protocol intended for exchanging structured information in a decentralized, distributed environment. “Part 1: Messaging Framework” defines an extensible messaging framework containing a message construct that can be exchanged over a variety of underlying protocols. SOAP is most often used with HTTP as the transport mechanism. SOAP may also be used on top of other protocols, such as JMS. This is important because HTTP does not provide guaranteed delivery.As with other messaging protocols, the SOAP envelope contains a header and a body (both in XML format). The following example is from the SOAP Version 1.2 Part 1: Messaging Framework W3C1 recommendation: © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 26
  27. 27. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration <env:Envelope xmlns:env="http://www.w3.org/2003/05/soap-envelope"> <env:Header> <n:alertcontrol xmlns:n="http://example.org/alertcontrol"> <n:priority>1</n:priority> <n:expires>2001-06-22T14:00:00-05:00</n:expires> </n:alertcontrol> </env:Header> <env:Body> <m:alert xmlns:m="http://example.org/alert"> <m:msg>Pick up Mary at school at 2pm</m:msg> </m:alert> </env:Body> </env:Envelope> SOAP was originally an acronym for “Simple Object Access Protocol”. As of version 1.2, SOAP is no longer used as an acronym. The latest SOAP specification as of June 2006 is version 1.1. Recommendation document for version is 1.2 is available. For further information, please see: http://www.w3.org/TR/soap/ The semantic content for Web services and SOAP may be based upon any of the document content standards mentioned. Conclusion As can be seen in this paper, there exists, in the manufacturing industry today a proliferation of standards greatly complicating the task of integrating applications within and across enterprises. Hopefully, this paper has helped you better understand the key standards that are in play in this area and how they fit, at the present time, in the integration puzzle. Work is clearly needed to map and, ideally, to consolidate some of the key standards described in this document. The good news is that some of the key organizations involved, particularly OAGi and ISA, have announced their intention to converge (see http://www.openapplications.org/news/ 20051212_oagis_and_isa_convergence.htm) and those organizations have now been joined by WBF, OPC Foundation and Mimosa (and vendors such as IBM, Rockwell, GE Fanuc and SAP) in the Manufacturing Interoperability Guidelines Working Group (MIG) (see http://www.isa.org/ Content/ContentGroups/MultiUse/Manufacturing_Interoperability_Guideline_Working_Group.h tm) to work on mapping and converging key standards in this area. The third White Paper in this series, tentatively titled “Possible Convergence Directions for ISA-95 and OAGIS”, will document some of the initial conclusions/guidelines of the MIG Working Group. © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 27
  28. 28. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration Appendix A: White Paper Reviewers and Contributing Editors Paul Ashmore, Reviewer, GE Fanuc Automation David Hinkler, Reviewer, Rockwell Automation Bert Wissink, Atosorigin Jim Strothman Appendix B: Glossary / Acronyms Name Definition A2A Application-to-Application AIAG Automotive Industry Action Group APS Advanced Planning and Scheduling ASC Accredited Standards Committee B2B Business-to-Business B2MML Business-to-Manufacturing Markup Language BATCHML Batch Markup Language BOD Business Object Definition BOM Bill of Material CAD Computer-Aided Design CAE Computer-Aided Engineering CALM Collaborative Asset Lifecycle Management CBM Condition-Based Management EAI Enterprise Application Integration EBXML e-Business eXtensible Markup Language EDI Electronic Data Interchange EDDL Electronic Device Definition Language EIMS Enterprise Integration Messaging Specification ERP Enterprise Resource Planning FDT Field Device Tool Specification FTP File Transfer Protocol IEC International Engineering Consortium IMS Integration Messaging Specification © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 28
  29. 29. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration ISA-95 Enterprise - Control System Integration specification ISA- dS95.01-1999, ISA, July, 1999. J2A Java Transaction API J2EE Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition JAXP The Java API for XML Processing JAXR The Java API for XML Registries JAX-RPC The Java API for XML based RPC JMS Java Message Service LIMS Laboratory Information Management System MDB Message-Driven Bean MIMOSA Machinery Information Management Open Systems Alliance OAG Open Applications Group OAGi Open Applications Group, Inc OAGIS Open Applications Group Integration Specification OASIS Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (www.oasis-open.org) OEE Overall Equipment Effectiveness OMG Object Management Group OPC OLE for Process Control OSA-CBM Open System Architecture for Condition-Based Maintenance OSA-EAI Open System Architecture for Enterprise Application Integration O&M Operations and Maintenance PIP Partner Interface Process (RosettaNet) PSLX Planning and Scheduling language on XML RNIF RosettaNet Implementation Framework RPC Remote Procedure Call SAAJ The SOAP with Attachments API for Java SCM Supply Chain Management SOAP Simple Object Access Protocol SPC Statistical Process Control © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 29
  30. 30. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration STAR Standards for Technology in Automotive Retail http://www.starstandards.org STEP Standard for the Exchange of Product W3C World Wide Web Consortium WBF (used to be) World Batch Forum WSDL Web Services Definition Language XML eXtensible Markup Language Appendix C: 1Trademarks OAGIS is a registered trademark of Open Applications Group, Inc. ISA is a trademark of ISA. WBF, World Batch Forum are trademarks of WBF World Batch Forum. GE Fanuc is a trademark of General Electric Company. ANSI is a trademark of American National Standards Institute Corporation. IEC is a registered trademark of International Engineering Consortium. ISO is a registered trademark of INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION FOR STANDARDIZATION. OAGi is a registered trademark of Open Applications Group, Incorporated. American Software is a registered trademark of American Software, Inc. CODA Financials is a registered trademark of CODA Financials, Inc. Dun&Bradstreet is a registered trademark of Dun & Bradstreet, Inc. Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle International Corporation. PeopleSoft is a registered trademark of Oracle International Corporation. SAP is a trademark of SAP AG in Germany and in other countries. Software 2000 is a registered trademark of Software 2000, Inc. IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. Ford is a registered trademark of Ford Motor Company.. Boeing is a registered trademark of Boeing Company. NIST is a registered trademark of National Institute of Standards and Technology, U.S. Department of Commerce. W3C is a registered trademark of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. OPC is a trademark of OPC Foundation © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 30
  31. 31. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration Sun is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. iPlanet is a registered trademark of Sun Microsystems, Inc. VisualBasic is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Delphi is a registered trademark of Inprise. Rockwell Automation is a registered trademark of Rockwell Automation, Inc. © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 31
  32. 32. Standards for Manufacturing Systems Integration Appendix D: References 1. OAGi White Paper – Plug and Play Business Software Integration, The Compelling Value of the Open Applications Group, David Connelly, CEO, Open Applications Group, Inc, 1995. 2. The Open Applications Group Integration Specification, Michael Rowell, Open Applications Group, Inc, June, 2003. 3. XML Excellence at Ford Motor Company, Tim Thomasma, XML Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, September, 2002. 4. OAGIS 8: Practical integration meets XML Schema, Mark Feblowitz, XML Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, September, 2002. 5. XML in the Auto Industry: Summer 2002, Pat Snack and Sig Handleman, XML Journal, Volume 3, Issue 9, September, 2002. 6. ANSI/ISA-88.01, Batch Control Part 1: Models and Terminology, ISA, 2000. 7. ANSI/ISA-88.00.02, Batch control - Part 2: Data Structures and Guidelines for Languages, ISA 2001. 8. ANSI/ISA-95.00.01, Enterprise-Control System Integration Part 1: Models and Terminology, ISA 2000. 9. ANSI/ISA 95.00.02, Enterprise-Control System Integration Part 2: Object Model Attributes, ISA 2000. 10. ISA-88, Batch Control- Part 3: General and Site Recipe Models and Representation, ISA 2002. 11. ANSI/ISA-95.00.03, Enterprise-Control System Integration Part 3: Models of Manufacturing Operations Management, 2005. 12. ISA-88, Batch Control - Part 4: Batch Production Records, ISA 2006. 13. ISA-95 Part 5 (Draft 10), Business-to-Manufacturing (B2M) Transactions, ISA 2006. © Copyright IBM Corp., Rockwell Automation and GE-Fanuc 2006. All rights reserved 32

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