Module 4


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Module 4

  1. 1. Global Business Services Сервисно-ориентированная архитектура (СОА). Теория и практика интеграционных проектов ВЫСШАЯ ШКОЛА МЕНЕДЖМЕНТА Санкт-Петербургского государственного университета 28 апреля 2008 г.
  2. 2. Global Business Services Сущность и цели подхода СОА 2 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  3. 3. Global Business Services Architectural Evolution in the Enterprise The Path to a Modern Services-Based Architecture Pre 1980 1980’s to Mid 1990’s to Today Future Mid 1990’s Early 2000’s Service Network Dynamically Monolithic Client-Server Oriented Centric Re-configurable Architecture Architecture Architecture / Architecture Architecture Web Services • Mainframe • Visual Basic • eBusiness • Service Oriented Computing • PowerBuilder • eCommerce • Web Services Architecture • Open Standards 3 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  4. 4. Global Business Services Business Integration Built on a Foundation of SOA Achieving Better Business Results by Increasing Your Service Orientation Business Flexibility Dynamic Business Processes Using Composite Applications for IT Transformation Leveraging an ESB for Service-Oriented Integration Implementing Individual Web services SOA 4 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  5. 5. Global Business Services SOA Value Proposition Increase Revenue Provide a Flexible Business Model Create new routes to market; React to market changes more quickly create new value from existing systems Reduce Cycle Times and Integrate across the Enterprise Cost for External Integrate historically separate systems; facilitate mergers and Business Partners acquisitions of enterprises Move from manual to automated transactions; facilitate flexible dealings with business partners Drive down Cost Reduce Risk and Exposure Eliminate duplicate systems; build Improve visibility into business once and leverage; improve time to operations market 5 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  6. 6. Global Business Services Pain Points Addressed by SOA Solution Need for Technology Change 54% Competitive Pressures 49% Demand for Collaboration 31% Supplier/Distributor Demand 26% Mandates 11% Enter New Market 3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 6 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  7. 7. Global Business Services Observed Business Pain Points Leading to SOA Projects The projects were driven by business reasons, not technology implementation preferences Need for Technology  Obsolete/legacy systems Change  Insufficient capacity/low reliability  Rigid systems that were difficult to change Demand for Collaboration  Need to share information and services with partners, suppliers, distributors, and clients Competitive Pressures  Competitors adopting faster, more flexible solutions  Enabling deployment of products and services  Improving customer service Mandates  Compliance with government or company mandates Supplier/Distributor  Demand for improved connectivity Demand  Move away from proprietary, point-to-point solutions Enter New Markets  Use exposed services to create new lines of business 7 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  8. 8. Global Business Services Benefits Resulting from SOA Solution All clients interviewed cited improved flexibility as a benefit of SOA, and most experienced profitability impact Improved Flexibility 100% Decrease Cost 97% Reduce Risk 71% Increase Revenue 51% Enable New Products 43% Enable Compliance 26% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% % of Projects 8 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  9. 9. Global Business Services Characteristics of an SOA Strong Business-IT alignment – ability to clearly articulate and optimise business value of technology Agility - Changing business requirements can rapidly be supported Build on existing investments – no need to re-implement components every time a new technology comes along Enterprise level focus – avoid duplication of function, achieve consistency, joined up business processes 9 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  10. 10. Global Business Services Business and IT Work Much More Closely and in Partnership Business expertise Business expertise Users Users Define/refine Define/refine business business processes Application Developers processes Assemble and configure building blocks into processes Extensive Limited overlap overlap Service Developers Create application building blocks - patterns, Developers templates, and Program the components applications Technical expertise Technical expertise 10 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  11. 11. Global Business Services The Transforming Development Model From To  Function-oriented  Process-oriented  Build to last  Build to change  Prolonged development cycles  Incrementally built and deployed  Application silos  Orchestrated solutions  Tightly-coupled  Loosely-coupled  Structuring applications using  Structuring applications using components and objects services  Known implementation  Abstraction and virtualization 11 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  12. 12. Global Business Services Определение СОА 12 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  13. 13. Global Business Services Terms of SOA … a service? … service orientation? A repeatable business A way of integrating your task – e.g., check business as linked customer credit; open services new account and the outcomes that they bring … service oriented … a composite architecture (SOA)? application? An IT architectural style A set of related & that supports integrated services that service orientation support a business process built on an SOA 13 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  14. 14. Global Business Services SOA Means Many Things Based on Your Perspective ―SOA in context …‖ A set of services that a business wants to expose to their customers and partners, or other portions of the organization Business An architectural style which requires a service provider, requestor, and a service description A set of architectural principles, patterns, and criteria which address characteristics such as modularity, encapsulation, loose coupling, separation of concerns, reuse, composability, and single implementation Architecture A programming model complete with standards, tools, and technologies such as Web Services Implementation 14 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  15. 15. Global Business Services ... And What SOA Is Not SOA is not:  Something you can buy out of the box  A product  WebSphere  Using an ESB (Enterprise Service Bus)  EAI (Enterprise Application Integration)  WSDL/SOAP  Software component reuse  Tied to a proprietary technology  An IT only initiative  Primarily a cost saving approach 15 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  16. 16. Global Business Services Aspects of SOA: Architecture  Service Consumer  Service Provider invokes  Service Description  Service Broker  Service Registry 1..* Service Consumer «use» Service Description «realize» Service provider + binding + findService ( ) + invokeService ( ) + bindToService ( ) + Operations ( ) + bindToService ( ) + invokeService ( ) + provisionService ( ) «contains» * «described in» + monitorService ( ) Service Broker + findService ( ) 1..* Service Registry 1..* searches publishes 1..* 16 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  17. 17. Global Business Services Key Aspects of SOA: Services, Components, Composition, and Choreography Service Consumer consumers JService Portlet WSRP B2B 5 6 7 8 9 4 Data Architecture & Business Intelligence business processes process choreography Monitoring Infrastructure Service (Enterprise Service Bus) QoS, Security, Management & Integration Architecture business services 3 atomic and composite services Governance 2 Service Provider components enterprise components 1 operational Custom existing application Package Application resources Composite service Atomic service 17 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  18. 18. Global Business Services Сервисно-ориентированный подход является результатом развития методов интеграции 18 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  19. 19. Global Business Services Complexity is a problem 19 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  20. 20. Global Business Services Point-to-Point Integration Source Target Application Transport Application High coupling, low cohesion, and no encapsulation No reuse Difficult to change Rising cost per interface keeps Interaction Logic Process Logic Business Rules Application Code 20 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  21. 21. Global Business Services Point-to-Point Integration Approach Low overhead to get started. P2P can be the best approach for connecting a few applications where few changes are expected. Financials Sales Force Mainframe/VSAM Automation Marketing NT/Sybase NT/Oracle ERP Order Entry Unix /Oracle Unix/Oracle Call Center Credit Card Unix /Oracle Mainframe/VSAM e-Business Unix/Oracle 21 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  22. 22. Global Business Services EAI without SOI Translation Mapping Source Target Routing Application Augmenting Application Lower coupling, higher cohesion, and some encapsulation Impairs reuse Complicates change Makes cost per interface more consistent Interaction Logic Process Logic Business Rules Application Code 22 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  23. 23. Global Business Services Comparison of P2P and EAI Point-to-Point Integration EAI Hub-and-Spoke Integration Consumer Consumer Touchpoint Touchpoint Batch Batch POSUpdates FOSUpdates Store Ope. Store Ope. Continuous Continuous Supply Integration Supply Date & Process Date Warehouse Warehouse Flow Hub Ordering Loyalty Ordering Loyalty Program Program Planning Financial Planning Financial Sycs Sycs Marketing COS Marketing COS Clearing Marketing & Clearing Marketing & Merchandising Merchandising Partners & Enterprise Partners & Enterprise Suppliers Application Suppliers Application The right integration infrastructure can help customers reduce costs, improve flexibility, and provide greater visibility into business transactions. 23 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  24. 24. Global Business Services SOI Uses a Layered Architecture Declarative Rules Integration Services Mapping Augmenting Translation Routing Source Service Sequencing Target Application Application Boundary Services Low coupling, high cohesion, and encapsulation Increases productivity Eases change Improves reuse Interaction Logic Process Logic Business Rules Application Code 24 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  25. 25. Global Business Services Enterprise Service Bus Tying Disparate Applications Together … Asynchronous Synchronous Publish/ Web Messages RPC Managed FTP Subscribe Services 12 11 1 10 2 9 3 8 4 7 5 6 XML COBOL Copybook FIX SWIFT HIPPA ebXML HL7 AL3 ACORD EDI-X.12 EDI-FACT Custom Formats Word/Excel/PDF RPG Disparate platforms, Disparate Disparate devices, & protocols Programming languages Data formats 25 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  26. 26. Global Business Services Service-Oriented Integration Application of service-oriented architecture principles to build a service- oriented integration layer: An architectural style which requires a service provider, a service requestor, and a service description A set of architectural principles, patterns, and criteria which address characteristics such as modularity, encapsulation, loose coupling, separation of concerns, reuse, and composability A programming model complete with standards, tools, and technologies such as Web Services Implementing an SOI style integration layer provides a foundation for implementing an SOA. 26 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  27. 27. Global Business Services SOI – Four Architecture Principles Boundary services  Encapsulate and isolate the industry, LOB, and regional requirements Integration services  Separate the services which perform routine integration activities, which are stateless and context-free, so they can be called in any sequence or not at all Declarative programming model  Separate the business rules from the implementation of SOI services External sequencing of services  Separate the process logic from the integration and boundary services 27 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  28. 28. Global Business Services Справочная модель СОА 28 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  29. 29. Global Business Services The IBM SOA Reference Model is a shared view of the Components that make up an SOA Business Services Facilitates better decision-making with real-time business information Development Management Interaction Process Services Information Services IT Service Services Services Orchestrates and Manages diverse data and Enables collaboration automates business content in a unified manner between people, processes processes, and information Integrated Facilitates communication ESB between services environment Manages for design and secures and creation services, of solution applications, assets Partner Services Business App Access Services and Info Assets Connects with trading Services Facilitates interactions with resources Apps & partners Builds on a robust, scaleable, existing information and and secure services application assets environment Infrastructure Services Optimizes throughput, availability and performance 29 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  30. 30. Global Business Services Подход к построению СОА 30 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  31. 31. Global Business Services SOA does not happen by magic SOA will not arise spontaneously  It requires organisational change and a top down approach  Business and IT must work closely together  The service portfolio must be managed as an asset  New governance structures needed  Requires incentives for reuse 31 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  32. 32. Global Business Services SOA steps Step 1: Break down your business into components • Component Business Modeling • Decide what is strategically important, and what is just operations in the value chain domains CBM • Analyze the different KPIs attached to these components Strategy • Prioritize and scope your transformation projects Step 2: Define a Service Model • Service Oriented Modelling and Architecture • Identify your business services based on your business components • Identify your business processes SOMA • Specify the services, processes and components accordingly Modeling • Make SOA realization decisions based on architectural decisions Step 3: Implement a Service Model • Develop a service-oriented architecture to support the Componentized Business • Implement service based scoping policy for projects SOA • Implement appropriate governance mechanism Realization Business-Aligned IT Architecture 32 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  33. 33. Global Business Services Шаг 1. Построение Компонентной модели бизнеса (CBM) 33 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  34. 34. Global Business Services On the first step business is breaking down into top level components Columns are Business A Business Component is a part of Competencies, defined as large an enterprise that has the potential business areas with characteristic to operate autonomously, for skills and capabilities, for example, example, as a separate company, or product development or supply as part of another company. chain. Business New Business Relationship Servicing & Product Financial Control Administration Development Management Sales Fulfillment and Accounting Business Account Fulfillment Portfolio An Operational Level characterizes Direct Planning Sector Planning Planning Sales Planning Planning Planning the scope of decision making. The Sector Relationship Business Unit Compliance Management Management three levels used in CBM are direct, Control Tracking Sales Fulfillment Management Planning control and execute. Staff Appraisals Product Credit Reconciliation Management Assessment  Direct is about strategy, overall direction and policy Product Directory Sales Product Staff Fulfillment Customer  Control is about monitoring, Administration Accounts Credit managing exceptions and tactical Execute Administration Customer Dialogue Marketing decision making Production Campaigns Document Management General  Execute is about doing the work Administration Contact Routing Ledger 34 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008
  35. 35. Global Business Services CBM – whole business on one list of paper IT Customer IT Business Business Information and Service and Service and Service Delivery Relationship Management Resilience Knowledge Solution Solution and Support Management Management Development Deployment Business Business Technology Strategy Resilience Strategy Information Services Management Delivery Strategy Strategy Directing Business Enterprise Enablement Architecture Regulatory Development Deployment Service & Solution Compliance Strategy Strategy Strategy Strategy Portfolio Management Knowledge Integrated Management IT Support Strategy Technology Risk Strategy Strategy Innovation Business Financial Continuous Business Information Operations Performance Management Operations Architecture Services and Planning Planning Solutions Lifecycle Change Planning Planning Controlling Business Regulatory Information Demand Technology Compliance Resource Infrastructure Management Performance & Management Resource Planning Value Integrated Risk Management Services and Communications Knowledge Solutions Release Planning Support Human Resources Security, Privacy Resource Architecture Planning Services Planning Management And Data Protection Management IT Financial Support Services Business Management Service and Data and Content Change Management Performance Mgmt Business Resilience Solution Management Implementation Creation Executing Staff Administration Infrastructure & Development Resource Management Regulatory Service and IT Service and Knowledge Capture Release Supplier and Compliance Solution Solution Marketing And Availability Implementation Infrastructure Contract Remediation Maintenance Operations Administration 35 © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008