Microsoft PowerPoint - Orr_SOA_11_3
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share

Microsoft PowerPoint - Orr_SOA_11_3

  • 419 views
Uploaded on

 

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
419
On Slideshare
418
From Embeds
1
Number of Embeds
1

Actions

Shares
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 1

http://www.slideshare.net 1

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Enterprise Architecture + Business Process + Service Oriented Architecture: Putting the Pieces Together Ken Orr The Ken Orr Institute “An organization is only as effective as its processes.” Rummler and Brache, Improving Performance
  • 2. Ken Orr • Founder and Chief Scientist, The Ken Orr Institute • Fellow, Cutter Business/Technology Council • Major Areas – Business-IT Strategies – Business Process Analysis – Enterprise Architecture – Data Architecture, Data Warehousing and Business Intelligence – Business Technology Trends and Impacts – Agile Software Development and Project Management Ken Orr is a Principal Researcher with the Ken Orr Institute, a business technology research organization. Previously, he was an Affiliate Professor and Director of the Center for the Innovative Application of Technology with the School of Technology and Information Management at Washington University. He is an internationally recognized expert on technology transfer, software engineering, enterprise architecture, and data warehousing. www.kenorrinst.com
  • 3. EA + BP + SOA: Putting the Pieces Together • Observations, Goals and Acknowledgments • Business Process, Enterprise Architecture and Service Oriented Architecture : A Merging of concerns • Theoretical Framework • Real world Experience • Things to watch out for • Things to watch for • Predictions
  • 4. Observations • Improving Business Processes is essential for all enterprises • Enterprise Architecture is critical to understanding – Where our (IT) levees are – What shape our (IT) levees are in • Service Oriented Architecture is critical for designing 21st century systems • Modeling is absolutely critical – BP is not that hard to conceive of (i.e., model) – High-level Business Services are not that hard to conceive of • BP is very hard to manage in the real world – EA ditto – SOA ditto • BP is very hard to do in big organizations
  • 5. Observations (cont.) • Ultimately, we’ve got to create truly executable business models • Moreover, we’ve got to integrate the BP Architecture with the rest of the Enterprise Architecture – Data Architecture – Application (Service) Architecture – Technology Architecture • Finally, BP and SOA are not a veneers
  • 6. Having the right model to communicate • Most people are very visual • If you can show something to people on one page (regardless of size) the mind deals with it as a whole • Communications is the name of the game “Trust is the bandwidth of communications” Karl-Eric Sveiby
  • 7. The Importance of Really Good Models
  • 8. The Merging of Concerns Understanding what we need Understanding Strategic how to implement Planning Understanding what we have Service Oriented Enterprise Architecture Architecture Understanding Business what we want Process (need) to do
  • 9. Benson and Parker’s Square Wheel Aligning Business Aligning with Technology Technology opportunities with Business Strategy
  • 10. The EA Stack B Business Architecture D Data/Info/Content Data/Info Architecture A Application Architecture T Technology Architecture Metrics and Performance Methods and Tools Organization and People
  • 11. Drivers Business Processes, Organizations (People) Internal Enable Business Decisions •Objectives, Information •Goals, Data + Context Execute •Strategies Processes Manage External Information Application •IT Technologies Portfolio of IT tools (programs) •Economic Environment •Regulatory Environment Enable Applications Technical Infrastructure Network, Servers, Workstations, Databases
  • 12. Drivers Business change down into each layer Processes, Organizations (People) Business Change drives Internal Technology Change at the lower levels enables changes at the higher levels Business •Objectives, Information •Goals, Data + Context •Strategies External Application •IT Technologies Portfolio of IT tools (programs) •Economic Environment •Regulatory Environment Technical Infrastructure Network, Servers, Workstations, Databases
  • 13. Reusing Business Models • Extending Zachman’s Framework • Extending Porter's Business Value Chain • Extending Rummler and Brache's Enterprise Feedback Model
  • 14. The Initial Zachman Model Analogy 1 Building = 1 System B uild ing S k etch S ys tem s S k etc h B uilding P lan S ys te m s P la n P h ysic al B uildin g P h ysica l S ys te m
  • 15. The Current Zachman Model Building Architecture + 6 Basic Questions: Who? What? When? Where? How? Why? DATA W h at F U N C T IO N How NET W O RK W h e re P E O P LE Who T IM E W h en M O T IV A T I O N Why L is t of T hing s Im p ortan t List o f P ro c es ses th e List of L ocat io ns in w hich L is t o f Orga niz atio ns L is t of E ve nts S ig nific a nt L is t of B u sine ss G o als /S tra t SCO PE SCO PE to the B usiness B u sin ess P erfo rm s t he B usin ess O pe ra te s to th e Bu sin es s SubType Modeler Deliverable & Process Modeler Im p ortan t t o th e B us in ess Modeler Modeler & Opportunity Goal, Problem Location Modeler Location Modeler (C O N T E XT U A L ) (C O N T E X T U A L) Event Modeler Modeler Organization P la n n er E NT I TY = Cla ss o f Fu nc tio n = Class o f N od e = M a jo r B usiness E nd s/M ea ns= Ma jo r B us. G oa l/ P eo ple = Majo r O rga nizatio ns Tim e = Majo r Bu siness E ven t P la n n e r B u sin ess Th ing B u sin ess P rocess L oca tion Critical S uc cess F ac to r e .g. S em an tic M o de l e.g . B u sine ss P roc es s Mo del e .g. B usines s L og istics e.g . W o rk Flow M od el e .g. M aste r S c he du le e .g. B us ines s P lan E N T E R P R IS E Workflow Modeler Strategy Modeler Strategy Modeler E N T E R P R IS E Modeler Communication Modeler Business Class Case Modeler Case Modeler Workflow & Use Modeler Communication Communication S ys tem MO D E L MO DE L Proces s (C O N C E P T U A L) (C O N C E P T U A L) O wn e r En t = B usiness E n tity P roc . = Bu sin es s P ro cess N od e = B u s in es s Lo cation P eo ple = Org anizatio n U nit Tim e = B usin ess E ve nt E n d = B us ine ss Ob jective O w n er Reln = B usine ss R elat io nship I/O = B u sin ess Re s ou rces L ink = B usin ess L in kag e W o rk = W ork P ro du c t C ycle = B usin ess Cy cle M ea ns = B u sin ess S t ra teg y e .g. Lo gical Da ta M o de l e.g . A pp lic at io n A rc hitec tu re e.g . D istribu ted S yst em e. g. Hum a n Int erface e. g. Pro c es sin g S truc tu re e.g ., Busin ess Ru le M od el S Y STE M Class Modeler Modeler Communication Communication Modeler Business Rule SYST EM Use Case Modeler A rch itectu re A rc hite ctu re Act iv ity MO DE L MO D E L Modeler Modeler Operation Statechart & ( LO G IC A L) Modeler Storyboard (LO G IC A L) No de = I/S Fun c tion E nt = Da ta E nt it y P roc . = A p plica tion F unctio n (P ro c es so r, Sto rag e, e tc) P eo ple = Ro le T im e = Sy st em E ven t E n d = Struc t ural A s sertion D e s ig n e r Re ln = D ata Re latio nship I/O = User V iew s Link = L in e Cha ra c te ristics W o rk = Delivera ble C ycle = P ro c ess ing C ycle Me an s = Actio n A sse rt io n D e sig n er e. g. Ph ys ic al Da ta M ode l e .g . S yst em Design e.g . Tech nolo gy A rch itect ure e.g . P rese nta tio n Arch ite cture e .g. Con trol S truc t ure e.g . Ru le D esign T E C H N O LO G Y T E C H N O LO G Y Operation Modeler Class Modeler Modelers System & Sequence Modeler Business Rule MO DE L Modeler Storyboard Modeler MO D E L Communication Communication (P H Y S IC A L ) (P H Y S IC A L ) No de = Ha rd w are/S ys tem P e op le = Use r B ui ld er B u ild e r E n t = S egm e nt/ Ta ble/e tc. P roc .= Com pu te r Fu nction So ftw a re T im e = Exe cut e En d = Co nditio n W o rk = S creen F orm at R eln = P ointe r/K e y/e tc. I/O = D ata E lem en ts/ Se ts Link = L in e S p ecific a tions C ycle = Com p on en t Cyc le Me an s = A c tio n e .g. Da ta D efin ition e .g . P rogra m e. g. Ne tw ork A rchitec t ure e. g. S ecurit y A rchitect ure e .g . Tim in g Definitio n e. g. Rule S pe cific a tion D E T A IL E D D E T A IL E D REPRE SEN- REPRE SEN- T ATIO NS T ATIO N S (O U T - O F - (O U T -O F C O N T E XT) CO NT EXT ) Su b - Sub- P ro c.= L an gua ge Stm t E nd = S ub -c on ditio n C o nt rac t or E n t = F ield No de = A dd re ss es P eop le = Id en tity T im e = In terrup t R eln = A dd re ss I/O = Co nt ro l B lo ck L ink = P roto cols W o rk = Job C yc le = Ma chine Cy cle M ea ns = S te p C o n tr a ct or F U N C T IO N IN G F U N C T IO N IN G e .g. DA TA e .g . FUNC T IO N e. g. N E TW OR K e .g. OR G AN IZ A T IO N e .g . S CHE D ULE e.g . S T RA TE G Y E N T E R P R IS E E N T E R P R IS E
  • 16. Microsoft’s Metropolis Analogy
  • 17. City Planning Analogy With the city-planning metaphor, the key deliverables are the following: – The city plan (or master plan or land use plan) – The zoning plan – The building code – The approved building-materials list
  • 18. Rural Development – 1905 (self sufficient) Suburban Development – 2005 (infrastructure dependent) line te r wa line e r sew
  • 19. Porter’s “Value Chain” Firm infrastructure Supporting HR Management Activities R&D Procurement Operations Products/ and Sales Outbound Marketing Logistics Logistics Inbound Service Services Primary Activities “A process can be seen as a ‘value chain’. By its contribution to the creation or delivery of a product or service, each step in a process should add value to the preceding steps.” Rummler and Brache, Improving Performance
  • 20. The Birth of the Supply Chain Firm infrastructure Firm infrastructure Firm infrastructure HR Management HR Management HR Management R&D R&D R&D Procurement Procurement Procurement Operations Operations Operations and Sales and Sales and Sales Outbound Outbound Outbound Marketing Marketing Marketing Logistics Logistics Logistics Logistics Logistics Logistics Inbound Inbound Inbound Service Service Service Supplier Enterprise Customer Value Chain Value Chain Value Chain Adding Business Value Charts creates a Business Value Chain!
  • 21. Extending the Enterprise Systems Model (Private Sector) Sources Enterprise (business partners) Market (customers) product resource products/ usage (inputs) services (outcomes (outputs) product (output) feedback customer (outcome) feedback
  • 22. Extending the Enterprise Systems Model (Public Sector) Business Agency Partners Citizens respirces services usage (inputs) (outputs) (outcomes) service (output) feedback usage (outcome) feedback
  • 23. Juvenile Justice Value Chain Administration Management IT Management Goal Supporting Supporting Processes HR Management Activities Financial Management Support Asset Supporting (Financial, HR, IT, …) Assets “…a safer society through Information the reduction of juvenile crime.” Process Case Management Management better Court adapted liaison/ Intake/ Residential juvenile Aftercare Post-sentence Evaluation Placement offenders Core Detention Business Security and Transportation Processes Primary Activities support Support (Family, Educ., Medical/Psych Care, etc.) system Quality Staff and Facilities Management Outcomes Research Product Information Juvenile Justice Assets (Kids, Cases, …)
  • 24. Unemployment Insurance Value Chain Administration Management IT Management Goal Supporting Supporting Processes HR Management Activities Financial Management “…to enhance the well-being Support Asset of the state workforce and Supporting (Financial, HR, IT, …) Assets Information business community through the timely and equitable payment Process UI Process Management of benefits and the collection Management of taxes and overpayments. .” New Assign Compute Enterprises, Employer Tax Experience Mergers, Tax Rate Collection Rating Core Bankruptcy tax Business collection Processes Eligibility/ Primary New Claim/ Monetary Benefit Benefit Activities Certification Determination Processing Payment benefit payments Fund Management Quality Tax Enforcement Management Claims Research Product/Service Information Unemployment Insurance Assets (Employers, Employees)
  • 25. Lending Value Chain Compliance Evaluation Administration Management IT Management Goal Supporting Supporting Processes HR Management Activities Financial Management “…to.” Support Asset Supporting (Financial, HR, IT, …) Assets Information Process Process Management Management Sales Origination Servicing Customers WF.com SUPREME Core SVP LIS LPS Business Processes Apptaker Primary ACAPS SHAW Activities WebApp loans Capital Markets marketable securities Quality Product quality time to close Management Customer quality default rates analysis of income Product/Service Information
  • 26. FEA Business Reference Model and Performance Reference Model Resources Business Process Clients End Services Results Inputs Outputs Outcomes BRM PRM
  • 27. Where do (should) High-level Services come from? • Enterprise Architecture – Business Context – Business Process Context • Business Process Analysis • Business Activity Analysis • Business Workflow Analysis
  • 28. Business Context – Acme Manufacturing ACM E M anufacturi ng j ob r eques t Pr oposa l contr act Custo mer complaints Sales de liv ery da te es tima te custome r shipment inv oice Estimat ing j ob s pec Receiving r ece ipt notice P.O. P.O. for ec ast pr oduc t pr ice s contr act Pu rchasin g Vendor Produ ction v e ndor payment Schedulin g pr oduc tion schedule purc ha se r eques t Invento ry Contro l inv e ntor y s ta tus pr oduc tion re por t inv e ntor y s ta tus pr oduc tion schedule tim e car ds Produ ction tim e car ds Payroll pa yr oll c he ck s Emp loyee ma te rial costs pa yr oll j /e pr oduc tion re por t Billing cust inv j /e G/L Syst em P.O. cust payme nt j /e A/P v e ndor inv oice purc ha sing j /e cr edits inv oice A/R & Sales Cost Accountin g ma te rial j /e custome r payment Accou nting G/L r eport Man agement P/L ma nageme nt re por ts
  • 29. Business Context – Sales Order Process ACM E M anufacturi ng j ob r eques t Pr oposa l contr act Custo mer complaints Sales de liv ery da te es tima te custome r shipment inv oice Estimat ing j ob s pec Receiving r ece ipt notice P.O. P.O. for ec ast pr oduc t pr ice s contr act Pu rchasin g Vendor Produ ction v e ndor payment Sched ulin g pr oduc tion schedule purc ha se r eques t Invento ry Cont rol inv e ntor y s ta tus pr oduc tion re por t inv e ntor y s ta tus pr oduc tion schedule tim e car ds Production tim e car ds Payroll pa yr oll c he ck s Emp loyee ma te rial costs pa yr oll j /e produc tion re por t Billing cust inv j /e G/L System P.O. cust payme nt j /e A/P v e ndor inv oice purc ha sing j /e cr edits inv oice A/R & Sales Cost Account in g ma te rial j /e custome r payment Accounting G/L r eport Man agement P/L ma nageme nt re por ts
  • 30. Business Process (Swimlane Diagram) Customer Submit Job Proposal Submit Order Request Inventory Control Sales Rev iew Job Prepare Proposal Submit Order estimate contract and Forecast job request Estimating job spec Estimate Job Production Scheduling contract Prepare forecast Schedule product ion Production schedul e R Billing A/R & Sales Accounting
  • 31. Sales Order Use Case Add Customer Accounting Request Job Estimate Job Customer Estimating Submit Order Sales Receive Schedule Job Goods Production Scheduling Run Job Production Receive Invoice Bill Customer Billing Process Pay Bill Payment A/R & Sales Accounting
  • 32. Business Process (Swimlane Diagram) Customer Submit Job Proposal Submit Order Request Inventory Control Sales Rev iew Job Prepare Proposal estimate c job request Estimating job spec Estimate Job Production Scheduling
  • 33. Mapping Business Process Activities to High-Level Services Customer Submit Job Proposal Submit Order Request Inventory Control Sales Rev iew Job Prepare Proposal Submit Order estimate contract and Forecast job request Estimating job spec Estimate Job Production Scheduling cont forecast Submit Job Submit Order Request Service Service
  • 34. Activity/Service Workflow Context Customer Submit Job Request Inventory Control Sales Rev iew Job job request Estimating
  • 35. High-Level Service Context customer job information Submit Job job request Request Service internal data Review Job Request
  • 36. High-Level Service Definition workflow service context customer job information Submit Job job request Request Service internal data Review Job Request workflow management data
  • 37. Now a word about Business Process and Service Oriented Architecture • BP is Not intuitive • SOA is Not intuitive • BP runs against organizational bias • SOA runs against organization bias • BP is Ultimately the Key to Everything! – Business improvement – Quality – Leveraging Technology • SOA is key Technology for implementing components • Workflow is a key Technology for implementing SOA based systems
  • 38. Let’s go back to the Beginning “Many managers don’t understand their businesses. Given the recent ‘back to basics’ and ‘stick to the knitting’ trend, they may understand the products and services. They may even understand their customers and their competition. However, they often don’t understand, at a sufficient level of detail how their businesses get products developed, made, sold and distributed. We believe that the primary reason for this lack of understanding is that most managers (and nonmanagers) have a fundamentally flawed view of their organizations.” Rummler and Brache, Improving Performance
  • 39. This is the way manager’s view their organization
  • 40. However, this is the way work gets done!
  • 41. The trick is to figure out the “mainline” process
  • 42. And then begin to clean things up
  • 43. Ultimately, Business Process is about the Search for the “East Pole” Traditional Org View Process View
  • 44. Managing across the Enterprise CBPO CEA
  • 45. More observations • Business Processes cut across organizational units by nature • Enterprise Architecture cuts across organizational units by nature • Neither Business Process or Enterprise Architecture can be totally successful without the other
  • 46. Things to watch out for in Business Process Modeling • Automating the "as is" • Nano-management • Chaos
  • 47. Things to watch for • The "Real-time" enterprise • A new generation of applications • “Real-time” Process Development • Industry Process Models – SCOR – eTom – FEA – government groups (transportation, NASCIO, etc.)
  • 48. A new generation of applications • Process Model Driven Architecture • Service Oriented Architecture • Data-centric not document-centric Architecture • Flexible, Adaptable,Agile
  • 49. Predictions • Business process will drive more and more initiatives • More and more industries will follow SCOR and eTOM model • SOA will allow for purchasing/acquiring tailored business processes and business activities rather than software suites • The real trick will be to tie business processes to Service Oriented Architecture, workflow and data • “Liberation Technology”