International Maritime Environment
National Marine Environmental
State Oceanic Monitoring Center
Administration People’s Republic of China
People’s Republic of China
IMO/UNEP/SOA WORKSHOP ON MARINE POLLUTION
PREVENTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT
IN EAST ASIA
29 MAY – 2 JUNE 2006
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME ORGANISATION (IMO)
UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME (UNEP)
STATE OCEANIC ADMINISTRATION (SOA)
NATIONAL MARINE ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING CENTER (NMEMC)
MARINE POLLUTION PREVENTION AND
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN EAST ASIA
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
29 MAY – 2 JUNE 2006
The London Convention 1972 (LC) and its successor the 1996 Protocol (LP) provide for
the establishment of a scientific and technical support programme to further the objectives of
these instruments. The key objectives for technical co-operation have been to: (1) strengthen
national marine pollution prevention and management capacities to achieve compliance with the
Convention and Protocol; (2) co-operate with other organisations and agencies to ensure a
coordinated approach to technical cooperation and assistance, avoiding duplication of effort; and
(3) promote membership of the Protocol. Additional objectives are the promotion of marine
pollution management generally, and, more specifically, of alternatives to dumping, including
alternative disposal mechanisms, recycling and the use of cleaner production technologies.
Technical cooperation and assistance aids countries in implementing the London
Convention 1972 and its successor the 1996 Protocol, and other multilateral agreements for the
protection of the environment. It is essential for aiding countries with their commitment to
incorporating these agreements into their national policies and has functioned with agreements
and programmes ranging from the adoption of Agenda 21 in 1992 to the adoption of the UNEP
Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based
Activities in 1995 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on
Sustainable Development 2002.
One activity through which these objectives are promoted is to hold meetings of the
technical advisory body of the London Convention (the Scientific Group) outside of IMO
Headquarters every other year. These meetings have been held in Brazil (1996), South Africa
(1998), Australia (2000), Jamaica (2002) and Kenya (2004), which facilitated the participation of
current Contracting Parties in each region and enabled the London Convention to reach out to
other countries through technical workshops. One of the objectives of these workshops was to
identify technical cooperation and assistance needs. From this identification, project proposals
can be drawn up and the countries concerned can be matched with potential donors/partners. For
example, during the workshop in Cape Town in 1998, one of the problem areas identified was
the difficulty of communication between the stakeholders in the region. This resulted in the
establishment of the SEA-WASTE Network for integrated waste-management in Southern and
Eastern Africa, funded by the Netherlands Government.
It is in this context that the IMO/UNEP/SOA Workshop on Marine Pollution Prevention
and Environmental Management in East Asia was convened from 29 May to 2 June, 2006, in
Dalian, China. The workshop was held in conjunction with the 29th Meeting of the Scientific
Group (5 to 9 June 2006) in the same location. This workshop was held in English.
This workshop was hosted by the State Oceanic Administration - National Marine
Environmental Monitoring Center of the People’s Republic of China and organized by the
International Maritime Organization (IMO) in collaboration with the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP).
This workshop was only possible with the financial contributions from the following
• Environment Canada
• The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety
• The Government of Japan
• The Government of the Republic of Korea
• The Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, North Sea
Directorate in the Netherlands
• The Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs in the United Kingdom
• The United States Environmental Protection Agency
• The International Maritime Organization
• The United Nations Environment Programme
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Executive Summary 6
Workshop Proceedings 10
Opening Ceremony 10
Objectives and Structure of the Workshop 12
Legal Framework for Marine Pollution Management 13
Sustainable Development: Environmental Management in Ports
- Identification of Issues 17
Case Studies for Sustainable Development: Environmental Management in Ports 21
Introduction to Waste Assessment Guidelines 31
Working Group Sessions on Dredged Material 43
Presentation of National Reports (Priorities and Action Plans) 52
Workshop Conclusions and Recommendations 56
Closing Ceremony 59
1 Workshop Programme 61
2 List of Participants 69
3 List of Useful Websites for Information on Ocean Dumping and Dredging 81
4 Feedback from Participants on How to Improve theWorkshop 83
The IMO/UNEP/SOA Workshop on Marine Pollution Prevention and Environmental
Management in East Asia was held from 29 May to 2 June 2006 in Dalian, China,and was hosted
by the State Oceanic Administration (SOA), People’s Republic of China. The workshop was
attended by 41 delegates from the following 10 countries in East Asia: Cambodia, People’s
Republic of China, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia,
Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore and Thailand. Nine delegates from non-East Asian
countries and seven representatives from international organizations also participated.
The workshop was sponsored by Contracting Parties to the London Convention, IMO, UNEP
and SOA, and organized under the London Convention Technical Co-operation and Assistance
During the Opening Ceremony, Mr. René Coenen (IMO/Office for the London Convention),
Dr. Alexander Tkalin (Coordinator NOWPAP, UNEP), Mr. Ma Deyi (Director General, Marine
Environmental Monitoring Center in Dalian), Ms. Chen Yue (Deputy Director General,
Department of International Co-operation), and Mr. Craig Vogt (Chairman of the London
Convention Scientific Group) delivered the welcome and keynote addresses.
WORKSHOP CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
National and Regional Marine Pollution and Environmental Management Issues
The countries in East Asia have a number of common marine pollution issues, as well as country
specific challenges for the prevention of marine pollution. They are in different stages of
development, but development is rapid in most cases. Many share the same marine pollution
and marine habitat loss problems—e.g., enclosing tidal lands for cultivation, loss of mangroves,
loss of seagrasses, declining fish stocks, and overall loss of biodiversity. In addition, pressure on
the coastal zones will continue to increase due to population growth, industrial development
aimed at exports, and tourism. Information sharing on these threats will assist in tackling the
Public education is regarded as critical to help change attitudes, both in the general public and in
the government. It is also important to generate and maintain the political will to sustain an
environmental agenda. The key message should be that the costs of prevention are much less
than the costs of rehabilitation. For practical decision making, stakeholder engagement is
Many laws and regulations have been established to protect the marine environment, but
implementation, enforcement, and national co-ordination are insufficient. A watershed approach
to managing land and sea-based pollution in coastal regions is key to addressing complex water
resource issues. The focus should be on the overall geographical and ecological system, and
should include a broad range of stakeholders. Monitoring is also important for marine protection
and some countries have made advances in developing monitoring programs. There is, however,
a general lack of capacity that should be addressed, as well as a need for increased mapping of
Specific national and regional issues and concerns identified in East Asia include:
1 harmful aquatic blooms and red tides on the rise due to eutrophication;
2 expansion of aquaculture and excessive feeding practices threaten the quality and
marketability of the fish produced, and the quality of the surrounding waters and
3 dredged material management;
4 marine litter/debris;
5 erosion and runoff from deforestation and agricultural practices; and
6 industrial and municipal developments, which are not matched with treatment
facilities for the waste waters generated.
Marine litter/debris from land-based and sea-based sources, identified as a major global issue,
poses increasing problems for coastal amenities, tourism, and fisheries in East Asia. A Global
Environment Facility (GEF) project on marine litter, which is being launched under the lead of
UNEP, could be of assistance to many countries in East Asia. Meanwhile, in a number of
countries, local populations have taken the initiative for beach cleanups.
IMO related issues
In this context, it was identified that there was a general lack of attention to maritime issues,
legislation, infrastructure, enforcement, funding and training. Several countries identified a
number of issues related to barriers to accession or ratification of IMO instruments, and to
difficulties in implementation. The key instruments identified included the London
Convention/Protocol (see below for more detail), International Convention on the Control of
Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, MARPOL 73/78 (key concerns are the lack of public
awareness, sufficient oil reception facilities, and systems for monitoring and controlling wastes
generated from vessels in ports), and the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness,
Response and Co-operation (key concerns are the absence of contingency plans and advanced oil
London Convention/Protocol related issues
In general terms it was identified that several countries lacked detailed information explaining
the basic requirements to join the London Protocol and the key steps a country needed to take to
ratify or accede. It was also noted that there were no costs to become a Party to the London
Protocol and that there were no penalties within the framework. In relation to specific London
Convention/Protocol issues, it was identified that:
1 dredged material management is the primary ocean dumping issue in all countries,
and further capacity building is needed particularly for assessment, site
designation, and monitoring;
2 ‘low-tech’ solutions are possible for assessment and monitoring of marine
3 technical and policy advice was needed on how to increase the beneficial use of
dredged material; and
4 several LC documents would be useful to workshop participants including,
“Minimum Requirements to Implement the 1996 Protocol,” “An Overview of the
Potential Benefits, Costs and Consequences for a State, When it Considers
Becoming a Contracting Party to the 1996 Protocol,” and “Guidance on the
National Implementation of the 1996 Protocol to the LC72.”
It was also noted that any requests for technical assistance should be formulated as soon as
possible in co-operation with the IMO Secretariat, the IMO-Regional Co-ordinator and UNEP,
bearing in mind crucial funding cycles.
The workshop, having noted the issues facing the region as a whole and those affecting specific
countries, and having recognized the need to ensure that these issues are addressed by relevant
bodies/agencies/organizations, has made the following recommendations:
Promotion of the London Protocol in East Asia
1 Building on the “Guidance for National Implementation of the London Protocol,”
a clear description should be provided of the benefits, costs, and consequences a State
should consider when becoming a Contracting Party to the Protocol.
2 Participating countries mentioned that existing regional mechanisms and for a
(e.g., ASEAN-OSRAP, COBSEA and NOWPAP) should be used to address marine
pollution issues and to improve co-ordination of policies in this regard. These platforms
should also be used, where appropriate, for promotion and implementation of the London
Protocol in East Asia.
3 National workshops/seminars to raise the awareness of and prepare for accession
to or ratification of the London Protocol should be convened involving all stakeholders
and representatives in the interested country concerned with the prevention of marine
pollution caused by dumping. The initiative should come from the national
administration expressing an interest in the London Protocol.
4 Countries in East Asia interested in joining the London Protocol are urged to
contact the IMO Regional Co-ordinator in East Asia, Manila, and/or the IMO Office for
the London Convention at IMO Headquarters and the UNEP Regional Seas Co-ordinator.
5 Continued assistance is required in the development of legislation, standards, and
guidelines, including the institutional arrangements to support the implementation of
international agreements including the London Protocol.
6 A status report should be developed on dumping activities and dumping sites in
East Asia to inform COBSEA, NOWPAP, and the Contracting Parties to the London
Convention and Protocol.
Dredged material management
7 Dredged materials should be promoted as a resource and used in a beneficial
manner, such as in beach nourishment or in wetlands / habitat restoration, creation or
enhancement. When dredging near sensitive ecosystems such as coral reefs, special
measures should be used to control dispersion of turbidity.
8 Accession by countries in East Asia to the IMO Convention on the Control of
Harmful Anti-Fouling-Systems on Ships, 2001, and Ballast Water Management
Convention, 2004, is encouraged and should be promoted. In addition, the application of
best management practices should be developed and promoted for the handling of TBT
paint chip flakes, especially in docking facilities, shipyards, and marinas.
9 Countries in the region should seek to enhance their co-operation to counter
land-based sources of marine pollution. In this regard countries are invited to actively
participate in the up-coming 2nd Intergovernmental Review of the Global Programme of
Action (GPA), which will be held in Beijing in October 2006.
10 Countries should aim to mobilize women and/or children (like the IMO initiatives
“Women in the maritime field” or IMO Children’s Ambassador for the Protection of the
Marine Environment and the Children’s Marine Environment Protection Associations) in
advancing pollution prevention initiatives.
The IMO/UNEP/SOA Workshop on Marine Pollution Prevention and Environmental
Management in East Asia was held from 29 May to 2 June 2006 at the Kempinski Hotel in
Dalian, China, in conjunction with the twenty-ninth meeting of the Scientific Group (5 to 9 June
2006). The workshop was sponsored by Contracting Parties to the London Convention, IMO,
UNEP, and the State Oceanic Administration of the People’s Republic of China, and organized
under the London Convention Technical Co-operation and Assistance Programme.
Welcome and Introduction
Mr. René Coenen, Head of IMO’s Office of the London Convention
• Mr. Coenen welcomed all workshop participants, the Chinese delegation, representatives
from the National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center (NMEMC) of the State Oceanic
Administration (People’s Republic of China), workshop participants from other East Asian
countries, and other participants.
• This workshop has a broad scope and mission of marine pollution prevention and waste
management issues in ports around the world.
• The overall goal of this workshop is to provide a forum for information exchange, technical
cooperation, and assistance among member nations of the London Convention and countries
interested in protection of the marine environment.
• Many countries in East Asia have achieved rapid growth and economic development.
Sustainable development and the challenge to protect the environment are more important
today than ever before. This point was echoed at the Johannesburg Summit in 2002.
• International environmental agreements are binding obligations among states, methods of
protecting the environment, and are a ticket to partnerships in the international community.
They provide a forum for information exchange and funding mechanisms to resolve marine
• The 81 countries to the LC have agreed to provide support for countries in the developing
world to assist them in preventing marine pollution and to protect the environment.
• This workshop is a continuation of past workshops in Brazil (1996), South Africa (1998),
Australia (2000), Jamaica (2002), and Kenya (2004).
o To highlight the relationships among the different themes of the workshop
o To identify the practical solutions and methods for implementation that will work
in each country’s situation.
o To learn about cooperation opportunities.
• Mr. Coenen thanked SOA, local environmental Dalian officials, UNEP, and Staff of
• He also thanked the supporters of the workshop: Canada, Germany, Japan, Republic of
Korea, Netherlands, UK, USA, UNEP, IMO, and WODA.
Dr. Alexander Tkalin, coordinator of Northwest Pacific Action Plan (NOWPAP-UNEP)
• On behalf of UNEP he thanked the IMO, Government of China, sponsors of workshop, and
all other workshop participants from near and far.
• The large diversity in this workshop demonstrates the importance and interest of
environmental management in ports and marine pollution management issues in East Asia.
• It is hoped that more countries will ratify the London Convention and its 1996 Protocol.
• UNEP is working closely with IMO and LC/LP Contracting Parties on issues related to the C
onvention and 1996 Protocol, oil pollution prevention and cleanup, ballast water discharge, in
troduction of invasive species, marine protected areas, particularly sensitive sea areas (PSSA
s), and other sea-based pollution issues.
• The active members of the IMO will be interested in identifying challenges the East Asian
countries have in protecting the marine environment.
Official Opening of the Workshop
Mr. Ma Deyi, Director General of the National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center
(NMEMC), People’s Republic of China
• Respects were paid to the members of the introduction panel, to the IMO members from near
and far, to workshop participants, and to other participants.
• On behalf of the NMEMC of the State Oceanic Administration in the People’s Republic of
China, Mr. Ma welcomed all the members of this workshop to Dalian and hoped that all the
participants would take time to enjoy Dalian’s coastal environment.
• The NMEMC is the national center engaged in marine environmental monitoring, protection
and research in the People’s Republic of China. The main missions of the NMEMC are:
o To create plans and criteria in marine environmental protection.
o To conduct research on marine environment and assess impacts.
o To implement the national marine monitoring program.
o To develop the national marine environmental quality bulletin.
o To develop and implement the best available technology in marine protection.
o To provide technical support for decision making.
• All workshop members were invited to visit the NMEMC in Dalian on Wednesday (31 May
• Mr. Ma concluded by saying that he hoped to collaborate with IMO members and London
Convention members in promoting marine protection.
Ms. Chen Yue, Deputy Director General of the Department of International Co-operation, SOA,
People’s Republic of China
• Respects were paid to the members of the opening ceremony panel, to the IMO members
from near and far, and to other participants. A special welcome was paid to those London
Convention members attending the workshop.
• Ms. Chen was honoured that the IMO and London Convention members chose Dalian to host
this workshop and the 29th Meeting of the Scientific Group. She expressed a warm welcome
to all the participants on behalf of the SOA of the People’s Republic of China.
• This workshop provides a great opportunity to exchange lessons learned and skills gained
among London Convention countries and other East Asian nations (info exchange and
• The State Oceanic Administration has made great efforts to control pollution and improve
environmental quality. National environmental protection laws have been approved by the
Chinese Congress and are playing important roles in protecting the marine environment in
• China, as a Contracting Party to the London Convention, is willing to work with developed
and developing countries to promote cooperation and support among all nations in
• Ms. Chen wished all participants a pleasant stay and a successful workshop.
OBJECTIVES AND STRUCTURE OF THE WORKSHOP
Mr. Craig Vogt, Chair of the London Convention Scientific Group and Chairman of the
• Mr. Vogt thanked the participants from China for being such gracious hosts, and looked
forward to a successful week of information exchange and technical support on marine
pollution prevention and environmental management.
• All workshop participants were invited to introduce themselves.
• Mr. Vogt mentioned that there would be an IMO reception at the conclusion of Monday’s
• The workshop should maintain a fluid and flexible structure in hope that all participants are
given the chance to voice their concerns and information.
• One of the main purposes of the workshop was to talk about the London Convention and its
1996 Protocol. The Protocol has been ratified by the necessary 26 countries and went into
force two months ago.
• A key part of the London Convention/1996 Protocol strategy is technical cooperation and
assistance, which helps to make a stronger international agreement.
• The Technical Cooperation and Assistance Programme:
o Promotes membership of the 1996 Protocol.
o Strengthens pollution prevention capabilities of member and non-member
o Strengthens national marine pollution prevention and management capacities in
general and to achieve compliance with the Convention and/or Protocol.
o Cooperates with other organizations and agencies to ensure coordinated
approaches to technical cooperation and assistance.
• The Workshop objectives are to:
o Increase awareness of the LC and 1996 Protocol.
o Promote membership to the Protocol.
o Identify barriers and solutions to implementation of the LC and LP in East Asia.
o Promote closer cooperation between the LC and UNEP.
o Promote marine pollution prevention and environmental management.
o Identify and address barriers to MARPOL implementation.
o Identify and address relevant issues of national concern.
o Formulate regional plans to address issues in East Asia.
o Identify needs and sources of technical cooperation and assistance.
• All workshop participants were invited to convey their specific challenges in marine
pollution prevention and their expectations from this workshop. Mr. Vogt stated that the
LC Parties would like to hear what East Asian participants hoped to get out of the workshop
and hoped that all countries would give presentations or case studies.
• A brief and general description of the week’s agenda was given.
• The workshop participants were charged to listen, learn, and actively participate in the
workshop, and to take home lessons learned to assist in solving regional and local issues.
LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MARINE POLLUTION MANAGEMENT
Mr. Craig Vogt moderated the second session of the morning, and this session focused on the
Legal Framework for Marine Pollution Management.
Mr. René Coenen stated that his presentation would focus on the achievements and value of the
London Convention (LC) and its Protocol (LP) for marine pollution prevention and
• The LC is one of the oldest global conventions to protect the marine environment from
human activities, and it has been in force since 1975.
• Dumping refers to the deliberate disposal at sea of wastes loaded onboard vessels, aircraft,
platforms or other man-made structures at sea. Dumping does not include pipeline
discharges from land or operational discharges from vessels or offshore installations.
• Achievements of the LC:
o Unregulated dumping and incineration are prohibited.
o Dumping is permitted, but is limited to certain wastes which are regulated
appropriately to ensure minimal impact on the marine environment.
o Audits to prevent waste and identify sources of contamination.
o Assessment of alternatives is encouraged.
o A process for waste characterization.
o Development of “Action Lists.”
o Assessment of potential effects of sea and land disposal options.
o Identification of procedures for disposal site selection.
o Monitoring and licensing procedures.
• 1996 Protocol to the LC protects the sea and sea-bed and prohibits all dumping except certain
types of waste. The 1996 Protocol:
o Excludes internal waters unless a party adopts other effective measures to control
the deliberate disposal of wastes or other matter in marine internal waters.
o Does not allow incineration at sea.
o Does not allow export of wastes to other countries for dumping or incineration.
o Requires designation of a national authority to implement the Protocol.
o Allows dumping only on the basis of permitting.
• The LC and Protocol take a precautionary approach and use the “polluter-pays principle.”
This principle includes incentives for proper allocation of environmental costs and strong
emphasis on control of contaminants at source.
• The 8 Waste Assessment Guidelines (WAGs) are based on generally accepted approaches for
sound waste management and pollution prevention.
• A guidance document exists for national implementation of the London Protocol. This gives
an outline of actions which countries should take at the national level.
• 250 to 400 million tonnes of dredged material are dumped in Convention waters, 10% of
which is contaminated from shipping, industrial and municipal discharges, and land run-off.
• Dredged material constitutes 80-90% of all materials dumped.
• Other materials dumped include:
o Sewage sludge.
o Decommissioned vessels.
o Organic materials, e.g., food and beverage processing wastes, spoilt cargoes.
o Fish wastes.
o Inert, inorganic geologic materials.
• The London Convention and Protocol provide global rules and standards on dumping as
required under Article 210.6 of UNCLOS (1982).
• Current LC/LP priorities are:
o Improvement of compliance.
o Improvement of the scientific evaluation.
o Technical cooperation and assistance.
o Outreach activities.
o Regulation of CO2 sequestration in sub-seabed geologic formations.
o Collaborative agreements.
• The Protocol is a more modern and comprehensive treaty on dumping, and it:
o Contains a reverse list of materials that may be considered for dumping.
o Covers storage in the seabed.
o Contains clearer linkages with other international environmental agreements.
o Provides a forum for technical cooperation and assistance.
• Mr. Coenen discussed the benefits for States when joining the LC, such as a better capability
to prevent marine pollution.
• He also discussed the costs for States when joining the LC:
o No membership fees.
o Costs associated with national legislation for implementing Protocol.
o Administration of a licensing system.
o Conducting field and compliance monitoring activities.
o Attending annual meetings of the Contracting Parties, if possible.
• Mr. Coenen wrapped up by discussing initial steps for States towards membership of the
LC and its Protocol.
Mr. Edward Kleverlaan, IMO – Office of the London Convention, spoke about the MARPOL
• As a consequence of a very active shipping industry, there exists a potential for serious
impacts to marine health from vessel-based pollution.
• Pollution accidents can arise from collisions and equipment failure.
• Operational discharges include oil, noxious liquid substances, sewage, garbage, air pollution,
anti-fouling paints, and foreign organisms.
• An overview was provided of relevant IMO instruments to protect the marine environment
such as International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), Convention on the
International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLLREGS), LC/Protocol,
Anti-fouling Systems Convention, Ballast Water Management Conventions, MARPOL
73/78, and the Protocol on Preparedness, Response and Co-operation to Pollution Incidents
by Hazardous and Noxious Substances (OPRC/HNS).
• MARPOL focuses on operational/accidental discharges. It does not cover repair or cleanup
of substances after leakages. These are found in the OPRC (HNS) Convention.
• MARPOL is a combination of several treaties and has been updated through Amendments
and revisions over time. MARPOL contains six Annexes with the first two being mandatory
and the others optional:
o Annexes I – oil.
o Annex II – noxious liquid substances.
o Annex III – harmful substances in packaged form.
o Annex IV – sewage.
o Annex V – garbage from ships.
o Annex VI – air pollution from ships.
• MARPOL applies to:
o Ships entitled to fly the flag of a contracting party to MARPOL.
o Ships operating under the authority of a contracting party.
o Ships operating in a contracting party’s EEZ.
• MARPOL does not permit the disposal of plastics.
• Mr. Kleverlaan discussed the responsibilities of member states:
o Comply with Annexes I and II.
o Consider ratifying Annexes III-VI and/or implementing national laws to cover
these waste categories.
o Inform IMO of all incidences, permits, and inspection violations.
o Have the capability to inspect and monitor your own ships.
o Report incidences.
o Have capability to investigate incidences.
• Mr. Kleverlaan concluded by discussing the administrative duties to be considered when
deciding to accede to MARPOL.
Introduction of applicable regional conventions and programmes:
Dr. Srisuda Jarayabhand, Coordinator of the UNEP Regional Coordinating Unit for the East
Asian Seas (COBSEA Secretariat), explained that her presentation would provide a brief
overview of the East Asian Seas region and the COBSEA organization.
• COBSEA is an intergovernmental body consisting of ten member countries, and is mandated
to coordinate activities to implement the East Asian Seas Action Plan
• East Asian seas have lots of resources, including 34% of the world’s coral reefs, high levels
of coastal development, and considerable shipping activity. Therefore, environmental
protection is especially important to maintain these resources.
• A brief history/time line of COBSEA was given including its establishment in 1982.
• Main components of the East Asia Seas Action Plan are:
o Monitoring and assessment of the effects of human activities on the environment.
o Protection of mangroves, sea grass and coral reefs.
o Pollution control.
o Information management.
• The Action Plan works to increase:
o Scientific information.
o Public awareness of marine environmental issues through training, workshops and
o Capacity building of member governments.
o Networking among policymakers and scientists / experts of countries in the
o Initiation of regional projects to mitigate the effects of human activities on the
coastal and marine environment.
• COBSEA has focused mainly on land-based pollution and is hoping to work with the LC to
address sea-based pollution.
• COBSEA is also addressing the issue of marine litter.
• COBSEA is extending its capacity building to assist member countries in the implementation
of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) related to sea-based pollution.
Dr. Alexander Tkalin, explained the structure and mission of NOWPAP.
• NOWPAP consists of four member states (China, Japan, Republic of Korea and Russia) and
is hoping that others will join.
• NOWPAP is a part of the UNEP Regional Seas Programme.
• A short history of NOWPAP was given since its adoption in 1994.
• NOWPAP activities are being implemented through four regional activity centers:
o DINRAC – Data and Information Network.
o POMRAC – Pollution Monitoring Regional Activity Center.
o CEARAC – Special Monitoring and Coastal Environmental Assessment.
o MERRAC – Marine Environmental Emergency Preparedness and Response
Regional Activity Center.
• Dr. Tkalin presented the outcomes of the 10th NOWPAP Intergovernmental Meeting
• A brief discussion of persistent toxic substances was given, including how NOWPAP is
going to address the land-based sources of these substances. The UN’s Global
Environmental Facility (GEF) will fund implementation of this project.
• NOWPAP recognizes that the protection of the marine environment requires cooperation
with relevant global and regional organizations, projects and programs (e.g., IMO, PEMSEA,
YSLME), as well as with global conventions such as the London Convention, MARPOL, and
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN PORTS –
IDENTIFICATION OF ISSUES
Dr. Chris Vivian, Vice Chair of the LC Scientific Group and Scientific Advisor for the Centre for
Environment, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), UK, moderated the session on
environmental management in ports.
Mr. David Taillefer, Sediment Adviser, Environmental Canada, discussed sources of land-based
pollution to the marine environment.
• Major discharges to the marine environment include storm water, municipal water, and
• Reasons for treatment include rendering water usable for drinking water, cooking water,
water for fish/wildlife, agricultural use, industrial use, and protection of the marine
• Storm water was defined. Two types of storm water exist: point and nonpoint sources.
• Pollutants in storm water include sediment, trash, nutrients, bacteria, organics, oil/grease,
trace metals, toxics, and chlorides.
• During storm events, there is too much runoff occurring in a short amount of time. This
increases bank erosion, flooding, and alterations to the natural flow regime.
• Solutions include:
o Separate storm water and municipal sewage system.
o Regulation and permitting discharges.
• Many remediation strategies exist including:
o Maximizing infiltration of precipitation where it falls.
o Reduction of curbs/gutters, reduction of road widths, minimization of grading,
reduction in amount of impervious surfaces.
o Increased bioretention through use of plants (i.e., rain gardens).
o Use of open swails, parking lot island infiltration areas, permeable pavement, and
• Mr. Taillefer discussed preliminary, secondary (biological-activated sludge process), and
tertiary stages of municipal waste water treatment.
• Photographs and schematics were shown on the different stages and technology used in each.
• Information on sewage sludge disposal was discussed during Dr. Gi-Hoon Hong’s
presentation in Session 3.
• Industrial waste water is generated by processes such as: transport, manufacturing, rinsing of
components, scrubbing of gases and metalworking (electroplating).
• Typical treatment processes include physical, chemical, and biological methods.
• Mr. Taillefer thanked the US Environmental Protection Agency for providing some of the
information used in his presentation.
Dr. Elizabeth Kim, Environmental Protection Specialist, US Environmental Protection Agency,
discussed discharges from vessels and other sea-based sources to ocean waters. Dr. Kim’s
presentation focused on incidental discharges from vessels.
• For the following discharges, Dr. Kim discussed the relevant treaty, major constituents, and
potential treatment technologies:
o Blackwater – MARPOL Annex IV
Major constituents: nutrients, pathogens, BOD, TSS, chlorine, metals, and
dissolved organic carbon.
Advanced treatment methods: biological treatments followed by
membrane filtration and often UV, ozone, or chlorine to disinfect
(examples are RoChem, Xenon, Hamworthy and ScanShip).
o Graywater – no treaty
Major constituents: nutrients, pathogens, BOD, TSS, chlorine, oil and
grease, and dissolved organic carbon.
Advanced treatment methods: biological treatments followed by
membrane filtration and often UV to disinfect (examples are Rochem,
Xenon, Hamworthy, and Scan Ship).
o Bilge water – MARPOL Annex I
Major constituents vary tremendously based on overall maintenance
condition of the vessel. In general, oil, sulfides, and heavy metals are
Treatment methods: oily water separators, ceramic ultra-filtration
membranes, advanced membrane technologies, biological treatment,
sludge tanks for oil residues, and reducing the amount generated.
o Ballast water – International Convention for the Control and Management of
Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004
Major contaminants of concern are aquatic nuisance species (ANS).
Regulatory solutions will help reduce the spread of ANS.
Ballast water treatment methods: filtration, UV radiation, biocides,
ultrasound energy, air displacement technologies (e.g., CO2 and N2
saturation), and oily water reception facilities.
o Garbage – MARPOL Annex V
Major constituents: cardboard, paper, plastic, wood, glass, metal cans, and
Treatment methods: reducing the amount generated, disposal onshore,
grinding before discharge, incineration, separate plastics, and
pulpers/shredders (cardboard, glass, paper).
o Hazardous Waste – no treaty
Major constituents: paints, solvents, batteries, photo lab wastes, and dry
These materials should not be discharged. They should be segregated
from other wastes and brought to shore for appropriate treatment and/or
o Antifouling paints – International Convention on the Control of Harmful
Anti-fouling Systems on Ships.
Major contaminants of concern are TBT, copper, and zinc.
Technologies which reduce the leaching rate can be used. Using
non-persistent and non-bioaccumulative active agents is the best solution.
o Oil spills – MARPOL Annex I
Treatment methods: mechanical removal, photochemical catalysts, sorbent
use, berming and damming, in situ burning, dispersant application, fates
and effects 19odelling, and contingency (pre-incident) planning.
Dr. Kim also discussed discharges from and issues related to ship repair facilities.
Mr. Edward Kleverlaan discussed management of ballast water discharges with respect to the
impact of invasive alien species (AIS). His presentation also focused on the regulatory regime of
the International Convention for the Control of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (Ballast
Water Management Convention).
• Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) are defined as foreign species introduced into the
environment that have few predators, are able to thrive in that area, and displace local flora
• After introducing a number of impacts of shipping on the marine environment (e.g., major oil
spills), Mr. Kleverlaan described the impacts of invasive alien species as one of the greatest
threats to biodiversity. He categorized the impacts as ecological, economic, and human health
• Short case studies were provided on the comb-jelly and its devastation on the Black Sea and
Caspian Seas, and on the Chinese mitten crab and its impact on coastlines in Northern
• The impact on human health may include toxic dinoflagellates and species carrying cholera
or other diseases. Pathways for these invasive alien species may occur through introduction
and ballast water exchange. Examples of how intentional and unintentional introductions
were described. Intentional introductions can include aquaculture and fishing, while
unintentional introductions can occur through canal developments, marine debris, and escape
or release from aquaria or shipping.
• Mr. Kleverlaan discussed how catastrophic events in the marine environment (e.g., oil spills)
tend to have small effects over time. However, AIS can have very large long-term effects
which increase over time.
• Furthermore there are 3-10 billion tonnes of ballast water transported per year and over 7,000
species are in transit at any one time.
• Ballast water is a major issue now more than ever because the volume of trade occurring via
international shipping routes is higher than ever. Harmful effects from ballast water
discharge must be addressed as shipping is unlikely to be eliminated.
• International regulatory responses to ballast water issues include: IMO-MEPC 1991, IMO
Res. A.774(18), IMO-Res. A.868(20) in 1997(Guidelines – BW exchange), GloBallast
Programme (2000–04), IMO-BWM Convention 2004, and GloBallast follow-up (GloBallast
• Ballast Water Management Convention was adopted on the 13th of February 2004.
• Highlighted aspects of the convention included:
o Control mechanisms of the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms on ships.
o Development of policies and strategies for a contracting party’s waters and ships.
o Encourages regional agreements.
o Regulations require tanks to be flushed 3 times in transit.
o Restrictions on locations for ballast water exchange.
o Created ballast water performance standards (i.e., less than 10 viable organisms
per cubic meter).
o Requires sediment reception facilities in ports.
o Requires parties to obtain sufficient background information on the biological
baseline and risks associated with their waters.
• The BWM Convention includes measures such as risk reduction (exchange at sea), ballast
water treatment, and port/coastal water measures. Mr. Kleverlaan stated that ballast water
exchange is not a long term option for effective control. He described standards of ballast
water treatment options and other shipboard controls. He also referred to the development of
national and port ballast water management plans, and regional initiatives.
• Dalian played a vital role in regional initiatives including the Dalian Port Survey, conducted
as part of the Globallast Programme.
• Ratification entails obligations which may be costly, but there are great environmental
benefits associated with acceding to this treaty.
• Mr. Craig Vogt (United States) asked what the costs are associated with ballast water
treatment technologies. Mr. Kleverlaan answered that the costs will vary according to the
size of the ship and the standards set up to control the spread of AIS. Some nations are
actively researching possible applications of new ship-board technologies including physical/
chemical treatments and ballast water-free ships.
Dr. Tom Fredette, Biologist, US Army Corps of Engineers, discussed issues surrounding the
dredging of ports and marinas.
• Major considerations given to new projects for evaluation are the project objectives, the
environmental and cultural resources located in the area (e.g., recreation, coral reefs,
wetlands), the sediment placement options, the placement site resources, and the feasibility of
• Project coordination is a key component of the project planning process.
• Projects must be planned and executed properly to protect a community’s valuable resources.
• The type and severity of impacts observed at dredging sites is dependent upon the sediment
type, current dynamics, and other physical characteristic of the area. Impacts to the
environment may include habitat modification, clouding oyster beds, filling in grass beds, or
compromising fish/shellfish spawning grounds.
• Other potential dredging impacts include circulation changes (salinity), entrainment
(hydraulic dredging), habitat modification/loss, fishery migration blockage, noise, changes in
currents, erosion, and disturbances to recreational activities.
• Several indirect impacts also exist including the increase in shipping activity that coincides
with increases in port capacity.
• Material can be lost during transit and should be considered in risk assessments.
• Risks at the disposal site include increased suspended material, unintentional burial of
resources due to improper positioning, improper placement resulting in inappropriate depths,
fishing obstacles, and the long-term loss of sediment to erosion.
• Chemical and biological impacts need to be addressed to prevent unintended disruption to the
• Solutions to dredging issues include pre-dredging assessment, disposal site selection,
monitoring, technology alternatives, and mitigation strategies.
• Proper project planning has shown dredging projects can occur in a timely and efficient
manner, while providing protection to sensitive resources.
Mr. Craig Vogt, presented a new document released by the US Environmental Protection
Agency entitled Best Management Practices for Cleanup of Vessels to be Used as Artificial
• Purpose: to provide environmentally-based best management practices (BMPs) for the
preparation of vessels to be sunk with the intention of creating artificial reefs.
• As vessels age and the demand for new ships increases over time, there becomes a need for
vessel disposal options. However proper steps must be taken to ensure that the effect on the
environment is minimized.
• Materials of Concern for the cleanup of vessels to be used as artificial reefs include:
o Oil and fuel.
o Other materials of environmental concern.
• Mr. Vogt provided a list of items on vessels which may contain the materials of concern and
where the items can be found onboard. Cleanup goals for all of the materials of concern
• A case study on the ex-USS Oriskany was provided.
• The Guidance document was prepared for anyone cleaning obsolete or decommissioned
military vessels. The guidance document is intended to:
o Provide a consistent, national approach for vessel clean-up and preparation
o Ensure vessels prepared for use as artificial reefs will be environmentally sound in
their use as artificial reefs.
o Provide basis for estimating costs associated with preparation of vessels for use as
o Enhance the utility of the Artificial Reefing Program of the Maritime
Administration and the Navy as an option for management of
• Mr. Vogt asked if any workshop participants are working on issues involving the use of
vessels as artificial reefs. The audience did not speak of any specific issues, however several
participants noted that they are facing similar issues.
CASE STUDIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT IN PORTS
Mr. René Coenen, moderated this session.
Ms. Piyarat Pitiwatanakul, Environmentalist, Marine Department (EIA Section), Thailand,
presented a case study on land- and sea-based pollution sources of particular concern for waste
management in Thai Ports that included dredging in Thailand.
• Ms. Pitiwatanakul thanked the Programme organizations, IMO, and LC countries for hosting
the workshop and for the invitation to speak.
• Land-based sources include communities, industrial plants, agriculture and aquaculture,
tourism, and port/fishing gear.
• Sea-based sources include oil spills, dredging, red tides, and floatable debris from ships.
• Regulatory tools for pollution prevention in Thailand include:
o Laws to prohibit all kinds of dumping in Thai ports.
o Requirement of EIA/IEE studies for port development or marine coastal projects.
o Continual monitoring of EIA implementation.
o Emergency response planning.
o Ensuring safety of ships and cargo transport.
o Guidelines for good control of pollution in port operation.
• Thailand’s Marine Department divides ports management into sizes, major ports and small
• Types of waste in Thai ports include food, fish waste, oil, chemicals, garbage, heavy metals,
shipping ballast water, anti-fouling paints, shipyard waste, and contaminated sediment.
• Waste Management Activities:
o Issue regulations regarding waste reception facilities in ports.
o Prepare other domestic tools necessary to accede to MARPOL.
o Provide facilities to receive residues and oily mixtures generated from ports and
• Demonstration ports (Bangkok, Laem Chabang, and Map Ta Phut):
o Projects showed that waste management plans were needed.
o Helped identify financial costs of management.
o Capacity development of relevant enforcement agencies.
o Assistance to development of a Thai approach in regional cooperation.
• Guidelines and action plans for waste management operations include:
o National Oil Spill Response Plan.
o Capacity building in terms of equipment and personnel.
o Building partnership in East Asia region.
• Ms. Pitiwatanakul also discussed dredged material management in Thailand. Roadblocks in
dredging operations include:
o Lack of detailed laws and regulations regarding dredging at the operational level.
o Insufficient data to map sensitive areas in Thailand’s territorial waters.
o Lack of standards for assessing sediment quality.
o Lack of public participation in the selection of dumping sites.
• Thailand’s efforts to improve management of dredging operations include:
o Conduct EIA / IEE study report.
o Define the reasonable / suitable sites for dumping of dredged material.
o Monitor the marine environment during dredging process.
o Development of monitoring reports.
• Additional issues needed in Thailand relevant to dredging include:
o Training Programme.
o Cooperation (all aspects)
At the local, regional, national, and international levels.
Dr. Gi-Hoon Hong, Senior Scientist, Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute,
Republic of Korea, presented a case study on sewage sludge management and disposal in the
Republic of Korea.
• The geographical and demographical nature of the Republic of Korea has forced the country
to address many environmental issues, particularly sewage treatment and disposal.
• Sewage treatment plants are being built very rapidly in the Republic of Korea in order to
keep up with the rising population.
• Sewage treatment management is divided amongst several administrative units of central and
• Disposal of sewage sludge in land fills and by incineration was not popular with the public
because of health concerns. Ocean disposal of sewage sludge remains an option by default as
land fill popularity has decreased considerably. Recycling and beneficial use of sewage
sludge has not been popular, and therefore most sludge is disposed in the ocean.
• Sewage sludge is characterized using a test for 80 different constituents.
• The Republic of Korea has identified constituents of particular concern to be heavy metals,
polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated bi-phenyls.
• The process of sewage sludge characterization has helped show the future needs for sewage
sludge management in Republic of Korea. Documents on sewage sludge treatment and
management have been provided by the IMO and other collaborative partners. These
documents have helped educate the public regarding sewage sludge treatment and
• The Republic of Korea modified its National Action List in 2005.
• A clearing house of information was developed as an outreach tool for all stakeholders
wanting to learn about waste management options for sewage sludge.
• Potential beneficial uses of sewage sludge are being developed, including use as fuel and
concrete construction material.
• Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and the Ministry of the Environment have agreed to
cease sewage sludge disposal in the ocean by 2011. This confirms the general principles of
waste management: intensifying concern about environmental issues and tighter, more
rigorously enforced environmental regulations are fuelling the growth of the waste recycling
• Mr. René Coenen commended Dr. Gi-Hoon Hong for making a very informative and sound
presentation on sewage sludge management and treatment.
Presentation of specific challenges in the participating countries in the region
Mr. Lex Oosterbaan, Senior Adviser of International Affairs, Ministry of Transport, Pubic Works
and Water Management, North Sea Directorate, Netherlands, moderated this session on the
specific challenges in the participating countries in the region.
Mr. Long Rithirak, Deputy Director General, Ministry of Environment, Cambodia, thanked the
IMO and organizers of the workshop as well as Dalian for hosting the conference.
• Cambodia shares its border with Thailand, PDR Laos, and Vietnam.
• Sources of pollution to Cambodian coasts include runoff from deforestation practices,
industrial waste, municipal waste, aquaculture wastes, fuel stations, and the cargo operations.
o Upland and lowland activities:
Solid waste from households, restaurants, and beaches. Many wastes are
discharged right into rivers.
Industrial waste – factories, seafood processing, animal waste, cement and
fertilizer wastes, sawmills.
Oil wastes – navigation activities, boat washing.
Soil erosion – illegal deforestation and poor agriculture practices remove
o Seabed exploitation and exploration.
o Ports and harbours.
• Waste management in ports consists of incineration and land disposal. Port authorities,
however, are working to establish port waste reception facilities, recycling facilities, and
implement other strategies in order to be meet IMO mandates.
• Cambodia has ratified Annexes I-V of MARPOL. It is not, however, an LC or a Protocol
• Cambodia is working with IMO to prevent marine pollution in ports and the coastal
• “Environmental days” are organized by local populations to clean up polluted waters.
• Mr. Rithirak explained that Cambodia will likely face with a greater variety of pollution
issues as the coastal development increases.
People’s Republic of China
Mr. Yu Jian, Program Officer, State Oceanic Administration, People’s Republic of China, spoke
about the basic conditions of China’s marine environment, developments in China’s marine
environmental protection work, and current/future key policies and measures in marine
• With long coasts, vast area, numerous islands, rich resources, and countless varieties of
marine species and ecological systems, there is an enormous potential for development in
China’s coastal areas.
• Main pollutants in coastal environments are nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate), oils, and heavy
metals (lead and mercury).
• 80% of the pollution is land-based. Polluted marine areas are mainly located in the coastal
waters of estuaries, bays, and the waters surrounding the large- and medium-sized coastal
cities with concentrated population and heavy industries. However, the majority of offshore
areas meet clean water quality standards, and the water quality in open water areas remains in
• China has recurring problems with toxic red tides.
• The increased marine pollution and artificial destructions resulting from enclosing tideland
for cultivation have caused some coastal habitats to deteriorate.
• The Chinese Government has conducted several programs including “Marine Environment
Quality Trend Monitoring Plan” and “Coastal Red Tide Monitoring & Control Zone
• The Chinese Government has put much effort into EIA approval of marine and coastal
projects. It has actively developed control measures for pollutant discharges into the sea and
conducted studies in some sensitive estuaries and bays.
• China has placed a special emphasis on a strategy of both pollution prevention and ecological
rehabilitation. Aspects of this strategy that address pollution prevention include:
o Strict control of pollutants in land-based discharges into the sea.
o Restore and protect waters in the vicinity of estuaries, bays and cities.
o Gradually introduce whole process of clean production and eliminate backward
technology and production facilities.
o Close down heavy pollution enterprises within a limited period of time.
o Promote high efficiency agriculture and advanced fertilizing method, and reduce
the amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides used.
• Aspects of the national strategy that are related to ecological rehabilitation include:
o Strengthen typical marine eco-system protection, rehabilitate offshore ecological
functional zones, establish and perfect marine nature reserves with different
o Start construction of marine ecological protection and development pilot projects.
o Strengthen protection and restoration of the eroded sectors of the coast.
o Strictly control enclosed tideland for cultivation and reclaiming land from the sea.
• Aspects of the national strategy that are related to coastal development include:
o Strictly adhere to marine functional zoning system and environmental impact
assessment system in the approval of marine development operations.
o Such conducts as reclaiming land from the sea and sea sand excavation, which
might change the natural attributions of the sea areas, should be strictly controlled
in the process of approving use of coastal areas.
o Marine-related projects should not encroach upon, damage or pollute important
• China will continue to enforce marine and coastal laws by:
o Establishing enforcement coordination mechanisms to combine national, regional,
and local law enforcement operations.
o Increase investment in capacity building for enforcement efforts (i.e., vessels,
airplanes, and remote sensing devices).
o Raise the level of the law enforcement personnel through training and enhance
law enforcement and emergency reaction capabilities in marine environment
• Mr. Yu concluded by stating that China is a member of the London Convention.
• Mr. Lex Oosterbaan asked if China issues a lot of permits for ocean dumping. Mr. Yu
responded that almost all of the permits issued are for dredged material disposal at sea.
• Mr. Oosterbaan asked what China’s expectations are for the workshop. Mr. Yu responded
that China is interested in finding out what steps neighbouring nations are taking to help
prevent marine pollution.
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
Mr. Choe Kun Song, Senior Officer, Maritime Administration Bureau, Democratic People’s
Republic of Korea, thanked UNEP and IMO for the successful operation of this workshop.
• DPR of Korea sees that protection of coastal resources is important. DPR Korea is a country
that shares borders with three seas so the nation has a strong interest in marine protection.
• Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is a contracting party to 73/78 MARPOL
Convention (International Pollution Prevention from Ships 1973, as modified by the Protocol
1978 relating thereto). This includes Annexes III, IV and V.
• DPR Korea is now in the preparatory stage to becoming a contracting party to the
International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation 1990
(OPRC Convention 1990).
• National challenges for protecting the marine environment from land- and sea-based
o Human resources – There are not enough well-trained local experts to act as on
the scene coordinators in case of pollution from ships. The majority have not
been trained in the latest technology and are therefore unable to coordinate and
conduct required operations.
o Technological and financial – These two challenges are interrelated. Although
contingency plans may exist, timely and appropriate responses are hindered by a
lack of adequate pollution prevention facilities (e.g., receiving, measuring, and
disposal facilities) due to lack of funds.
• Needs related to assessing, preventing, and monitoring marine pollution:
o Much is needed. One of the most important needs is expertise. Marine pollution
prevention related facilities are useless without well trained experts. It is
therefore necessary to educate and train more and more experts with modern
technology. To do this, international cooperation can assist.
• Dr. Alexander Tkalin asked if DPR of Korea has plans to join the London Convention.
Mr. Song responded that another agency is addressing this issue.
Ms. Zulhasni, Head of Marine Ecosystem Protection, Ministry of the Environment, Indonesia,
explained that Indonesia has the second longest coastline in the world after Canada.
Approximately, 60% of the country’s population lives on the coast so marine protection is a
• Indonesia’s primary concerns are:
o Marine and coastal pollution.
o Habitat destruction.
o Fish stocks decline.
o Loss of biodiversity.
• Sources of marine pollution are land-based (industrial, solid waste management, runoff from
agricultural activities) and sea-based (ballast, vessels).
o Industrial: controlled by effluent and ambient quality standards regulations.
o Solid Waste management – no specific regulations applied yet, but 4R principles
of reduce, reuse, recycling, and recover have been demonstrated at the village
o Runoff – Controlled fertilizer and pesticide use.
• Shipping activities are also a concern. Indonesia has ratified UNCLOS 1982 and MARPOL
(Annex I and II). Specific issues of concern include the lack of capacity for monitoring and
surveillance of ballast water discharge, as well as a limited capacity for sludge disposal from
waste reception facilities. Ms. Zulhasni wondered if MARPOL applies to (smaller) fishing
• Oil Spills are a concern. Oils spills have caused environmental damage in various regions
and this needs to be addressed because oil exploration/exploitation, refining, and shipping
operations are numerous in Indonesia.
• Indonesia also deals with dredging in ports. Indonesia has not ratified the LC and 1996
Protocol. Most dredged materials are disposed in the ocean. Dredging activities are
controlled and monitored by an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) instrument.
• For oil exploration and refinery, effluent standards for waste discharge of oil and gas
industries have been established.
• In terms of transport of hazardous waste, Indonesia ratified the Basel Convention. Thus far
there have been no problems identified in implementing the convention.
• Assessments and challenges in preventing marine pollution:
o Needs to work on providing adequate waste reception facilities.
o Ratifying additional Annexes of MARPOL (particularly IV and V).
o Raise public awareness of MARPOL 73/78 to enhance public participation in the
implementation of the convention.
o Build additional sludge treatment facilities because only 1 currently exists.
o Strengthen efforts to control ports’ dredging material disposal.
• Ms. Zulhasni stated that Indonesia hopes to learn more about the LC 72 and 1996 Protocol,
and requested technical cooperation and assistance in an effort to ratify the 1996 Protocol.
Mr. Mitsutake Kudo, Japan NUS Co., Ltd, is a contractor for Japan and cannot speak on behalf
of the government. He hoped, however, to inform the audience of marine pollution prevention in
• Japan is working to control effluents from industrial plants, set domestic legislations to be in
line with international conventions (LC/Protocol, MARPOL), and implementing monitoring
activities (water, sediment and the health of marine organisms).
• A primary coastal environmental issue is marine litter, which has a large impact on the
marine environment and consists predominantly of oil products, plastics, and floatables.
• Japan is working to address this issue with other nations in the East Asian area (NOWPAP).
• Expectations of this workshop include hoping to share experiences and skills learned with
other participating countries.
• Mr. Lex Oosterbaan asked if Japan knows the source of its marine litter issue. Mr. Mitsutake
responded that some of the litter is land-based from domestic and international sources, but
exact figures/percentages are not known.
Republic of Korea
Dr. Gi-Hoon Hong
• The Republic of Korea has many coastal issues.
• People like to build on the coastal environment and property has become highly valued. This
development pressure has led to conservation pressure, which revealed contaminated
sediment issues. The need to manage these contaminated sediments has been identified.
• Challenges to protecting the coastal environment in the Republic of Korea:
o Cleaner bathing beaches.
o Limited infrastructure to handle sewage sludge.
o Restoration of the natural ecosystem.
• Residents have filed complaints regarding contaminated sediments, algal blooms and other
coastal issues at 20 different sites.
• Republic of Korea is working on establishing water quality standards, working with the
London Convention expertise to address the disposal of dredged material, and setting food
safety standards for fish and shellfish products.
Mr. Rosli Bin Ahmad, Marine Officer, Marine Department of Peninsular Malaysia, explained
that Malaysia has a long list of domestic legislation to control marine pollution and protect the
integrity of the environment. Malaysia has ratified MARPOL Annexes I, II and IV and
International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation, 1990
• Malaysia has 30 ports and is concerned about vessel traffic in the Strait of Malacca, tourism
activity, the protection of mangrove habitats along the coastline, and the development of
industries along the coastline.
• Challenges/issues in protecting coastal and marine environments in Malaysia:
o Protecting sensitive areas and fish havens.
o Controlling tourism activities.
o Protecting mangroves.
o Managing minor ports.
o Accessing how development will impact the environment and economy.
• Actions by the Malaysian Government to addresses these issues:
o Establishment of a national oil spill contingency plan.
o Building of waste reception facilities.
o Establishment of system to control and monitor vessels in ports.
o Implementing of vessel traffic system.
• Malaysia is interested in using the workshop to learn additional strategies for marine
pollution prevention and procedures for becoming a member of LC/LP.
• Mr. Lex Oosterbaan asked Mr. Bin Ahmad to describe dredging operations in Malaysia in
terms of what is done with the material. Mr. Bin Ahmad mentioned that dredging operations
are conducted by local contractors and that most material is dumped at sea. Monitoring
activities are conducted on all projects.
Ms. Arlene Dalawis and Mr. Rogelio T. Trinidad, Department of Environment and Natural
Resources, Republic of Philippines, described marine pollution prevention efforts and
environmental management in the Philippines.
• Ms Dalawis mentioned that the Philippine participants will coordinate with other agencies in
their country once they return to share lessons learned from the workshop.
• Issues related to marine pollution prevention activities:
o Growing number of factories which fail to comply with national laws and
regulations regarding water pollution prevention.
o Increasing settlement of houses and growing populations in coastal areas which
contribute to improper disposal of wastes.
o Infrequent inspection and monitoring of the compliance of regulations due to
financial and manpower constraints and city ordinances to limit settlement of
o Slow passing of environmental laws.
o Infrequent inspection and monitoring.
o Absence of contingency plans for oil spills and other inevitable vessel discharges/
• Actions Taken:
o Extended technical assistance to permittees by arranging personnel of
Environmental Management Bureau (EMB – DENR) to conduct monitoring and
o Massive Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) campaigns to dispose
wastes properly in an effort to reduce coastal and marine pollution.
o Capacity building/meetings at the national, regional, and local levels.
o Creation of interagency or multi-sectoral task force.
• Lessons learned:
o Collaborative undertaking of all stakeholders to report any violation committed.
o Networking/linking with concerned establishments.
o Strict regulations of discharges.
o Let the accountable agency answer immediately for the damages done.
o Technologies should be learned and applied as recommended.
• Mr. Lex Oosterbaan remarked that the passing of environmental laws is often slow and that it
seems that a disaster is sometimes needed to get progress.
Mr. Jothieswaran Poobalasingam, Chief Engineer, Pollution Control Department, National
Environmental Agency, Singapore, explained that Singapore is a small island-state (685 km2)
with about 4 million people. It is one of the busiest ports in the world and serves as a major
transshipment hub. Singapore also imports and exports a large quantity of goods.
• In Singapore, the National Environmental Agency regulates land-based pollution sources,
while the Maritime and Port Authority regulates marine pollution.
• Singapore is party to UNCLOS and MARPOL 73/78 (all Annexes). The National legislation
that implements these treaties is the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea Act (PPSA).
• The PPSA prohibits not only the discharge of oil, noxious substances, garbage and sewage
from ships, but also the discharge of oil from land, and requires all terminal operators to have
waste reception facilities.
• Ms. Linda Porebski asked whether or not Singapore has a program for issuing permits for
dredged material disposal and conducting monitoring activities. Mr. Jothieswaran responded
that Singapore does have a program for regulating and monitoring dredging and dumping
activities, under the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore Act. Although Singapore is
not a party to the London Convention or the 1996 Protocol, Singapore closely follows the
objectives of the Convention, including regulations and guidelines for the control and
assessment of material, issuance of permits, and designation of approved dumping grounds.
• Dr. Pornsook Chongprasith, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand,
described that sources/types of pollution in Thailand include heavy metals, nutrients, fecal
coliform, oil spills, increasing coastal populations, industry, agriculture, shrimp aquaculture,
fish piers, ports, and tourism.
o Controlling heavy metal concentrations in fish and shellfish.
o Controlling red tide outbreaks.
o Decrease of mangrove and seagrass beds.
o Controlling coastal erosion.
o Keeping beaches clean.
o Solid waste management.
o Minimizing the impacts of the oil development/exploration industry.
• Thailand requested technical expertise regarding coastal erosion from any willing workshop
• National action plans to address land- and sea-based pollution include:
o Development of standards.
o Action plan for domestic wastewater treatment.
o Action plan for fish pier.
o Environment management action plan for coastal aquaculture.
o Draft of action plan for solid waste.
o Best management practices to minimize agriculture based non-point source
• Thailand has developed effluent standards for coastal aquaculture farms, brackish
aquaculture farms, fish piers, industry, buildings, and pig farms.
• Thailand has engaged in many different land-based and sea-based management
programs/action plans, and has developed the regulatory tools necessary to protect the marine
environment. Additional efforts, however, need to be focused on educating the public and
convincing political leaders that preventing coastal pollution is economically beneficial.
• Commented that countries in the East Asia Region need to collaborate to gather the political
will to address marine pollution issues.
• Ms. Chongprasith stated that nearly all of the work has been done in readying the nation for
ratifying the LC and Protocol. The final steps include convincing political leaders to agree to
• Ms. Chongprasith is hoping to use the workshop to learn benefits/costs regarding ratification
of the LC/Protocol, to exchange information regarding marine pollution prevention, and to
work with neighboring countries to create regional agreements.
Mr. Lex Oosterbaan discussed the overall conclusions of Session 4. He stated that although
countries find themselves in different stages of development, many share the same problems and
that there is an opportunity here to collaborate and share information so that marine pollution
protection and environmental management can be made easier.
o In a number of countries, local populations take the initiative to take care of their
problems (e.g., beach clean up activities).
o Not all problems are LC/LP related, some are covered by UNEP, GPA, or
o The issues raised form a basis for the action plans to be developed later in the
o Raising public awareness regarding marine and coastal protection is an important
issue to address.
o There is a need to gather up political will.
o Monitoring programs are being developed. Additional expertise, however, is
needed to provide complete oversight of all coastal/marine environmental issues.
INTRODUCTION TO WASTE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES
Dr. Gi-Hoon Hong moderated the morning session on an introduction to Waste Assessment
Mr. Craig Vogt introduced waste management principles.
• He emphasized the need for comprehensive strategies and coordination to prevent marine
pollution due to increasing pressure on the sea.
• One method, Mr. Vogt stressed, is to minimize waste generation. Waste prevention audits, as
well as minimizing generation of wastes, are key to this reduction.
• Waste management principles use a tiered approach composed of a hierarchy of potential
waste management options. The waste disposal principles are: avoid medium transfer, use
scientifically based procedures, integrate waste management strategies, and develop waste
management procedures (e.g., WAGs).
• He emphasized the need to use good science in application of the principles. The integrated
waste management strategy uses a geographically focused watershed approach that is holistic
and involves stakeholders and partnerships.
Mr. Lex Oosterbaan discussed the key components of the Waste Assessment Guidance,
approaches to dumping, and described a general outline of the WAG.
• The Waste Assessment Guidance is intended to aid states with waste management through:
o Aiding in the assessment of waste considered for dumping.
o Helping with compliance to the LC and 1996 Protocol.
o Including the knowledge of the Scientific Group.
• Key components of the WAGs include:
o Waste characterization.
o Waste management options.
o Dumpsite selection.
o Impact assessment and monitoring.
• The differences between the London Convention and the Protocol were explained. This
included the Protocol’s ‘reverse list’ approach and its seven categories of waste (dredged
material, sewage sludge, fish waste, vessels/platforms, inert inorganic geological material,
organic material, and bulky items).
• Mr. Oosterbaan discussed how WAGs can be used by nations to implement precautionary
approaches into domestic legislation, assess material (develop waste/action lists), issue and
control permits, conduct monitoring activities, and report all developments to the IMO.
• The WAG schematic was presented and briefly explained.
• Impact assessment and monitoring are the basis for dumping application approval and help
define the environmental monitoring requirements. Monitoring requirements typically
include field studies and consultation with stakeholders.
• The WAG offers a general waste management framework for governments, saves duplication
of efforts, and allows for adaptation by countries.
Ms. Linda Porebski, Chief of Marine Protection Programs Division, Environment Canada,
presented information designed to help countries in making decisions on whether or not materials
are suitable for dumping into the ocean and what type of disposal is appropriate (landfill vs.
ocean vs. other options).
• Differences between the LC and the Protocol were explained, particularly how the waste
characterization processes differ for each. It should be noted that the Waste Assessment
Guidance (WAG) can form the basis for characterization of waste or other matter under both
LC and the 1996 Protocol.
• Action lists are mechanisms for screening wastes on the basis of the potential effects of ocean
disposal of a waste on the environment or human health.
• Factors for characterization include the origin, amount, composition,
physical/chemical/biological properties, persistence, toxicity, accumulation, and
• Wastes are described in a set of waste specific guidance and each specific waste will have
certain characteristics and Action List considerations:
o Sewage sludge and organic material of natural origin– organic enrichment,
pathogens, viruses, parasites, specific gravity, and oxygen demand. The action
list should consider these aspects.
o Fish waste – species, origin, BOD, was the fish fit for consumption.
o Inert, inorganic geological material – origin, mineralogy, physical persistence.
The action list should consider physical impacts.
o Bulky wastes – specific gravity > 1.2, composition of iron, steel or concrete,
potential reactions with seawater. The action list should consider physical
o Vessels/Platforms – have all hazardous materials been removed (including fuels,
lubes, and dielectric fluids). The action list should consider cleanup standards and
impacts should be of a physical nature.
o Dredged Material – volume, particle size, specific gravity, contaminants of
concern, and potential for toxicity persistence and bioaccumulation.
• Choices of which contaminants to analyze can be based on routes and sources of
contamination (point and nonpoint), history (data and uses), and ability to interpolate (i.e., is
there a guidance or standard level).
• Where decisions cannot be made based on chemistry and existing data, biological testing can
be done. National action levels can also be based on biological responses.
• Sampling plans should represent the vertical/horizontal distribution of the material at the site,
and the variability of material. A sampling and analytical strategy should be pre-established
with appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures.
• National Action Lists can help countries identify materials which are acceptable for dumping,
need further characterization/testing, or are unacceptable for disposal.
• Issues for biological responses include:
o Battery approach.
o Variability, which may be high for some test responses and needs to be
considered during interpretation of the tests.
o Response to contaminants versus non-contaminants.
o Sampling and methodology procedures (i.e., how many samples are needed).
o Interpretation of results – reference samples and controls are needed and it should
be determined in advance how the results will be interpreted.
Dr. Elizabeth Kim, described the Waste Prevention Audit (WAG Section 2, see also Protocol
Annex 2, paragraphs 2-4) and Consideration of Waste Management Options (Wage Section 3,
see also Protocol Annex 2, paragraphs 5-8).
• The 3 key elements of the Protocol are:
o Reverse List: only those items on list are candidates for dumping.
o Alternatives to dumping.
o Management of dumping (permitting regime).
• Text from the Protocol (Article 4.1.2) was given: “Particular attention shall be paid to
opportunities to avoid dumping in favour of environmentally preferable alternatives.”
• Assessing alternatives should include evaluation of:
o Types, amounts, and relative hazards of wastes.
o Details of the production process and the sources of wastes within that process.
o Feasibility of waste reduction/prevention or the opportunity to reuse, recycle or
treat the waste.
• Waste prevention audits:
o Reveal opportunities for waste prevention.
o Identify and control sources of contamination.
• Waste management options include reuse, off-site recycling, destruction/removal of
hazardous constituents, treatment, or disposal on land, into the air, or in water.
• The presentation concluded with a discussion of reuse and recycling options for the seven
dumping candidates under the LC/Protocol.
Dr. Chris Vivian, discussed identification and characterization procedures for disposal sites.
These focus on selecting a disposal site by proceeding through a sequential series of stages
designed to weed out unsuitable areas and ultimately to present the regulatory authority with a
suitable site or sites for designation.
• Site Selection Process:
o Assessment of need for a new site.
o Identification of potentially suitable areas.
o Identification of site requirements related to waste characteristics.
o Selection of candidate sites.
o Determination of potential adverse effects at each candidate site.
o Comparison of candidate sites.
o Assessment of acceptability of potential adverse effects.
o Site selection.
• Assessment of need may involve another organization’s needs, capacity of existing sites,
acceptability of waste material for sea disposal, and evaluation of alternative disposal
• Selection of disposal sites should take into account what other uses of the ocean floor are
employed in that particular area. If other uses exist, a site should not be considered. Areas
identified as having no other known uses can be considered for dumping.
• Determination of potential effects should be compared between candidate sites:
o Acute and chronic effects.
o Short and long-term effects.
o Information required on the physical/chemical/biological nature of seabed and
water column, and biological/ecological effects of the waste material.
• Dr. Vivian mentioned that a paper accompanying his presentation would be provided to
workshop participants on the workshop CD-ROM.
• Mr. Lex Oosterbaan asked what should be taken into account when selecting dispersal sites.
Dr. Vivian explained that the selection of dispersal sites should include analyses of wide
Ms. Linda Porebski moderated the afternoon session on an introduction to Waste Assessment
Dr. Tom Fredette presented the procedures involved with environmental impact assessments
and the monitoring of dredged material disposal. The use of scientific method principles –
hypothesizing and testing – helps to ensure proper compliance and maintenance of
• Impact assessment should include:
o Characterization of waste and placement site.
o Prediction of physical and chemical changes due to dumping.
o Prediction and testing of the biological response.
o Assessment of the risk to humans.
o Issuance of permits.
• Some environmental changes can be ephemeral and others may be more long term.
• Permanent physical changes may occur if bulky wastes, inert inorganic geological material,
platforms, or vessels are dumped. It is possible to have permanent changes from the disposal
of dredged material or organic wastes.
• A case study was presented on a sewage sludge disposal site off the coast of the Northeastern
• Impact Assessments
o Sewage sludge – Physical, chemical change predicted based on currents, sludge
characteristics, dumping frequency, settling rates, etc.
o Dredged material – physical burial of mechanisms, mounding, recolonization of
benthic organisms, bioaccumulation.
A case study on a containment berm, part of the disposal area monitoring
system (DAMOS), was given.
Early warnings of improper characterization are provided through
monitoring operations by looking at the recolonization of benthic
organisms at disposal sites where larger levels of diversity ensure that
characterization was correct.
• Impact assessments can be avoided by properly characterizing waste material and properly
selecting disposal sites.
• Ms. Linda Porebski asked how proper monitoring and assessment can be achieved when
funds are not readily available.
o Dr. Fredette answered that securing funds for monitoring activities can be a large
challenge for dredged material regulators. However sufficient funding is needed
to ensure proper disposal of dredged material.
o Mr. Craig Vogt added that regulations, which mandate the monitoring of disposal
sites, can help ensure that sufficient funds are allocated to monitoring activities.
o Dr. Chris Vivian added that not all dumping sites in the UK are monitored and
that periodic monitoring of a select handful of sites can help make the most
benefit of limited financial resources.
Dr. Gi-Hoon Hong provided a case study of environmental impact assessment and monitoring
with respect to organic waste disposal at sea.
• Dr. Hong explained the public misconception that artificially fertilizing ocean waters with
organic wastes can be beneficial to the marine environment. Micronutrients within waste do
enhance primary production; however the nutrients distort the composition of plant species.
• Organic waste introduced to the water column tends to have two different biological
responses: phytoplankton and bacterial growth. This leads to a natural balance between
primary producers and decomposers in the marine environment.
• One hypothesis of how to assess ecosystem changes resulting from the disposal of organic
materials is that the bacterial/phytoplankton productivity ratio may serve as an indicator of
• Ms. Linda Porebski asked if the bacterial production/primary production ratio can be used to
determine the source of the organic material. Dr. Hong responded that the use of the ratio
can help shed some light on the source, particularly when used in conjunction with
temperature and phytoplankton diversity indices.
Ms. Linda Porebski described the permitting process in the Waste Assessment Guidance.
• General obligations of ratifying the Protocol include establishing a permitting process which
o Prohibition of disposal of any wastes except by permit.
o Designation of a national permitting authority.
o Development of adequate enforcement operations.
o Establishment of consultation networks.
• Regulatory authorities should:
o Establish laws that set up a waste assessment and permit issuing process.
o Establish an enforcement regime.
o Retain in house expertise to assess applications.