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  1. 1. United Nations International Maritime Environment Organization Programme National Marine Environmental State Oceanic Monitoring Center Administration People’s Republic of China People’s Republic of China IMO/UNEP/SOA WORKSHOP ON MARINE POLLUTION PREVENTION AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN EAST ASIA REPORT DALIAN, CHINA 29 MAY – 2 JUNE 2006
  3. 3. 3 Preface The London Convention 1972 (LC) and its successor the 1996 Protocol (LP) provide for the establishment of a scientific and technical support programme to further the objectives of these instruments. The key objectives for technical co-operation have been to: (1) strengthen national marine pollution prevention and management capacities to achieve compliance with the Convention and Protocol; (2) co-operate with other organisations and agencies to ensure a coordinated approach to technical cooperation and assistance, avoiding duplication of effort; and (3) promote membership of the Protocol. Additional objectives are the promotion of marine pollution management generally, and, more specifically, of alternatives to dumping, including alternative disposal mechanisms, recycling and the use of cleaner production technologies. Technical cooperation and assistance aids countries in implementing the London Convention 1972 and its successor the 1996 Protocol, and other multilateral agreements for the protection of the environment. It is essential for aiding countries with their commitment to incorporating these agreements into their national policies and has functioned with agreements and programmes ranging from the adoption of Agenda 21 in 1992 to the adoption of the UNEP Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities in 1995 and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development 2002. One activity through which these objectives are promoted is to hold meetings of the technical advisory body of the London Convention (the Scientific Group) outside of IMO Headquarters every other year. These meetings have been held in Brazil (1996), South Africa (1998), Australia (2000), Jamaica (2002) and Kenya (2004), which facilitated the participation of current Contracting Parties in each region and enabled the London Convention to reach out to other countries through technical workshops. One of the objectives of these workshops was to identify technical cooperation and assistance needs. From this identification, project proposals can be drawn up and the countries concerned can be matched with potential donors/partners. For example, during the workshop in Cape Town in 1998, one of the problem areas identified was the difficulty of communication between the stakeholders in the region. This resulted in the establishment of the SEA-WASTE Network for integrated waste-management in Southern and Eastern Africa, funded by the Netherlands Government. It is in this context that the IMO/UNEP/SOA Workshop on Marine Pollution Prevention and Environmental Management in East Asia was convened from 29 May to 2 June, 2006, in Dalian, China. The workshop was held in conjunction with the 29th Meeting of the Scientific Group (5 to 9 June 2006) in the same location. This workshop was held in English.
  4. 4. 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This workshop was hosted by the State Oceanic Administration - National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center of the People’s Republic of China and organized by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) in collaboration with the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). This workshop was only possible with the financial contributions from the following organizations: • Environment Canada • The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety in Germany • The Government of Japan • The Government of the Republic of Korea • The Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, North Sea Directorate in the Netherlands • The Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs in the United Kingdom • The United States Environmental Protection Agency • The International Maritime Organization • The United Nations Environment Programme
  5. 5. 5 TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface 3 Acknowledgements 4 Executive Summary 6 Workshop Proceedings 10 Opening Ceremony 10 Objectives and Structure of the Workshop 12 Legal Framework for Marine Pollution Management 13 Sustainable Development: Environmental Management in Ports - Identification of Issues 17 Case Studies for Sustainable Development: Environmental Management in Ports 21 Introduction to Waste Assessment Guidelines 31 Working Group Sessions on Dredged Material 43 Presentation of National Reports (Priorities and Action Plans) 52 Workshop Conclusions and Recommendations 56 Closing Ceremony 59 ANNEXES: 1 Workshop Programme 61 2 List of Participants 69 3 List of Useful Websites for Information on Ocean Dumping and Dredging 81 4 Feedback from Participants on How to Improve theWorkshop 83
  6. 6. 6 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Introduction The IMO/UNEP/SOA Workshop on Marine Pollution Prevention and Environmental Management in East Asia was held from 29 May to 2 June 2006 in Dalian, China,and was hosted by the State Oceanic Administration (SOA), People’s Republic of China. The workshop was attended by 41 delegates from the following 10 countries in East Asia: Cambodia, People’s Republic of China, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Singapore and Thailand. Nine delegates from non-East Asian countries and seven representatives from international organizations also participated. The workshop was sponsored by Contracting Parties to the London Convention, IMO, UNEP and SOA, and organized under the London Convention Technical Co-operation and Assistance Programme. During the Opening Ceremony, Mr. René Coenen (IMO/Office for the London Convention), Dr. Alexander Tkalin (Coordinator NOWPAP, UNEP), Mr. Ma Deyi (Director General, Marine Environmental Monitoring Center in Dalian), Ms. Chen Yue (Deputy Director General, Department of International Co-operation), and Mr. Craig Vogt (Chairman of the London Convention Scientific Group) delivered the welcome and keynote addresses. WORKSHOP CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS National and Regional Marine Pollution and Environmental Management Issues General Issues The countries in East Asia have a number of common marine pollution issues, as well as country specific challenges for the prevention of marine pollution. They are in different stages of development, but development is rapid in most cases. Many share the same marine pollution and marine habitat loss problems—e.g., enclosing tidal lands for cultivation, loss of mangroves, loss of seagrasses, declining fish stocks, and overall loss of biodiversity. In addition, pressure on the coastal zones will continue to increase due to population growth, industrial development aimed at exports, and tourism. Information sharing on these threats will assist in tackling the problems. Public education is regarded as critical to help change attitudes, both in the general public and in the government. It is also important to generate and maintain the political will to sustain an environmental agenda. The key message should be that the costs of prevention are much less than the costs of rehabilitation. For practical decision making, stakeholder engagement is increasingly important. Many laws and regulations have been established to protect the marine environment, but implementation, enforcement, and national co-ordination are insufficient. A watershed approach to managing land and sea-based pollution in coastal regions is key to addressing complex water
  7. 7. 7 resource issues. The focus should be on the overall geographical and ecological system, and should include a broad range of stakeholders. Monitoring is also important for marine protection and some countries have made advances in developing monitoring programs. There is, however, a general lack of capacity that should be addressed, as well as a need for increased mapping of sensitive areas. Specific issues Specific national and regional issues and concerns identified in East Asia include: 1 harmful aquatic blooms and red tides on the rise due to eutrophication; 2 expansion of aquaculture and excessive feeding practices threaten the quality and marketability of the fish produced, and the quality of the surrounding waters and resources; 3 dredged material management; 4 marine litter/debris; 5 erosion and runoff from deforestation and agricultural practices; and 6 industrial and municipal developments, which are not matched with treatment facilities for the waste waters generated. Marine litter/debris from land-based and sea-based sources, identified as a major global issue, poses increasing problems for coastal amenities, tourism, and fisheries in East Asia. A Global Environment Facility (GEF) project on marine litter, which is being launched under the lead of UNEP, could be of assistance to many countries in East Asia. Meanwhile, in a number of countries, local populations have taken the initiative for beach cleanups. IMO related issues In this context, it was identified that there was a general lack of attention to maritime issues, legislation, infrastructure, enforcement, funding and training. Several countries identified a number of issues related to barriers to accession or ratification of IMO instruments, and to difficulties in implementation. The key instruments identified included the London Convention/Protocol (see below for more detail), International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships, MARPOL 73/78 (key concerns are the lack of public awareness, sufficient oil reception facilities, and systems for monitoring and controlling wastes generated from vessels in ports), and the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (key concerns are the absence of contingency plans and advanced oil combating technologies). London Convention/Protocol related issues In general terms it was identified that several countries lacked detailed information explaining the basic requirements to join the London Protocol and the key steps a country needed to take to ratify or accede. It was also noted that there were no costs to become a Party to the London Protocol and that there were no penalties within the framework. In relation to specific London Convention/Protocol issues, it was identified that:
  8. 8. 8 1 dredged material management is the primary ocean dumping issue in all countries, and further capacity building is needed particularly for assessment, site designation, and monitoring; 2 ‘low-tech’ solutions are possible for assessment and monitoring of marine pollution issues; 3 technical and policy advice was needed on how to increase the beneficial use of dredged material; and 4 several LC documents would be useful to workshop participants including, “Minimum Requirements to Implement the 1996 Protocol,” “An Overview of the Potential Benefits, Costs and Consequences for a State, When it Considers Becoming a Contracting Party to the 1996 Protocol,” and “Guidance on the National Implementation of the 1996 Protocol to the LC72.” It was also noted that any requests for technical assistance should be formulated as soon as possible in co-operation with the IMO Secretariat, the IMO-Regional Co-ordinator and UNEP, bearing in mind crucial funding cycles. RECOMMENDATIONS The workshop, having noted the issues facing the region as a whole and those affecting specific countries, and having recognized the need to ensure that these issues are addressed by relevant bodies/agencies/organizations, has made the following recommendations: Promotion of the London Protocol in East Asia 1 Building on the “Guidance for National Implementation of the London Protocol,” a clear description should be provided of the benefits, costs, and consequences a State should consider when becoming a Contracting Party to the Protocol. 2 Participating countries mentioned that existing regional mechanisms and for a (e.g., ASEAN-OSRAP, COBSEA and NOWPAP) should be used to address marine pollution issues and to improve co-ordination of policies in this regard. These platforms should also be used, where appropriate, for promotion and implementation of the London Protocol in East Asia. 3 National workshops/seminars to raise the awareness of and prepare for accession to or ratification of the London Protocol should be convened involving all stakeholders and representatives in the interested country concerned with the prevention of marine pollution caused by dumping. The initiative should come from the national administration expressing an interest in the London Protocol. 4 Countries in East Asia interested in joining the London Protocol are urged to contact the IMO Regional Co-ordinator in East Asia, Manila, and/or the IMO Office for the London Convention at IMO Headquarters and the UNEP Regional Seas Co-ordinator.
  9. 9. 9 5 Continued assistance is required in the development of legislation, standards, and guidelines, including the institutional arrangements to support the implementation of international agreements including the London Protocol. 6 A status report should be developed on dumping activities and dumping sites in East Asia to inform COBSEA, NOWPAP, and the Contracting Parties to the London Convention and Protocol. Dredged material management 7 Dredged materials should be promoted as a resource and used in a beneficial manner, such as in beach nourishment or in wetlands / habitat restoration, creation or enhancement. When dredging near sensitive ecosystems such as coral reefs, special measures should be used to control dispersion of turbidity. Other issues 8 Accession by countries in East Asia to the IMO Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-Fouling-Systems on Ships, 2001, and Ballast Water Management Convention, 2004, is encouraged and should be promoted. In addition, the application of best management practices should be developed and promoted for the handling of TBT paint chip flakes, especially in docking facilities, shipyards, and marinas. 9 Countries in the region should seek to enhance their co-operation to counter land-based sources of marine pollution. In this regard countries are invited to actively participate in the up-coming 2nd Intergovernmental Review of the Global Programme of Action (GPA), which will be held in Beijing in October 2006. 10 Countries should aim to mobilize women and/or children (like the IMO initiatives “Women in the maritime field” or IMO Children’s Ambassador for the Protection of the Marine Environment and the Children’s Marine Environment Protection Associations) in advancing pollution prevention initiatives.
  10. 10. 10 WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS INTRODUCTION The IMO/UNEP/SOA Workshop on Marine Pollution Prevention and Environmental Management in East Asia was held from 29 May to 2 June 2006 at the Kempinski Hotel in Dalian, China, in conjunction with the twenty-ninth meeting of the Scientific Group (5 to 9 June 2006). The workshop was sponsored by Contracting Parties to the London Convention, IMO, UNEP, and the State Oceanic Administration of the People’s Republic of China, and organized under the London Convention Technical Co-operation and Assistance Programme. DAY 1 SESSION 1 OPENING CEREMONY Welcome and Introduction Mr. René Coenen, Head of IMO’s Office of the London Convention • Mr. Coenen welcomed all workshop participants, the Chinese delegation, representatives from the National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center (NMEMC) of the State Oceanic Administration (People’s Republic of China), workshop participants from other East Asian countries, and other participants. • This workshop has a broad scope and mission of marine pollution prevention and waste management issues in ports around the world. • The overall goal of this workshop is to provide a forum for information exchange, technical cooperation, and assistance among member nations of the London Convention and countries interested in protection of the marine environment. • Many countries in East Asia have achieved rapid growth and economic development. Sustainable development and the challenge to protect the environment are more important today than ever before. This point was echoed at the Johannesburg Summit in 2002. • International environmental agreements are binding obligations among states, methods of protecting the environment, and are a ticket to partnerships in the international community. They provide a forum for information exchange and funding mechanisms to resolve marine pollution issues. • The 81 countries to the LC have agreed to provide support for countries in the developing world to assist them in preventing marine pollution and to protect the environment. • This workshop is a continuation of past workshops in Brazil (1996), South Africa (1998), Australia (2000), Jamaica (2002), and Kenya (2004). • Challenges: o To highlight the relationships among the different themes of the workshop program. o To identify the practical solutions and methods for implementation that will work in each country’s situation. o To learn about cooperation opportunities.
  11. 11. 11 • Mr. Coenen thanked SOA, local environmental Dalian officials, UNEP, and Staff of Kempinski Hotel • He also thanked the supporters of the workshop: Canada, Germany, Japan, Republic of Korea, Netherlands, UK, USA, UNEP, IMO, and WODA. Dr. Alexander Tkalin, coordinator of Northwest Pacific Action Plan (NOWPAP-UNEP) • On behalf of UNEP he thanked the IMO, Government of China, sponsors of workshop, and all other workshop participants from near and far. • The large diversity in this workshop demonstrates the importance and interest of environmental management in ports and marine pollution management issues in East Asia. • It is hoped that more countries will ratify the London Convention and its 1996 Protocol. • UNEP is working closely with IMO and LC/LP Contracting Parties on issues related to the C onvention and 1996 Protocol, oil pollution prevention and cleanup, ballast water discharge, in troduction of invasive species, marine protected areas, particularly sensitive sea areas (PSSA s), and other sea-based pollution issues. • The active members of the IMO will be interested in identifying challenges the East Asian countries have in protecting the marine environment. Official Opening of the Workshop Mr. Ma Deyi, Director General of the National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center (NMEMC), People’s Republic of China • Respects were paid to the members of the introduction panel, to the IMO members from near and far, to workshop participants, and to other participants. • On behalf of the NMEMC of the State Oceanic Administration in the People’s Republic of China, Mr. Ma welcomed all the members of this workshop to Dalian and hoped that all the participants would take time to enjoy Dalian’s coastal environment. • The NMEMC is the national center engaged in marine environmental monitoring, protection and research in the People’s Republic of China. The main missions of the NMEMC are: o To create plans and criteria in marine environmental protection. o To conduct research on marine environment and assess impacts. o To implement the national marine monitoring program. o To develop the national marine environmental quality bulletin. o To develop and implement the best available technology in marine protection. o To provide technical support for decision making. • All workshop members were invited to visit the NMEMC in Dalian on Wednesday (31 May 2006). • Mr. Ma concluded by saying that he hoped to collaborate with IMO members and London Convention members in promoting marine protection. Ms. Chen Yue, Deputy Director General of the Department of International Co-operation, SOA, People’s Republic of China • Respects were paid to the members of the opening ceremony panel, to the IMO members from near and far, and to other participants. A special welcome was paid to those London Convention members attending the workshop.
  12. 12. 12 • Ms. Chen was honoured that the IMO and London Convention members chose Dalian to host this workshop and the 29th Meeting of the Scientific Group. She expressed a warm welcome to all the participants on behalf of the SOA of the People’s Republic of China. • This workshop provides a great opportunity to exchange lessons learned and skills gained among London Convention countries and other East Asian nations (info exchange and technical support). • The State Oceanic Administration has made great efforts to control pollution and improve environmental quality. National environmental protection laws have been approved by the Chinese Congress and are playing important roles in protecting the marine environment in China. • China, as a Contracting Party to the London Convention, is willing to work with developed and developing countries to promote cooperation and support among all nations in environmental protection. • Ms. Chen wished all participants a pleasant stay and a successful workshop. OBJECTIVES AND STRUCTURE OF THE WORKSHOP Mr. Craig Vogt, Chair of the London Convention Scientific Group and Chairman of the Workshop. • Mr. Vogt thanked the participants from China for being such gracious hosts, and looked forward to a successful week of information exchange and technical support on marine pollution prevention and environmental management. • All workshop participants were invited to introduce themselves. • Mr. Vogt mentioned that there would be an IMO reception at the conclusion of Monday’s Session 3. • The workshop should maintain a fluid and flexible structure in hope that all participants are given the chance to voice their concerns and information. • One of the main purposes of the workshop was to talk about the London Convention and its 1996 Protocol. The Protocol has been ratified by the necessary 26 countries and went into force two months ago. • A key part of the London Convention/1996 Protocol strategy is technical cooperation and assistance, which helps to make a stronger international agreement. • The Technical Cooperation and Assistance Programme: o Promotes membership of the 1996 Protocol. o Strengthens pollution prevention capabilities of member and non-member countries. o Strengthens national marine pollution prevention and management capacities in general and to achieve compliance with the Convention and/or Protocol. o Cooperates with other organizations and agencies to ensure coordinated approaches to technical cooperation and assistance. • The Workshop objectives are to: o Increase awareness of the LC and 1996 Protocol. o Promote membership to the Protocol. o Identify barriers and solutions to implementation of the LC and LP in East Asia. o Promote closer cooperation between the LC and UNEP. o Promote marine pollution prevention and environmental management.
  13. 13. 13 o Identify and address barriers to MARPOL implementation. o Identify and address relevant issues of national concern. o Formulate regional plans to address issues in East Asia. o Identify needs and sources of technical cooperation and assistance. • All workshop participants were invited to convey their specific challenges in marine pollution prevention and their expectations from this workshop. Mr. Vogt stated that the LC Parties would like to hear what East Asian participants hoped to get out of the workshop and hoped that all countries would give presentations or case studies. • A brief and general description of the week’s agenda was given. • The workshop participants were charged to listen, learn, and actively participate in the workshop, and to take home lessons learned to assist in solving regional and local issues. SESSION 2 LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR MARINE POLLUTION MANAGEMENT Mr. Craig Vogt moderated the second session of the morning, and this session focused on the Legal Framework for Marine Pollution Management. Mr. René Coenen stated that his presentation would focus on the achievements and value of the London Convention (LC) and its Protocol (LP) for marine pollution prevention and environmental management. • The LC is one of the oldest global conventions to protect the marine environment from human activities, and it has been in force since 1975. • Dumping refers to the deliberate disposal at sea of wastes loaded onboard vessels, aircraft, platforms or other man-made structures at sea. Dumping does not include pipeline discharges from land or operational discharges from vessels or offshore installations. • Achievements of the LC: o Unregulated dumping and incineration are prohibited. o Dumping is permitted, but is limited to certain wastes which are regulated appropriately to ensure minimal impact on the marine environment. o Audits to prevent waste and identify sources of contamination. o Assessment of alternatives is encouraged. o A process for waste characterization. o Development of “Action Lists.” o Assessment of potential effects of sea and land disposal options. o Identification of procedures for disposal site selection. o Monitoring and licensing procedures. • 1996 Protocol to the LC protects the sea and sea-bed and prohibits all dumping except certain types of waste. The 1996 Protocol: o Excludes internal waters unless a party adopts other effective measures to control the deliberate disposal of wastes or other matter in marine internal waters. o Does not allow incineration at sea. o Does not allow export of wastes to other countries for dumping or incineration. o Requires designation of a national authority to implement the Protocol.
  14. 14. 14 o Allows dumping only on the basis of permitting. • The LC and Protocol take a precautionary approach and use the “polluter-pays principle.” This principle includes incentives for proper allocation of environmental costs and strong emphasis on control of contaminants at source. • The 8 Waste Assessment Guidelines (WAGs) are based on generally accepted approaches for sound waste management and pollution prevention. • A guidance document exists for national implementation of the London Protocol. This gives an outline of actions which countries should take at the national level. • 250 to 400 million tonnes of dredged material are dumped in Convention waters, 10% of which is contaminated from shipping, industrial and municipal discharges, and land run-off. • Dredged material constitutes 80-90% of all materials dumped. • Other materials dumped include: o Sewage sludge. o Decommissioned vessels. o Organic materials, e.g., food and beverage processing wastes, spoilt cargoes. o Fish wastes. o Inert, inorganic geologic materials. • The London Convention and Protocol provide global rules and standards on dumping as required under Article 210.6 of UNCLOS (1982). • Current LC/LP priorities are: o Improvement of compliance. o Improvement of the scientific evaluation. o Technical cooperation and assistance. o Outreach activities. o Regulation of CO2 sequestration in sub-seabed geologic formations. o Collaborative agreements. • The Protocol is a more modern and comprehensive treaty on dumping, and it: o Contains a reverse list of materials that may be considered for dumping. o Covers storage in the seabed. o Contains clearer linkages with other international environmental agreements. o Provides a forum for technical cooperation and assistance. • Mr. Coenen discussed the benefits for States when joining the LC, such as a better capability to prevent marine pollution. • He also discussed the costs for States when joining the LC: o No membership fees. o Costs associated with national legislation for implementing Protocol. o Administration of a licensing system. o Conducting field and compliance monitoring activities. o Attending annual meetings of the Contracting Parties, if possible. • Mr. Coenen wrapped up by discussing initial steps for States towards membership of the LC and its Protocol. Mr. Edward Kleverlaan, IMO – Office of the London Convention, spoke about the MARPOL 73/78 Convention. • As a consequence of a very active shipping industry, there exists a potential for serious impacts to marine health from vessel-based pollution.
  15. 15. 15 • Pollution accidents can arise from collisions and equipment failure. • Operational discharges include oil, noxious liquid substances, sewage, garbage, air pollution, anti-fouling paints, and foreign organisms. • An overview was provided of relevant IMO instruments to protect the marine environment such as International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea (COLLREGS), LC/Protocol, Anti-fouling Systems Convention, Ballast Water Management Conventions, MARPOL 73/78, and the Protocol on Preparedness, Response and Co-operation to Pollution Incidents by Hazardous and Noxious Substances (OPRC/HNS). • MARPOL focuses on operational/accidental discharges. It does not cover repair or cleanup of substances after leakages. These are found in the OPRC (HNS) Convention. • MARPOL is a combination of several treaties and has been updated through Amendments and revisions over time. MARPOL contains six Annexes with the first two being mandatory and the others optional: o Annexes I – oil. o Annex II – noxious liquid substances. o Annex III – harmful substances in packaged form. o Annex IV – sewage. o Annex V – garbage from ships. o Annex VI – air pollution from ships. • MARPOL applies to: o Ships entitled to fly the flag of a contracting party to MARPOL. o Ships operating under the authority of a contracting party. o Ships operating in a contracting party’s EEZ. • MARPOL does not permit the disposal of plastics. • Mr. Kleverlaan discussed the responsibilities of member states: o Comply with Annexes I and II. o Consider ratifying Annexes III-VI and/or implementing national laws to cover these waste categories. o Inform IMO of all incidences, permits, and inspection violations. o Have the capability to inspect and monitor your own ships. o Report incidences. o Have capability to investigate incidences. • Mr. Kleverlaan concluded by discussing the administrative duties to be considered when deciding to accede to MARPOL. Introduction of applicable regional conventions and programmes: Dr. Srisuda Jarayabhand, Coordinator of the UNEP Regional Coordinating Unit for the East Asian Seas (COBSEA Secretariat), explained that her presentation would provide a brief overview of the East Asian Seas region and the COBSEA organization. • COBSEA is an intergovernmental body consisting of ten member countries, and is mandated to coordinate activities to implement the East Asian Seas Action Plan • East Asian seas have lots of resources, including 34% of the world’s coral reefs, high levels of coastal development, and considerable shipping activity. Therefore, environmental protection is especially important to maintain these resources.
  16. 16. 16 • A brief history/time line of COBSEA was given including its establishment in 1982. • Main components of the East Asia Seas Action Plan are: o Monitoring and assessment of the effects of human activities on the environment. o Protection of mangroves, sea grass and coral reefs. o Pollution control. o Information management. • The Action Plan works to increase: o Scientific information. o Public awareness of marine environmental issues through training, workshops and seminars. o Capacity building of member governments. o Networking among policymakers and scientists / experts of countries in the region. o Initiation of regional projects to mitigate the effects of human activities on the coastal and marine environment. • COBSEA has focused mainly on land-based pollution and is hoping to work with the LC to address sea-based pollution. • COBSEA is also addressing the issue of marine litter. • COBSEA is extending its capacity building to assist member countries in the implementation of multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs) related to sea-based pollution. Dr. Alexander Tkalin, explained the structure and mission of NOWPAP. • NOWPAP consists of four member states (China, Japan, Republic of Korea and Russia) and is hoping that others will join. • NOWPAP is a part of the UNEP Regional Seas Programme. • A short history of NOWPAP was given since its adoption in 1994. • NOWPAP activities are being implemented through four regional activity centers: o DINRAC – Data and Information Network. o POMRAC – Pollution Monitoring Regional Activity Center. o CEARAC – Special Monitoring and Coastal Environmental Assessment. o MERRAC – Marine Environmental Emergency Preparedness and Response Regional Activity Center. • Dr. Tkalin presented the outcomes of the 10th NOWPAP Intergovernmental Meeting • A brief discussion of persistent toxic substances was given, including how NOWPAP is going to address the land-based sources of these substances. The UN’s Global Environmental Facility (GEF) will fund implementation of this project. • NOWPAP recognizes that the protection of the marine environment requires cooperation with relevant global and regional organizations, projects and programs (e.g., IMO, PEMSEA, YSLME), as well as with global conventions such as the London Convention, MARPOL, and Basel Convention.
  17. 17. 17 SESSION 3 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN PORTS – IDENTIFICATION OF ISSUES Dr. Chris Vivian, Vice Chair of the LC Scientific Group and Scientific Advisor for the Centre for Environment, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), UK, moderated the session on environmental management in ports. Mr. David Taillefer, Sediment Adviser, Environmental Canada, discussed sources of land-based pollution to the marine environment. • Major discharges to the marine environment include storm water, municipal water, and industrial discharges. • Reasons for treatment include rendering water usable for drinking water, cooking water, water for fish/wildlife, agricultural use, industrial use, and protection of the marine environment. • Storm water was defined. Two types of storm water exist: point and nonpoint sources. • Pollutants in storm water include sediment, trash, nutrients, bacteria, organics, oil/grease, trace metals, toxics, and chlorides. • During storm events, there is too much runoff occurring in a short amount of time. This increases bank erosion, flooding, and alterations to the natural flow regime. • Solutions include: o Separate storm water and municipal sewage system. o Regulation and permitting discharges. • Many remediation strategies exist including: o Maximizing infiltration of precipitation where it falls. o Reduction of curbs/gutters, reduction of road widths, minimization of grading, reduction in amount of impervious surfaces. o Increased bioretention through use of plants (i.e., rain gardens). o Use of open swails, parking lot island infiltration areas, permeable pavement, and green roofs. • Mr. Taillefer discussed preliminary, secondary (biological-activated sludge process), and tertiary stages of municipal waste water treatment. • Photographs and schematics were shown on the different stages and technology used in each. • Information on sewage sludge disposal was discussed during Dr. Gi-Hoon Hong’s presentation in Session 3. • Industrial waste water is generated by processes such as: transport, manufacturing, rinsing of components, scrubbing of gases and metalworking (electroplating). • Typical treatment processes include physical, chemical, and biological methods. • Mr. Taillefer thanked the US Environmental Protection Agency for providing some of the information used in his presentation. Dr. Elizabeth Kim, Environmental Protection Specialist, US Environmental Protection Agency, discussed discharges from vessels and other sea-based sources to ocean waters. Dr. Kim’s presentation focused on incidental discharges from vessels. • For the following discharges, Dr. Kim discussed the relevant treaty, major constituents, and potential treatment technologies:
  18. 18. 18 o Blackwater – MARPOL Annex IV  Major constituents: nutrients, pathogens, BOD, TSS, chlorine, metals, and dissolved organic carbon.  Advanced treatment methods: biological treatments followed by membrane filtration and often UV, ozone, or chlorine to disinfect (examples are RoChem, Xenon, Hamworthy and ScanShip). o Graywater – no treaty  Major constituents: nutrients, pathogens, BOD, TSS, chlorine, oil and grease, and dissolved organic carbon.  Advanced treatment methods: biological treatments followed by membrane filtration and often UV to disinfect (examples are Rochem, Xenon, Hamworthy, and Scan Ship). o Bilge water – MARPOL Annex I  Major constituents vary tremendously based on overall maintenance condition of the vessel. In general, oil, sulfides, and heavy metals are concerns.  Treatment methods: oily water separators, ceramic ultra-filtration membranes, advanced membrane technologies, biological treatment, sludge tanks for oil residues, and reducing the amount generated. o Ballast water – International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004  Major contaminants of concern are aquatic nuisance species (ANS).  Regulatory solutions will help reduce the spread of ANS.  Ballast water treatment methods: filtration, UV radiation, biocides, ultrasound energy, air displacement technologies (e.g., CO2 and N2 saturation), and oily water reception facilities. o Garbage – MARPOL Annex V  Major constituents: cardboard, paper, plastic, wood, glass, metal cans, and food waste.  Treatment methods: reducing the amount generated, disposal onshore, grinding before discharge, incineration, separate plastics, and pulpers/shredders (cardboard, glass, paper). o Hazardous Waste – no treaty  Major constituents: paints, solvents, batteries, photo lab wastes, and dry cleaning wastes.  These materials should not be discharged. They should be segregated from other wastes and brought to shore for appropriate treatment and/or disposal. o Antifouling paints – International Convention on the Control of Harmful Anti-fouling Systems on Ships.  Major contaminants of concern are TBT, copper, and zinc.  Technologies which reduce the leaching rate can be used. Using non-persistent and non-bioaccumulative active agents is the best solution. o Oil spills – MARPOL Annex I
  19. 19. 19  Treatment methods: mechanical removal, photochemical catalysts, sorbent use, berming and damming, in situ burning, dispersant application, fates and effects 19odelling, and contingency (pre-incident) planning. Dr. Kim also discussed discharges from and issues related to ship repair facilities. Mr. Edward Kleverlaan discussed management of ballast water discharges with respect to the impact of invasive alien species (AIS). His presentation also focused on the regulatory regime of the International Convention for the Control of Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediments (Ballast Water Management Convention). • Aquatic Invasive Species (AIS) are defined as foreign species introduced into the environment that have few predators, are able to thrive in that area, and displace local flora and fauna. • After introducing a number of impacts of shipping on the marine environment (e.g., major oil spills), Mr. Kleverlaan described the impacts of invasive alien species as one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. He categorized the impacts as ecological, economic, and human health related. • Short case studies were provided on the comb-jelly and its devastation on the Black Sea and Caspian Seas, and on the Chinese mitten crab and its impact on coastlines in Northern Europe. • The impact on human health may include toxic dinoflagellates and species carrying cholera or other diseases. Pathways for these invasive alien species may occur through introduction and ballast water exchange. Examples of how intentional and unintentional introductions were described. Intentional introductions can include aquaculture and fishing, while unintentional introductions can occur through canal developments, marine debris, and escape or release from aquaria or shipping. • Mr. Kleverlaan discussed how catastrophic events in the marine environment (e.g., oil spills) tend to have small effects over time. However, AIS can have very large long-term effects which increase over time. • Furthermore there are 3-10 billion tonnes of ballast water transported per year and over 7,000 species are in transit at any one time. • Ballast water is a major issue now more than ever because the volume of trade occurring via international shipping routes is higher than ever. Harmful effects from ballast water discharge must be addressed as shipping is unlikely to be eliminated. • International regulatory responses to ballast water issues include: IMO-MEPC 1991, IMO Res. A.774(18), IMO-Res. A.868(20) in 1997(Guidelines – BW exchange), GloBallast Programme (2000–04), IMO-BWM Convention 2004, and GloBallast follow-up (GloBallast Partnerships) • Ballast Water Management Convention was adopted on the 13th of February 2004. • Highlighted aspects of the convention included: o Control mechanisms of the transfer of harmful aquatic organisms on ships. o Development of policies and strategies for a contracting party’s waters and ships. o Encourages regional agreements. o Regulations require tanks to be flushed 3 times in transit. o Restrictions on locations for ballast water exchange. o Created ballast water performance standards (i.e., less than 10 viable organisms per cubic meter).
  20. 20. 20 o Requires sediment reception facilities in ports. o Requires parties to obtain sufficient background information on the biological baseline and risks associated with their waters. • The BWM Convention includes measures such as risk reduction (exchange at sea), ballast water treatment, and port/coastal water measures. Mr. Kleverlaan stated that ballast water exchange is not a long term option for effective control. He described standards of ballast water treatment options and other shipboard controls. He also referred to the development of national and port ballast water management plans, and regional initiatives. • Dalian played a vital role in regional initiatives including the Dalian Port Survey, conducted as part of the Globallast Programme. • Ratification entails obligations which may be costly, but there are great environmental benefits associated with acceding to this treaty. • Mr. Craig Vogt (United States) asked what the costs are associated with ballast water treatment technologies. Mr. Kleverlaan answered that the costs will vary according to the size of the ship and the standards set up to control the spread of AIS. Some nations are actively researching possible applications of new ship-board technologies including physical/ chemical treatments and ballast water-free ships. Dr. Tom Fredette, Biologist, US Army Corps of Engineers, discussed issues surrounding the dredging of ports and marinas. • Major considerations given to new projects for evaluation are the project objectives, the environmental and cultural resources located in the area (e.g., recreation, coral reefs, wetlands), the sediment placement options, the placement site resources, and the feasibility of the project. • Project coordination is a key component of the project planning process. • Projects must be planned and executed properly to protect a community’s valuable resources. • The type and severity of impacts observed at dredging sites is dependent upon the sediment type, current dynamics, and other physical characteristic of the area. Impacts to the environment may include habitat modification, clouding oyster beds, filling in grass beds, or compromising fish/shellfish spawning grounds. • Other potential dredging impacts include circulation changes (salinity), entrainment (hydraulic dredging), habitat modification/loss, fishery migration blockage, noise, changes in currents, erosion, and disturbances to recreational activities. • Several indirect impacts also exist including the increase in shipping activity that coincides with increases in port capacity. • Material can be lost during transit and should be considered in risk assessments. • Risks at the disposal site include increased suspended material, unintentional burial of resources due to improper positioning, improper placement resulting in inappropriate depths, fishing obstacles, and the long-term loss of sediment to erosion. • Chemical and biological impacts need to be addressed to prevent unintended disruption to the marine environment. • Solutions to dredging issues include pre-dredging assessment, disposal site selection, monitoring, technology alternatives, and mitigation strategies. • Proper project planning has shown dredging projects can occur in a timely and efficient manner, while providing protection to sensitive resources.
  21. 21. 21 Mr. Craig Vogt, presented a new document released by the US Environmental Protection Agency entitled Best Management Practices for Cleanup of Vessels to be Used as Artificial Reefs. • Purpose: to provide environmentally-based best management practices (BMPs) for the preparation of vessels to be sunk with the intention of creating artificial reefs. • As vessels age and the demand for new ships increases over time, there becomes a need for vessel disposal options. However proper steps must be taken to ensure that the effect on the environment is minimized. • Materials of Concern for the cleanup of vessels to be used as artificial reefs include: o Oil and fuel. o Asbestos. o PCBs. o Paint. o Solids/floatables/debris. o Other materials of environmental concern. • Mr. Vogt provided a list of items on vessels which may contain the materials of concern and where the items can be found onboard. Cleanup goals for all of the materials of concern were explained. • A case study on the ex-USS Oriskany was provided. • The Guidance document was prepared for anyone cleaning obsolete or decommissioned military vessels. The guidance document is intended to: o Provide a consistent, national approach for vessel clean-up and preparation o Ensure vessels prepared for use as artificial reefs will be environmentally sound in their use as artificial reefs. o Provide basis for estimating costs associated with preparation of vessels for use as artificial reefs. o Enhance the utility of the Artificial Reefing Program of the Maritime Administration and the Navy as an option for management of obsolete/decommissioned vessels. • Mr. Vogt asked if any workshop participants are working on issues involving the use of vessels as artificial reefs. The audience did not speak of any specific issues, however several participants noted that they are facing similar issues. CASE STUDIES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN PORTS Mr. René Coenen, moderated this session. Ms. Piyarat Pitiwatanakul, Environmentalist, Marine Department (EIA Section), Thailand, presented a case study on land- and sea-based pollution sources of particular concern for waste management in Thai Ports that included dredging in Thailand. • Ms. Pitiwatanakul thanked the Programme organizations, IMO, and LC countries for hosting the workshop and for the invitation to speak. • Land-based sources include communities, industrial plants, agriculture and aquaculture, tourism, and port/fishing gear. • Sea-based sources include oil spills, dredging, red tides, and floatable debris from ships.
  22. 22. 22 • Regulatory tools for pollution prevention in Thailand include: o Laws to prohibit all kinds of dumping in Thai ports. o Requirement of EIA/IEE studies for port development or marine coastal projects. o Continual monitoring of EIA implementation. o Emergency response planning. o Ensuring safety of ships and cargo transport. o Guidelines for good control of pollution in port operation. • Thailand’s Marine Department divides ports management into sizes, major ports and small ports. • Types of waste in Thai ports include food, fish waste, oil, chemicals, garbage, heavy metals, shipping ballast water, anti-fouling paints, shipyard waste, and contaminated sediment. • Waste Management Activities: o Issue regulations regarding waste reception facilities in ports. o Prepare other domestic tools necessary to accede to MARPOL. o Provide facilities to receive residues and oily mixtures generated from ports and ships. • Demonstration ports (Bangkok, Laem Chabang, and Map Ta Phut): o Projects showed that waste management plans were needed. o Helped identify financial costs of management. o Capacity development of relevant enforcement agencies. o Assistance to development of a Thai approach in regional cooperation. • Guidelines and action plans for waste management operations include: o National Oil Spill Response Plan. o Capacity building in terms of equipment and personnel. o Building partnership in East Asia region. • Ms. Pitiwatanakul also discussed dredged material management in Thailand. Roadblocks in dredging operations include: o Lack of detailed laws and regulations regarding dredging at the operational level. o Insufficient data to map sensitive areas in Thailand’s territorial waters. o Lack of standards for assessing sediment quality. o Lack of public participation in the selection of dumping sites. • Thailand’s efforts to improve management of dredging operations include: o Conduct EIA / IEE study report. o Define the reasonable / suitable sites for dumping of dredged material. o Monitor the marine environment during dredging process. o Development of monitoring reports. • Additional issues needed in Thailand relevant to dredging include: o Training Programme. o Cooperation (all aspects)  At the local, regional, national, and international levels. Dr. Gi-Hoon Hong, Senior Scientist, Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute, Republic of Korea, presented a case study on sewage sludge management and disposal in the Republic of Korea. • The geographical and demographical nature of the Republic of Korea has forced the country to address many environmental issues, particularly sewage treatment and disposal.
  23. 23. 23 • Sewage treatment plants are being built very rapidly in the Republic of Korea in order to keep up with the rising population. • Sewage treatment management is divided amongst several administrative units of central and local governments. • Disposal of sewage sludge in land fills and by incineration was not popular with the public because of health concerns. Ocean disposal of sewage sludge remains an option by default as land fill popularity has decreased considerably. Recycling and beneficial use of sewage sludge has not been popular, and therefore most sludge is disposed in the ocean. • Sewage sludge is characterized using a test for 80 different constituents. • The Republic of Korea has identified constituents of particular concern to be heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated bi-phenyls. • The process of sewage sludge characterization has helped show the future needs for sewage sludge management in Republic of Korea. Documents on sewage sludge treatment and management have been provided by the IMO and other collaborative partners. These documents have helped educate the public regarding sewage sludge treatment and management practices. • The Republic of Korea modified its National Action List in 2005. • A clearing house of information was developed as an outreach tool for all stakeholders wanting to learn about waste management options for sewage sludge. • Potential beneficial uses of sewage sludge are being developed, including use as fuel and concrete construction material. • Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and the Ministry of the Environment have agreed to cease sewage sludge disposal in the ocean by 2011. This confirms the general principles of waste management: intensifying concern about environmental issues and tighter, more rigorously enforced environmental regulations are fuelling the growth of the waste recycling industry. • Mr. René Coenen commended Dr. Gi-Hoon Hong for making a very informative and sound presentation on sewage sludge management and treatment. DAY 2 SESSION 4 Presentation of specific challenges in the participating countries in the region Mr. Lex Oosterbaan, Senior Adviser of International Affairs, Ministry of Transport, Pubic Works and Water Management, North Sea Directorate, Netherlands, moderated this session on the specific challenges in the participating countries in the region. Cambodia Mr. Long Rithirak, Deputy Director General, Ministry of Environment, Cambodia, thanked the IMO and organizers of the workshop as well as Dalian for hosting the conference. • Cambodia shares its border with Thailand, PDR Laos, and Vietnam. • Sources of pollution to Cambodian coasts include runoff from deforestation practices, industrial waste, municipal waste, aquaculture wastes, fuel stations, and the cargo operations.
  24. 24. 24 o Upland and lowland activities:  Solid waste from households, restaurants, and beaches. Many wastes are discharged right into rivers.  Industrial waste – factories, seafood processing, animal waste, cement and fertilizer wastes, sawmills.  Oil wastes – navigation activities, boat washing.  Soil erosion – illegal deforestation and poor agriculture practices remove topsoil. o Seabed exploitation and exploration. o Ports and harbours.  Dredging operations. • Waste management in ports consists of incineration and land disposal. Port authorities, however, are working to establish port waste reception facilities, recycling facilities, and implement other strategies in order to be meet IMO mandates. • Cambodia has ratified Annexes I-V of MARPOL. It is not, however, an LC or a Protocol member. • Cambodia is working with IMO to prevent marine pollution in ports and the coastal environment. • “Environmental days” are organized by local populations to clean up polluted waters. • Mr. Rithirak explained that Cambodia will likely face with a greater variety of pollution issues as the coastal development increases. People’s Republic of China Mr. Yu Jian, Program Officer, State Oceanic Administration, People’s Republic of China, spoke about the basic conditions of China’s marine environment, developments in China’s marine environmental protection work, and current/future key policies and measures in marine environmental management. • With long coasts, vast area, numerous islands, rich resources, and countless varieties of marine species and ecological systems, there is an enormous potential for development in China’s coastal areas. • Main pollutants in coastal environments are nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate), oils, and heavy metals (lead and mercury). • 80% of the pollution is land-based. Polluted marine areas are mainly located in the coastal waters of estuaries, bays, and the waters surrounding the large- and medium-sized coastal cities with concentrated population and heavy industries. However, the majority of offshore areas meet clean water quality standards, and the water quality in open water areas remains in good condition. • China has recurring problems with toxic red tides. • The increased marine pollution and artificial destructions resulting from enclosing tideland for cultivation have caused some coastal habitats to deteriorate. • The Chinese Government has conducted several programs including “Marine Environment Quality Trend Monitoring Plan” and “Coastal Red Tide Monitoring & Control Zone Monitoring Plan.” • The Chinese Government has put much effort into EIA approval of marine and coastal projects. It has actively developed control measures for pollutant discharges into the sea and conducted studies in some sensitive estuaries and bays.
  25. 25. 25 • China has placed a special emphasis on a strategy of both pollution prevention and ecological rehabilitation. Aspects of this strategy that address pollution prevention include: o Strict control of pollutants in land-based discharges into the sea. o Restore and protect waters in the vicinity of estuaries, bays and cities. o Gradually introduce whole process of clean production and eliminate backward technology and production facilities. o Close down heavy pollution enterprises within a limited period of time. o Promote high efficiency agriculture and advanced fertilizing method, and reduce the amount of chemical fertilizers and pesticides used. • Aspects of the national strategy that are related to ecological rehabilitation include: o Strengthen typical marine eco-system protection, rehabilitate offshore ecological functional zones, establish and perfect marine nature reserves with different characteristics. o Start construction of marine ecological protection and development pilot projects. o Strengthen protection and restoration of the eroded sectors of the coast. o Strictly control enclosed tideland for cultivation and reclaiming land from the sea. • Aspects of the national strategy that are related to coastal development include: o Strictly adhere to marine functional zoning system and environmental impact assessment system in the approval of marine development operations. o Such conducts as reclaiming land from the sea and sea sand excavation, which might change the natural attributions of the sea areas, should be strictly controlled in the process of approving use of coastal areas. o Marine-related projects should not encroach upon, damage or pollute important marine eco-systems. • China will continue to enforce marine and coastal laws by: o Establishing enforcement coordination mechanisms to combine national, regional, and local law enforcement operations. o Increase investment in capacity building for enforcement efforts (i.e., vessels, airplanes, and remote sensing devices). o Raise the level of the law enforcement personnel through training and enhance law enforcement and emergency reaction capabilities in marine environment protection. • Mr. Yu concluded by stating that China is a member of the London Convention. • Mr. Lex Oosterbaan asked if China issues a lot of permits for ocean dumping. Mr. Yu responded that almost all of the permits issued are for dredged material disposal at sea. • Mr. Oosterbaan asked what China’s expectations are for the workshop. Mr. Yu responded that China is interested in finding out what steps neighbouring nations are taking to help prevent marine pollution. Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Mr. Choe Kun Song, Senior Officer, Maritime Administration Bureau, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, thanked UNEP and IMO for the successful operation of this workshop. • DPR of Korea sees that protection of coastal resources is important. DPR Korea is a country that shares borders with three seas so the nation has a strong interest in marine protection.
  26. 26. 26 • Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is a contracting party to 73/78 MARPOL Convention (International Pollution Prevention from Ships 1973, as modified by the Protocol 1978 relating thereto). This includes Annexes III, IV and V. • DPR Korea is now in the preparatory stage to becoming a contracting party to the International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation 1990 (OPRC Convention 1990). • National challenges for protecting the marine environment from land- and sea-based pollution: o Human resources – There are not enough well-trained local experts to act as on the scene coordinators in case of pollution from ships. The majority have not been trained in the latest technology and are therefore unable to coordinate and conduct required operations. o Technological and financial – These two challenges are interrelated. Although contingency plans may exist, timely and appropriate responses are hindered by a lack of adequate pollution prevention facilities (e.g., receiving, measuring, and disposal facilities) due to lack of funds. • Needs related to assessing, preventing, and monitoring marine pollution: o Much is needed. One of the most important needs is expertise. Marine pollution prevention related facilities are useless without well trained experts. It is therefore necessary to educate and train more and more experts with modern technology. To do this, international cooperation can assist. • Dr. Alexander Tkalin asked if DPR of Korea has plans to join the London Convention. Mr. Song responded that another agency is addressing this issue. Indonesia Ms. Zulhasni, Head of Marine Ecosystem Protection, Ministry of the Environment, Indonesia, explained that Indonesia has the second longest coastline in the world after Canada. Approximately, 60% of the country’s population lives on the coast so marine protection is a primary concern. • Indonesia’s primary concerns are: o Marine and coastal pollution. o Habitat destruction. o Fish stocks decline. o Loss of biodiversity. • Sources of marine pollution are land-based (industrial, solid waste management, runoff from agricultural activities) and sea-based (ballast, vessels). o Industrial: controlled by effluent and ambient quality standards regulations. o Solid Waste management – no specific regulations applied yet, but 4R principles of reduce, reuse, recycling, and recover have been demonstrated at the village level. o Runoff – Controlled fertilizer and pesticide use. • Shipping activities are also a concern. Indonesia has ratified UNCLOS 1982 and MARPOL (Annex I and II). Specific issues of concern include the lack of capacity for monitoring and surveillance of ballast water discharge, as well as a limited capacity for sludge disposal from waste reception facilities. Ms. Zulhasni wondered if MARPOL applies to (smaller) fishing vessels.
  27. 27. 27 • Oil Spills are a concern. Oils spills have caused environmental damage in various regions and this needs to be addressed because oil exploration/exploitation, refining, and shipping operations are numerous in Indonesia. • Indonesia also deals with dredging in ports. Indonesia has not ratified the LC and 1996 Protocol. Most dredged materials are disposed in the ocean. Dredging activities are controlled and monitored by an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) instrument. • For oil exploration and refinery, effluent standards for waste discharge of oil and gas industries have been established. • In terms of transport of hazardous waste, Indonesia ratified the Basel Convention. Thus far there have been no problems identified in implementing the convention. • Assessments and challenges in preventing marine pollution: o Needs to work on providing adequate waste reception facilities. o Ratifying additional Annexes of MARPOL (particularly IV and V). o Raise public awareness of MARPOL 73/78 to enhance public participation in the implementation of the convention. o Build additional sludge treatment facilities because only 1 currently exists. o Strengthen efforts to control ports’ dredging material disposal. • Ms. Zulhasni stated that Indonesia hopes to learn more about the LC 72 and 1996 Protocol, and requested technical cooperation and assistance in an effort to ratify the 1996 Protocol. Japan Mr. Mitsutake Kudo, Japan NUS Co., Ltd, is a contractor for Japan and cannot speak on behalf of the government. He hoped, however, to inform the audience of marine pollution prevention in Japan. • Japan is working to control effluents from industrial plants, set domestic legislations to be in line with international conventions (LC/Protocol, MARPOL), and implementing monitoring activities (water, sediment and the health of marine organisms). • A primary coastal environmental issue is marine litter, which has a large impact on the marine environment and consists predominantly of oil products, plastics, and floatables. • Japan is working to address this issue with other nations in the East Asian area (NOWPAP). • Expectations of this workshop include hoping to share experiences and skills learned with other participating countries. • Mr. Lex Oosterbaan asked if Japan knows the source of its marine litter issue. Mr. Mitsutake responded that some of the litter is land-based from domestic and international sources, but exact figures/percentages are not known. Republic of Korea Dr. Gi-Hoon Hong • The Republic of Korea has many coastal issues. • People like to build on the coastal environment and property has become highly valued. This development pressure has led to conservation pressure, which revealed contaminated sediment issues. The need to manage these contaminated sediments has been identified. • Challenges to protecting the coastal environment in the Republic of Korea: o Cleaner bathing beaches. o Limited infrastructure to handle sewage sludge. o Restoration of the natural ecosystem.
  28. 28. 28 • Residents have filed complaints regarding contaminated sediments, algal blooms and other coastal issues at 20 different sites. • Republic of Korea is working on establishing water quality standards, working with the London Convention expertise to address the disposal of dredged material, and setting food safety standards for fish and shellfish products. Malaysia Mr. Rosli Bin Ahmad, Marine Officer, Marine Department of Peninsular Malaysia, explained that Malaysia has a long list of domestic legislation to control marine pollution and protect the integrity of the environment. Malaysia has ratified MARPOL Annexes I, II and IV and International Convention on Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation, 1990 (OPRC). • Malaysia has 30 ports and is concerned about vessel traffic in the Strait of Malacca, tourism activity, the protection of mangrove habitats along the coastline, and the development of industries along the coastline. • Challenges/issues in protecting coastal and marine environments in Malaysia: o Protecting sensitive areas and fish havens. o Controlling tourism activities. o Protecting mangroves. o Managing minor ports. o Accessing how development will impact the environment and economy. • Actions by the Malaysian Government to addresses these issues: o Establishment of a national oil spill contingency plan. o Building of waste reception facilities. o Establishment of system to control and monitor vessels in ports. o Implementing of vessel traffic system. • Malaysia is interested in using the workshop to learn additional strategies for marine pollution prevention and procedures for becoming a member of LC/LP. • Mr. Lex Oosterbaan asked Mr. Bin Ahmad to describe dredging operations in Malaysia in terms of what is done with the material. Mr. Bin Ahmad mentioned that dredging operations are conducted by local contractors and that most material is dumped at sea. Monitoring activities are conducted on all projects. Philippines Ms. Arlene Dalawis and Mr. Rogelio T. Trinidad, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Republic of Philippines, described marine pollution prevention efforts and environmental management in the Philippines. • Ms Dalawis mentioned that the Philippine participants will coordinate with other agencies in their country once they return to share lessons learned from the workshop. • Issues related to marine pollution prevention activities: o Growing number of factories which fail to comply with national laws and regulations regarding water pollution prevention. o Increasing settlement of houses and growing populations in coastal areas which contribute to improper disposal of wastes.
  29. 29. 29 o Infrequent inspection and monitoring of the compliance of regulations due to financial and manpower constraints and city ordinances to limit settlement of houses/squatters. o Slow passing of environmental laws. o Infrequent inspection and monitoring. o Absence of contingency plans for oil spills and other inevitable vessel discharges/ pollutants. • Actions Taken: o Extended technical assistance to permittees by arranging personnel of Environmental Management Bureau (EMB – DENR) to conduct monitoring and analysis. o Massive Information, Education, and Communication (IEC) campaigns to dispose wastes properly in an effort to reduce coastal and marine pollution. o Capacity building/meetings at the national, regional, and local levels. o Creation of interagency or multi-sectoral task force. • Lessons learned: o Collaborative undertaking of all stakeholders to report any violation committed. o Networking/linking with concerned establishments. o Strict regulations of discharges. o Let the accountable agency answer immediately for the damages done. o Technologies should be learned and applied as recommended. • Mr. Lex Oosterbaan remarked that the passing of environmental laws is often slow and that it seems that a disaster is sometimes needed to get progress. Singapore Mr. Jothieswaran Poobalasingam, Chief Engineer, Pollution Control Department, National Environmental Agency, Singapore, explained that Singapore is a small island-state (685 km2) with about 4 million people. It is one of the busiest ports in the world and serves as a major transshipment hub. Singapore also imports and exports a large quantity of goods. • In Singapore, the National Environmental Agency regulates land-based pollution sources, while the Maritime and Port Authority regulates marine pollution. • Singapore is party to UNCLOS and MARPOL 73/78 (all Annexes). The National legislation that implements these treaties is the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea Act (PPSA). • The PPSA prohibits not only the discharge of oil, noxious substances, garbage and sewage from ships, but also the discharge of oil from land, and requires all terminal operators to have waste reception facilities. • Ms. Linda Porebski asked whether or not Singapore has a program for issuing permits for dredged material disposal and conducting monitoring activities. Mr. Jothieswaran responded that Singapore does have a program for regulating and monitoring dredging and dumping activities, under the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore Act. Although Singapore is not a party to the London Convention or the 1996 Protocol, Singapore closely follows the objectives of the Convention, including regulations and guidelines for the control and assessment of material, issuance of permits, and designation of approved dumping grounds.
  30. 30. 30 Thailand • Dr. Pornsook Chongprasith, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand, described that sources/types of pollution in Thailand include heavy metals, nutrients, fecal coliform, oil spills, increasing coastal populations, industry, agriculture, shrimp aquaculture, fish piers, ports, and tourism. • Challenges: o Controlling heavy metal concentrations in fish and shellfish. o Controlling red tide outbreaks. o Decrease of mangrove and seagrass beds. o Controlling coastal erosion. o Keeping beaches clean. o Solid waste management. o Minimizing the impacts of the oil development/exploration industry. • Thailand requested technical expertise regarding coastal erosion from any willing workshop participants. • National action plans to address land- and sea-based pollution include: o Development of standards. o Action plan for domestic wastewater treatment. o Action plan for fish pier. o Environment management action plan for coastal aquaculture. o Draft of action plan for solid waste. o Best management practices to minimize agriculture based non-point source pollutants. • Thailand has developed effluent standards for coastal aquaculture farms, brackish aquaculture farms, fish piers, industry, buildings, and pig farms. • Thailand has engaged in many different land-based and sea-based management programs/action plans, and has developed the regulatory tools necessary to protect the marine environment. Additional efforts, however, need to be focused on educating the public and convincing political leaders that preventing coastal pollution is economically beneficial. • Commented that countries in the East Asia Region need to collaborate to gather the political will to address marine pollution issues. • Ms. Chongprasith stated that nearly all of the work has been done in readying the nation for ratifying the LC and Protocol. The final steps include convincing political leaders to agree to such terms. • Ms. Chongprasith is hoping to use the workshop to learn benefits/costs regarding ratification of the LC/Protocol, to exchange information regarding marine pollution prevention, and to work with neighboring countries to create regional agreements. Overall Conclusions Mr. Lex Oosterbaan discussed the overall conclusions of Session 4. He stated that although countries find themselves in different stages of development, many share the same problems and that there is an opportunity here to collaborate and share information so that marine pollution protection and environmental management can be made easier.
  31. 31. 31 o In a number of countries, local populations take the initiative to take care of their problems (e.g., beach clean up activities). o Not all problems are LC/LP related, some are covered by UNEP, GPA, or MARPOL. o The issues raised form a basis for the action plans to be developed later in the week. o Raising public awareness regarding marine and coastal protection is an important issue to address. o There is a need to gather up political will. o Monitoring programs are being developed. Additional expertise, however, is needed to provide complete oversight of all coastal/marine environmental issues. SESSION 5 INTRODUCTION TO WASTE ASSESSMENT GUIDELINES Dr. Gi-Hoon Hong moderated the morning session on an introduction to Waste Assessment Guidance. Mr. Craig Vogt introduced waste management principles. • He emphasized the need for comprehensive strategies and coordination to prevent marine pollution due to increasing pressure on the sea. • One method, Mr. Vogt stressed, is to minimize waste generation. Waste prevention audits, as well as minimizing generation of wastes, are key to this reduction. • Waste management principles use a tiered approach composed of a hierarchy of potential waste management options. The waste disposal principles are: avoid medium transfer, use scientifically based procedures, integrate waste management strategies, and develop waste management procedures (e.g., WAGs). • He emphasized the need to use good science in application of the principles. The integrated waste management strategy uses a geographically focused watershed approach that is holistic and involves stakeholders and partnerships. Mr. Lex Oosterbaan discussed the key components of the Waste Assessment Guidance, approaches to dumping, and described a general outline of the WAG. • The Waste Assessment Guidance is intended to aid states with waste management through: o Aiding in the assessment of waste considered for dumping. o Helping with compliance to the LC and 1996 Protocol. o Including the knowledge of the Scientific Group. • Key components of the WAGs include: o Waste characterization. o Waste management options. o Dumpsite selection. o Impact assessment and monitoring. o Permitting.
  32. 32. 32 • The differences between the London Convention and the Protocol were explained. This included the Protocol’s ‘reverse list’ approach and its seven categories of waste (dredged material, sewage sludge, fish waste, vessels/platforms, inert inorganic geological material, organic material, and bulky items). • Mr. Oosterbaan discussed how WAGs can be used by nations to implement precautionary approaches into domestic legislation, assess material (develop waste/action lists), issue and control permits, conduct monitoring activities, and report all developments to the IMO. • The WAG schematic was presented and briefly explained. • Impact assessment and monitoring are the basis for dumping application approval and help define the environmental monitoring requirements. Monitoring requirements typically include field studies and consultation with stakeholders. • The WAG offers a general waste management framework for governments, saves duplication of efforts, and allows for adaptation by countries. Ms. Linda Porebski, Chief of Marine Protection Programs Division, Environment Canada, presented information designed to help countries in making decisions on whether or not materials are suitable for dumping into the ocean and what type of disposal is appropriate (landfill vs. ocean vs. other options). • Differences between the LC and the Protocol were explained, particularly how the waste characterization processes differ for each. It should be noted that the Waste Assessment Guidance (WAG) can form the basis for characterization of waste or other matter under both LC and the 1996 Protocol. • Action lists are mechanisms for screening wastes on the basis of the potential effects of ocean disposal of a waste on the environment or human health. • Factors for characterization include the origin, amount, composition, physical/chemical/biological properties, persistence, toxicity, accumulation, and transformation. • Wastes are described in a set of waste specific guidance and each specific waste will have certain characteristics and Action List considerations: o Sewage sludge and organic material of natural origin– organic enrichment, pathogens, viruses, parasites, specific gravity, and oxygen demand. The action list should consider these aspects. o Fish waste – species, origin, BOD, was the fish fit for consumption. o Inert, inorganic geological material – origin, mineralogy, physical persistence. The action list should consider physical impacts. o Bulky wastes – specific gravity > 1.2, composition of iron, steel or concrete, potential reactions with seawater. The action list should consider physical impacts. o Vessels/Platforms – have all hazardous materials been removed (including fuels, lubes, and dielectric fluids). The action list should consider cleanup standards and impacts should be of a physical nature. o Dredged Material – volume, particle size, specific gravity, contaminants of concern, and potential for toxicity persistence and bioaccumulation. • Choices of which contaminants to analyze can be based on routes and sources of contamination (point and nonpoint), history (data and uses), and ability to interpolate (i.e., is there a guidance or standard level).
  33. 33. 33 • Where decisions cannot be made based on chemistry and existing data, biological testing can be done. National action levels can also be based on biological responses. • Sampling plans should represent the vertical/horizontal distribution of the material at the site, and the variability of material. A sampling and analytical strategy should be pre-established with appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures. • National Action Lists can help countries identify materials which are acceptable for dumping, need further characterization/testing, or are unacceptable for disposal. • Issues for biological responses include: o Battery approach. o Variability, which may be high for some test responses and needs to be considered during interpretation of the tests. o Response to contaminants versus non-contaminants. o Sampling and methodology procedures (i.e., how many samples are needed). o Interpretation of results – reference samples and controls are needed and it should be determined in advance how the results will be interpreted. Dr. Elizabeth Kim, described the Waste Prevention Audit (WAG Section 2, see also Protocol Annex 2, paragraphs 2-4) and Consideration of Waste Management Options (Wage Section 3, see also Protocol Annex 2, paragraphs 5-8). • The 3 key elements of the Protocol are: o Reverse List: only those items on list are candidates for dumping. o Alternatives to dumping. o Management of dumping (permitting regime). • Text from the Protocol (Article 4.1.2) was given: “Particular attention shall be paid to opportunities to avoid dumping in favour of environmentally preferable alternatives.” • Assessing alternatives should include evaluation of: o Types, amounts, and relative hazards of wastes. o Details of the production process and the sources of wastes within that process. o Feasibility of waste reduction/prevention or the opportunity to reuse, recycle or treat the waste. • Waste prevention audits: o Reveal opportunities for waste prevention. o Identify and control sources of contamination. • Waste management options include reuse, off-site recycling, destruction/removal of hazardous constituents, treatment, or disposal on land, into the air, or in water. • The presentation concluded with a discussion of reuse and recycling options for the seven dumping candidates under the LC/Protocol. Dr. Chris Vivian, discussed identification and characterization procedures for disposal sites. These focus on selecting a disposal site by proceeding through a sequential series of stages designed to weed out unsuitable areas and ultimately to present the regulatory authority with a suitable site or sites for designation. • Site Selection Process: o Assessment of need for a new site. o Identification of potentially suitable areas. o Identification of site requirements related to waste characteristics.
  34. 34. 34 o Selection of candidate sites. o Determination of potential adverse effects at each candidate site. o Comparison of candidate sites. o Assessment of acceptability of potential adverse effects. o Site selection. • Assessment of need may involve another organization’s needs, capacity of existing sites, acceptability of waste material for sea disposal, and evaluation of alternative disposal options. • Selection of disposal sites should take into account what other uses of the ocean floor are employed in that particular area. If other uses exist, a site should not be considered. Areas identified as having no other known uses can be considered for dumping. • Determination of potential effects should be compared between candidate sites: o Acute and chronic effects. o Short and long-term effects. o Information required on the physical/chemical/biological nature of seabed and water column, and biological/ecological effects of the waste material. • Dr. Vivian mentioned that a paper accompanying his presentation would be provided to workshop participants on the workshop CD-ROM. • Mr. Lex Oosterbaan asked what should be taken into account when selecting dispersal sites. Dr. Vivian explained that the selection of dispersal sites should include analyses of wide geographic effects. Ms. Linda Porebski moderated the afternoon session on an introduction to Waste Assessment Guidance. Dr. Tom Fredette presented the procedures involved with environmental impact assessments and the monitoring of dredged material disposal. The use of scientific method principles – hypothesizing and testing – helps to ensure proper compliance and maintenance of environmental integrity. • Impact assessment should include: o Characterization of waste and placement site. o Prediction of physical and chemical changes due to dumping. o Prediction and testing of the biological response. o Assessment of the risk to humans. o Issuance of permits. • Some environmental changes can be ephemeral and others may be more long term. • Permanent physical changes may occur if bulky wastes, inert inorganic geological material, platforms, or vessels are dumped. It is possible to have permanent changes from the disposal of dredged material or organic wastes. • A case study was presented on a sewage sludge disposal site off the coast of the Northeastern US. • Impact Assessments o Sewage sludge – Physical, chemical change predicted based on currents, sludge characteristics, dumping frequency, settling rates, etc. o Dredged material – physical burial of mechanisms, mounding, recolonization of benthic organisms, bioaccumulation.
  35. 35. 35  A case study on a containment berm, part of the disposal area monitoring system (DAMOS), was given.  Early warnings of improper characterization are provided through monitoring operations by looking at the recolonization of benthic organisms at disposal sites where larger levels of diversity ensure that characterization was correct. • Impact assessments can be avoided by properly characterizing waste material and properly selecting disposal sites. • Ms. Linda Porebski asked how proper monitoring and assessment can be achieved when funds are not readily available. o Dr. Fredette answered that securing funds for monitoring activities can be a large challenge for dredged material regulators. However sufficient funding is needed to ensure proper disposal of dredged material. o Mr. Craig Vogt added that regulations, which mandate the monitoring of disposal sites, can help ensure that sufficient funds are allocated to monitoring activities. o Dr. Chris Vivian added that not all dumping sites in the UK are monitored and that periodic monitoring of a select handful of sites can help make the most benefit of limited financial resources. Dr. Gi-Hoon Hong provided a case study of environmental impact assessment and monitoring with respect to organic waste disposal at sea. • Dr. Hong explained the public misconception that artificially fertilizing ocean waters with organic wastes can be beneficial to the marine environment. Micronutrients within waste do enhance primary production; however the nutrients distort the composition of plant species. • Organic waste introduced to the water column tends to have two different biological responses: phytoplankton and bacterial growth. This leads to a natural balance between primary producers and decomposers in the marine environment. • One hypothesis of how to assess ecosystem changes resulting from the disposal of organic materials is that the bacterial/phytoplankton productivity ratio may serve as an indicator of ecosystem disturbance. • Ms. Linda Porebski asked if the bacterial production/primary production ratio can be used to determine the source of the organic material. Dr. Hong responded that the use of the ratio can help shed some light on the source, particularly when used in conjunction with temperature and phytoplankton diversity indices. Ms. Linda Porebski described the permitting process in the Waste Assessment Guidance. • General obligations of ratifying the Protocol include establishing a permitting process which includes: o Prohibition of disposal of any wastes except by permit. o Designation of a national permitting authority. o Development of adequate enforcement operations. o Establishment of consultation networks. • Regulatory authorities should: o Establish laws that set up a waste assessment and permit issuing process. o Establish an enforcement regime. o Retain in house expertise to assess applications.