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  • eMobility Technology Platform Expert Working Group EWG-2 Post IP on “Evolutionary Approach to Future Internet” White Paper Date: 18.MAY.2009 Chair: Contributors Company /institute e.mail address Tanja Zseby Fraunhofer FOKUS tanja.zseby@fokus.fraunhofer.de Mikhail Smirnov Fraunhofer FOKUS mikhail.smirnov@fokus.fraunhofer.de Rudolf Roth Fraunhofer FOKUS rudolf.roth@fokus.fraunhofer.de Comments from Djamal to discuss 1
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  • Table of Content 1. Executive Summary.....................................................................................................................4 2. Internet as evolving complex system...........................................................................................4 1.1 Taxonomy of Internet dimensions grows over time.........................................................................4 1.2 Evolution of topology.........................................................................................................................4 1.3 Evolution in hierarchy.......................................................................................................................5 1.4 Evolution in governance.....................................................................................................................5 1.5 Evolution in usage patterns (traffic types)........................................................................................5 1.6 Evolution in complexity.....................................................................................................................5 1.6.1 Connectivity.....................................................................................................................................................5 1.6.2 Intensity of Interactions...................................................................................................................................5 1.6.3 Hierarchy.........................................................................................................................................................5 1.6.4 Heterogeneity...................................................................................................................................................5 1.7 Conclusion: Research Priorities........................................................................................................5 2 The Next Big Thing in the Evolution of the Internet..................................................................5 2.1 From Autonomous Systems to Cross-Dependable systems.............................................................6 2.2 From Forwarding+Routing to Search+Discover..............................................................................6 2.3 Cognitive Networking........................................................................................................................6 2.4 Cloud Computing made real............................................................................................................6 2.4 Other large scale developments.........................................................................................................6 2.5 Conclusions: Research Priorities.......................................................................................................6 3 Small things that make changes...................................................................................................7 3.1 Introduction: how to find small things..............................................................................................7 3.2 Datagram handling: fairness defined by a user...............................................................................7 3.3 Role based architecture revised.........................................................................................................7 3.4 Network Coding=Cognitive Radio + Self Awareness Function.......................................................7 3.5 Other small things..............................................................................................................................7 3.6 Conclusion: Research Priorities .......................................................................................................7 3.7 Research priorities ..................................................................................................................................8 3. Recommendations........................................................................................................................9 4. References....................................................................................................................................9 3 View slide
  • 1. Executive Summary Very condensed summary explaining to funding bodies why the evolutionary approach research must be financed in the first place. The paper shows that the future is rooted in small advances that are available now, we highlight them and project global effects of their mass deployment. Irrespective of the approach chosen for F Irrespective of the approach chosen for Future Networks, the challenge remains migration, integration and replacement. Clearly even clean slate paradigms require gradual integration and necessarily coexistence for a while with current and evolved technologies grounded on current generation networks. Another aspect that calls for such clear integration, migration and evolutions paths relate to wireless communications, systems and networks. These networks are conceived from their initial design with mobility, security and QoS in mind. Europe having the required strength in wireless networks including NGN, self-organized and opportunistic wireless networks with experimentation and deployments by providers in operational networks. A natural approach is to pursue an evolutionary approach and at the same ensure gradual and incremental introduction and integration of revolutionary solutions. Combining virtualisation and autonomic communications and management can enable and facilitate such an evolution, migration and gradual replacement. Paradigms, slices and networks can coexist by running in parallel in isolation and controlled interaction and cooperation. This white paper assesses the viability of an evolutionary path relying on current and evolving wireless networks and services. It also provides arguments for such an approach and identifies key related research priorities. 2. Internet as evolving complex system 1.1 Taxonomy of Internet dimensions grows over time We observe how a system of less than handful mainframes becomes a truly global infrastructure, we show that over time the single metric of this system –the size, measured in a number of e.g. ping-able hosts –becomes less and less informative. New properties emerge and demonstrate themselves at a global level. We seek to understand what is that Next feature that will move the Internet evolution to a next qualitative level. Mobility broadly defined is in the centre of our methodology; mobility of users, devices, content, networks, services, etc. is the key to this attempt to understand the future. Mobility of devices and information and associated mobility of objects and subjects summarize the multidimensional mobility expected in Future Networks. A research priority is to make such broad mobility viable and easily handled and managed by networks, services and applications. All types of mobility can be withstood and manageable by future networks. A priority is to design the innate mobility management functions and capabilities and make them universal. 1.2 Evolution of topology Connectivity types, topology types, interconnection types; what are new mobility types enabled by new topologies. 4 View slide
  • Are we here alluding to the ability to adapt to changes as well as enable dynamic topology changes in the network without any impact on users and applications? Would this not be the self-adaptation and self-* properties of networks – including topology, interconnection (peering) and connectivity as entire networks or clusters move and change their attachment points. 1.3 Evolution in hierarchy Types of ASes, types of their interconnection (hierarchy, peering, bypassing, merging and virtualisation) 1.4 Evolution in governance From DARPA through NSF backbone to viable business model of ISP, emergence from IANA to ICANN, political impact and influence. Would here naming of things be relevant and mentioned here for the governance aspect? 1.5 Evolution in usage patterns (traffic types) From data through multimedia to the phenomena of network identity (second life), networked marketplace (amazon .. youtube), networked organisation (SaaS), etc. Indeed, this will generate a plethora of events and challenges that are related to the various manifestations of objects and subjects as well as the S/P/IaaS operation and configuration of the virtual and real world. 1.6 Evolution in complexity We shall use the complexity metrics by John Casti to introduce dimensions of technical complexity of the evolving Internet 1.6.1 Connectivity 1.6.2 Intensity of Interactions 1.6.3 Hierarchy 1.6.4 Heterogeneity 1.7 Conclusion: Research Priorities Outcome of the first section will make a list of high level research challenges and priorities at macro-level 2 The Next Big Thing in the Evolution of the Internet In a number of sections (the list is open – feel free to add) we shall explore emerging critical transformations that – any single one or in a combination - are able to serve as a catalyst of the next round of the Internet evolution. Combining virtualisation, autonomic communications and management and the emergence of cloud computing as an application for NGN and current wireless as well as a cloud computing type operation in the networks. In addition to these we should look at the energy and cognitive radio aspects that will revolutionize how we use, share, control and manage resources. 5
  • 2.1 From Autonomous Systems to Cross-Dependable systems How autonomous are autonomous systems, really? It may appear that routing disruptions that are due to the AS sudden change in routing policies will force some of the ASes to form federations or coalitions (emerging from BGP communities) to exhibit to mainly mobile and roaming users a more dependable communication environment. Indeed ASes should be able to form dynamic groups and coalitions to react to unexpected behaviour and events in networks in order to maintain end user support and exhibit resilience and dependability. 2.2 From Forwarding+Routing to Search+Discover Trends exist that show that a new business model – path[s] provider – will emerge in place of ISP model broken by the flat rate crisis. The path provider shall operate a networked SOA on demand that will obsolete ISP’s current Kingdoms. 2.3 Cognitive Networking Appearance of cognitive routers in the backbone that are more cost-efficient than legacy routers might become a turning point, from which the evolution of the Internet will take the shape of truly organic growth Situation and applications (content, information, purpose) aware networking will enable self- grown and evolving networking. 2.4 Cloud Computing made real Imagine a self-organising and self-sourcing clouds that form a global infrastructure for all types of computing and communication with intuitive user-to-cloud and sophisticated cloud-to-cloud interfaces; clouds provide resources, content, and platforms on demand.. This is a key area of evolution and path for the future Internet. How do we relate it to current networks and the evolutionary path? I guess that we would need here to look at NGN/NGI and Cloud Computing. Can Future Networks support networking of clouds and all related interfaces/interfacing efficiently and reliably as they interact and compose? I see here a research priority. Here we also need to look at SOA, CBA approaches to cloud computing with a S/P/I as Service focus (vision) to Clouds and cloud computing. 2.4 Other large scale developments Add your topic here 2.5 Conclusions: Research Priorities We list here all of the above findings in large scale development 6
  • 3 Small things that make changes 3.1 Introduction: how to find small things Things change at roots. The roots of the Internet are in the way each datagram is handled by each network feature (forwarding, classification, filtering, sampling, etc.) 3.2 Datagram handling: fairness defined by a user What is fair should not be dictated by a TCP of by an ISP; it is only an associated application and/ or business process that are knowledgeable enough to define true fairness. Mechanisms are multiple: information sharing, policy, signalling, SLA aggregation, etc. but the real power appears to be in the integration of these mechanisms. 3.3 Role based architecture revised New Arch’s RBA paper (as well as Plutarch paper) need new attention. 3.4 Network Coding=Cognitive Radio + Self Awareness Function Network coding promises to increase the capacity of wireless enormously, so does cognitive radio; their combination might be a success if devices are self-aware. This is a key research priority. Combining cognitive radio and networking coding is a natural next step to networking coding in the core, sensing and cognitive radio. The latter are enablers of self and situation awareness. Cognitive radio via smart sensing, opportunistic use and pooling of radio resources can provide the overall multi path and parallel diversity between all networked peers. Network coding intelligently these paths should be the subject of in depth research in Europe as this will hold the promise of better capacity, more efficient use of spectral resources, lower power and lower energy consumption provided the right metrics and these requirements are embedded in the overall optimisation process. 3.5 Other small things Add your hypothesis here 3.6 Conclusion: Research Priorities We list here all of the above findings in small scale development 7
  • 3.7 Research priorities 8
  • 3. Recommendations Note: Bullet list would be sufficient (this is list of recommendations to researchers, funding organisations such as national and/or EU framework programme etc..) 4. References [1] 9