Collaborative Expedition Workshop #47, Tuesday, January 24, 2006, at the National Science Foundation Advancing Credible Agreements Across Networked Improvement Communities: Bootstrapping Service-Oriented Architecture and Semantic Interoperability Toward Transformative Practice Brand Niemann (US EPA), Chair, Semantic Interoperability Community of Practice (SICoP) January 23, 2006
XML Working Group – XML Vocabularies, XML Schema Registry, and Vendor Demonstrations.
Web Services Working Group – Pilots, Components, and Registries and Repositories:
E-Forms and Business Gateway for OMB and SBA, and Componenttechnology.org (six quarterly conferences for the AIC).
(1) A self contained business process or service with predetermined functionality that may be exposed through a business or technology interface” (2) The three Subcommittees were on different pages and the White Paper I went nowhere like DRM 1.0!
Open Source, Componenttechnology.Org, XML CoP, SICoP, etc.
1. Some History Source: Gartner, June 30, 2005, Magic Quadrant for Metadata Repositories, 2H05 to 1H06, Michael J. Blechar, ID Number: G00129274. *DHS MCOE Vendor Proof of Concept for Metadata Repository Selection. Note: For 2005 Computer Associates is removed from the Leader Quadrant. * * * * See next slide.
Gartner characterizes the Federal Enterprise Architecture as “a set of Reference Models backed by law and administrative rule” and “not a roadmap, but a guide to getting there.”
A 2004 GAO report said the FEA is more akin to a classification scheme (taxonomy) for government operations than a true enterprise architecture, questioned (since the terms are not well-defined) if the expected relationship between the FEA and agencies’ architectures were clear enough for agencies to “map” and “align” their architectures with the FEA, and if the agencies’ enterprise architectures would provide sufficient content for driving implementation of systems.
The Industry Advisory Council EA SIG recently said “The FEA Reference Models do not constitute a comprehensive EA methodology or approach by themselves. These FEA Reference Models, as populated, specifically serve mainly as mechanisms for identifying and coding initiatives via a common taxonomy and as checklists for coverage in an EA.”
OMB Chief Architect, Dick Burk, said recently the FEA is not a “real architecture” – only four Reference Models that are taxonomies, but we are evolving it to a “real and target architecture” (Chief Architect Forum, October 6, 2005).
1. Some History Evolving to Service Oriented Architecture Semantic Interoperability Architecture Evolving to a Data-Driven Approach for the DRM “ The problem is not that there are no semantics, the problem is that the semantics is hidden in software components”, Stefan Decker, quoted by Christopher Welty in “Towards a Semantics for the Web”. Convergence in the FEA Paradigm Shifts
Implementation though iteration and testing during development.
1. Some History Source: Expanding E-Government, Improved Service Delivery for the American People Using Information Technology, December 2005, pages 2-3. http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budintegration/expanding_egov_2005.pdf
Essentially, SICoP and others have evolved the FEA Taxonomy/Component Based Architecture over the past year to a Ontology-Based/Semantic Interoperability Architecture (SIA) or Semantic SOA (SSOA) following the same process as DRM 2.0, namely testing while developing to demonstrate it works in pilots and real-world implementations, instead of the Components Subcommittee approach of developing White Papers and providing Core.gov without that open collaborative process and iteration and testing during development, and having essentially no uptake.
Why is “Publish” the First and Most Important Step?
What is a SOA With Web Services?
Why is Semantic Interoperability Important for SOA?
What Are Some Best Practices of SOA, Composite Applications, SSOA, and Their Platforms?
What are Some SOA Governance Approaches?
2. Service-Oriented Architecture Information Model Two Connected Layers: Knowledge Map and the Information Resources Instances Occurrences Relationships (between Concepts and Instances) Associations (between Topics & Occurrences) Concepts Topics Ontology Topic Maps
Definition: Architects of both software and physical structures routinely use the principle of abstraction to isolate complex components and reduce the scope of a problem to be solved (“see the forest for the trees”). By definition, ontology is abstraction and is the ultimate abstraction tool for information.
Example: Imagine a scenario of using a pivot data model without abstraction – it would require the aggregation of all of the data elements in a particular community – the result could be the a community of 500+ applications, each application with approximately 100 data elements, requiring a pivot model with about 50,000 data elements – an abstracted model could conceivably be capable of representing this information in far fewer than about 100 date elements!
Pilot: Demonstrations of SICoP Pilot Projects for EPA Managers, August 16, 2004, Semantic Information Management (Unicorn): Integrating Health and Environmental Information to Protect American Children”, at http://web-services.gov
Definition: Indirection is a concept that is use to plan for future uncertainty. Simply put, indirection is when two things need to be coupled, but instead of coupling them directly, a third thing is used to mediate direct, brittle connections between them. By leveraging indirection in the fundamental aspects of the technology, semantic interoperability is built for change, and this built-in flexibility differentiates semantic technologies from other information-driven approaches.
Example: Model-View-Controller (see next two slides)
Pilot: E-Forms for E-Gov, see http://www.fenestra.com/eforms/
Model-View-Controller (MVC) is a classic design pattern often used by applications that need the ability to maintain multiple views of the same data. The MVC pattern hinges on a clean separation of objects into one of three categories — models for maintaining data, views for displaying all or a portion of the data, and controllers for handling events that affect the model or view(s).
Because of this separation, multiple views and controllers can interface with the same model. Even new types of views and controllers that never existed before can interface with a model without forcing a change in the model design.
IBM created a model to depict Web services interactions which is referred to as a “service-oriented architecture” comprising relationships among three entities (see next slide):
A Web service provider;
A Web service requestor; and a
A Web service broker.
Note: IBM’s service-oriented architecture is a generic model describing service collaboration, not specific to Web services.
2. Service-Oriented Architecture Service provider Service broker Service requestor Find Bind Publish Service-oriented architecture representation (Courtesy of IBM Corporation)
2. Service-Oriented Architecture Web Services Network: Security Reliability QoS Billing Service providers Service requestors Web services networks act as intermediaries in Web services interactions.
2. Service-Oriented Architecture http://22.214.171.124/lepc/FMPro?-db=LEPC.FP5&-format=-fmp_xml&zip_lepc::zip_code=22181&-find= XML Data XML Message for Voice
2. Service-Oriented Architecture Source: Expanding E-Government, Improved Service Delivery for the American People Using Information Technology, December 2005, pages 2-3. http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budintegration/expanding_egov_2005.pdf
Metamodel: Precise definitions of constructs and rules needed for abstraction, generalization, and semantic models.
Model: Relationships between the data and its metadata.
Metadata: Data about the data.
Data: Facts or figures from which conclusions can be inferred.
Relationships and associations The purpose of this schematic is to show that we need to describe information model relationships and associations in a way that can be accessed and searched. Source: Professor Andreas Tolk, August 16, 2005
2. Service-Oriented Architecture See http://web-services.gov and Dynamic Knowledge Repositories This Data Architecture Provides the Three S’s: Structure, Searchability, and Semantics.
2. Service-Oriented Architecture Note: Can Highlight Table and Copy and Paste to Spreadsheet Because of XML Markup. Metamodel Model Metadata Data Data Story
2. Service-Oriented Architecture Data & Metadata (see next slide) http://web-services.gov/statabs2003no1.htm Separation of the Data Presentation from the Data & Metadata. Data Presentation/ Visualization
2. Service-Oriented Architecture Data & Metadata in XML http://web-services.gov/statabs2003no1.htm The Data & Metadata Travel Together in XML Format!
Organizational Interoperability is about streamlining administrative processes and information architecture top the institutional goals we want to achieve – and to facilitate the interplay of technical and organizational concerns. It requires the identification of “business interfaces”, and coordination throughout MS and EU.
Technical Interoperability is about knitting together IT-systems and software, defining and using open inter-faces, standards, and protocols. It relies on cooperation as well as on technical infrastructures.
Semantic Interoperability is about ensuring that the meaning of the information we exchange is contained and understood by the involved people, applications, and institutions. It needs the know-how of sector institutions and publication of specifications.
Source: Barbara Held, The European Interoperability Framework for pan-European eGovernment Services, IDABC, Enterprise & Industry Directorate-General, European Commission, February 17-18, 2005:
Composite Applications – business processes consumed by portals
Sources: (1) David Chappell, Business Process Management in a Service-Oriented World, Federal Architect Forum, May 11, 2005, (2) Bruce Graham, Taking SOA from Pilot to Production with Service Infrastructure, May 12, 2005; and (3) David Martin, Semantic Web Services: Promise, Progress, and Challenges, SWANS Conference Tutorial, April 8, 2005.
2. Service-Oriented Architecture Simple Composite Infrastructure Organizational Technical Semantic Dimensions of Interoperability Evolution of the SOA Platform Line of Sight 1 2 3
Led CIO Council award winning VoiceXML Web Service for EPA Emergency Response pilot that has subsequently been commercialized and implemented as Infrastructure.
Lead the CIO Council’s E-Forms for E-Gov Pilot that saw 13 E-forms vendors each build an XML Web Service using a common XML Schema for E-Grants to increase their collective technical interoperability with one another.
Our recent Semantic Web for Military Applications Conference featured 40 vendors implementing RDF/OWL including the “Putting Context to Work: Semantic Keys to Improve Rapid First Response” that used an event ontology to achieve semantic interoperability across five vendors.
2. Service-Oriented Architecture Source: Putting Context to Work: Semantic Keys to Improve Rapid First Response, Semantic Web Applications for National Security Conference, April 8, 2005, Trade Show, Broadstrokes, ImageMatters, MyStateUSA, Starbourne, and TargusInfo. Event Type Ontology in Context: Application in Unicorn Workbench: http//www.unicorn.com
E-Government needs a comprehensive guide to SOA with Web Services standards and best practices for implementation to get from the current "as is" to the future "to be" architecture. This book meets that need superbly.
Brand Niemann, Ph.D., Co-Chair, SICoP, U.S. Federal CIO Council
Caution: Be Prepared to Slow Down – Road Work Ahead:
David Chappell, Federal Architect Forum, April 8, 2004: The "Big Bet" - Has anyone ever tried to create a complete, multi-vendor security framework before? Will this work? Keep an eye on the progress of WS-Security implementations - The success of SOA may depend on this technology.
David Martin, SRI International, April 8, 2005: Sociological (crossing the chasm) – getting to where the payoff exceeds the overhead (for significant numbers).
Russ Reopell, MITRE, Intelligence Community Metadata Working Group Meeting, May 4-5, 2005: The SOA Threat
Greg Lomow, Bearing Point: Work on a Multi-vendor Security SOA Framework for DHS (Source: JP Morgenthal, May 26, 2005).
SOA Leaders, Building the Business Case for SOA, June 9, 2005.
SecurE-Biz CXO Summit Conference, SOA/ Web Services Track, June 29-30, 2005.
Enterprise Architecture and Service-Oriented Architecture Fad or Foundation?:
The goal of this series was to provide a clear path (J2EE/.NET for building Web services/SOA-based applications) in complex environments using open-standards to improve interoperability across all Governmental Agencies. It is far from perfect, but we gave it an honest effort:
Part One: http:// www.dmreview.com/article_sub.cfm?articleId =1025078
Part Two: http:// www.dmreview.com/article_sub.cfm?articleId =1025567
Part Three: http:// www.dmreview.com/article_sub.cfm?articleId =1025870
Part Four: http:// www.dmreview.com/article_sub.cfm?articleID =1026284
Semantic Technologies and Ontology Engineering for Enterprise Architecture, Ralph Hodgson, TopQuadrant:
EA Summit 2005, May 22-24, Miami, Florida.
Composite Applications with Multiple Ontologies:
For example, Digital Harbor ( http://www.digitalharbor.com/ ) at the SWANS Conference Trade Show.
See Leaderboard, page 70, in InfoWorld, May 2, 2005, Issue 18.
Service Component Based Architecture (SCBA) and Core.Gov for Enterprise Architecture (January 26, 2006):
‘ Did not want to throw “component” away in SCBA V3.4,’ but you should drop components and component registration since it causes confusion and implementation problems because the FEA does not couple EA to SD (software development) and manage SD across the enterprise:
Services are things that you “publish, find, and bind to” like in a SOA, while
“ Components” implies physical things you move around – put in a Core.gov - and try to get reused in some way.