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  • Personal digital assistant (PDA) A small hand-held computer that performs simple tasks such as taking notes, scheduling appointments, and maintaining an address book and a calendar. The PDA screen is touch-sensitive, allowing a user to write directly on the screen, capturing what is written. Laptop A fully functional computer designed to be carried around and run on battery power. Laptops come equipped with all of the technology that a personal desktop computer has, yet weigh as little as two pounds. Tablet A pen-based computer that provides the screen capabilities of a PDA with the functional capabilities of a laptop or desktop computer. Similar to PDAs, tablet PCs use a writing pen or stylus to write notes on the screen and touch the screen to perform functions such as clicking on a link while visiting a Web site. Desktop Available with a horizontal system box (the box is where the CPU, RAM, and storage devices are held) with a monitor on top, or a vertical system box (called a tower) usually placed on the floor within a work area. Workstation Similar to a desktop but has more powerful mathematical and graphics processing capabilities and can perform more complicated tasks in less time. Typically used for software development, Web development, engineering, and e-business tools. Minicomputer (midrange computer) - Designed to meet the computing needs of several people simultaneously in a small to medium-size business environment. A common type of minicomputer is a server and is used for managing internal company networks and Web sites. Minicomputers are more powerful than desktop computers but also cost more, ranging in price from $5,000 to several hundred thousand dollars Mainframe computer Designed to meet the computing needs of hundreds of people in a large business environment. Mainframe computers are a step up in size, power, capability, and cost from minicomputers. Mainframes can cost in excess of $1 million. With processing speeds greater than 1 trillion instructions per second (compared to a typical desktop that can process about 2.5 billion instructions per second), mainframes can easily handle the processing requests of hundreds of people simultaneously. Supercomputer The fastest, most powerful, and most expensive type of computer. Organizations such as NASA that are heavily involved in research and number crunching employ supercomputers because of the speed with which they can process information.
  • Transcript

    • 1. CHAPTER 5 IT ARCHITECTURES
    • 2. SECTION 5.0 HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE
    • 3. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>Describe the six major categories of hardware and provide an example of each </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the different computer categories and explain their potential business uses </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the difference between primary and secondary storage </li></ul>
    • 4. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>List the common input, output, storage, and communication devices </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the eight categories of computers by size </li></ul><ul><li>Define the relationship between operating system software and utility software </li></ul>
    • 5. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Information technology (IT) - any computer-based tool that people use to work with information and support the information and information-processing needs of an organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware - consists of the physical devices associated with a computer system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software - the set of instructions that the hardware executes to carry out specific tasks </li></ul></ul>
    • 6. HARDWARE BASICS <ul><li>Computer - an electronic device operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory that can accept, manipulate, and store data </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware components include: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Central processing unit (CPU) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary storage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Input device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Output device </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication device </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 7. HARDWARE BASICS (RAM, ROM, Cache)
    • 8. Hardware - Another View
    • 9. Central Processing Unit <ul><li>Central processing unit (CPU) (or microprocessor ) - the actual hardware that interprets and executes the program (software) instructions and coordinates how all the other hardware devices work together </li></ul><ul><li>Control unit - interprets software instructions and literally tells the other hardware devices what to do, based on the software instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) - performs all arithmetic operations (for example, addition and subtraction) and all logic operations (such as sorting and comparing numbers) </li></ul>
    • 10. Central Processing Unit <ul><li>The number of CPU cycles per second determines the speed of a CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Megahertz (MHz) - the number of millions of CPU cycles per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigahertz (GHz) - the number of billions of CPU cycles per second </li></ul></ul>
    • 11. Central Processing Unit <ul><li>CPU speed factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clock speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chip line width </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Binary digit ( bit ) - the smallest unit of information that a computer can process </li></ul><ul><li>Byte - a group of eight bits representing one natural language character </li></ul>
    • 12. Advances in CPU Design <ul><li>Complex instruction set computer (CISC) chip - type of CPU that can recognize as many as 100 or more instructions, enough to carry out most computations directly </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced instruction set computer (RISC) chip - limit the number of instructions the CPU can execute to increase processing speed </li></ul><ul><li>Virtualization - a protected memory space created by the CPU allowing the computer to create virtual machines </li></ul>
    • 13. Primary Storage <ul><li>Primary storage - the computer’s main memory, which consists of the random access memory (RAM), cache memory, and the read-only memory (ROM) that is directly accessible to the CPU </li></ul>
    • 14. Random Access Memory (RAM) <ul><li>Random access memory (RAM) - the computer’s primary working memory, in which program instructions and data are stored so that they can be accessed directly by the CPU via the processor’s high-speed external data bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cache memory </li></ul></ul>
    • 15. Random Access Memory (RAM)
    • 16. Read-Only Memory (ROM) <ul><li>Read-only memory (ROM) - the portion of a computer’s primary storage that does not lose its contents when one switches off the power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory stick </li></ul></ul>
    • 17. Secondary Storage <ul><li>Secondary storage - consists of equipment designed to store large volumes of data for long-term storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Megabyte (MB or M or Meg) - roughly 1 million bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gigabyte (GB) - roughly 1 billion bytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terabyte (TB) - roughly 1 trillion bytes </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. Secondary Storage
    • 19. Magnetic Medium <ul><li>Magnetic medium - a secondary storage medium that uses magnetic techniques to store and retrieve data on disks or tapes coated with magnetically sensitive materials </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic tape - an older secondary storage medium that uses a strip of thin plastic coated with a magnetically sensitive recording medium </li></ul><ul><li>Hard drive - a secondary storage medium that uses several rigid disks coated with a magnetically sensitive material and housed together with the recording heads in a hermetically sealed mechanism </li></ul>
    • 20. Optical Medium <ul><li>Optical medium types include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact disk-read-only memory (CD-ROM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compact disk-read-write (CD-RW) drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital video disk (DVD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DVD-ROM drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital video disk-read/write (DVD-RW) </li></ul></ul>
    • 21. Input Devices <ul><li>Input device - equipment used to capture information and commands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual input devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joystick </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keyboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microphone </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated input devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bar code scanner </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital camera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetic ink character reader </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 22. Output Devices <ul><li>Output device - equipment used to see, hear, or otherwise accept the results of information processing requests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cathode-ray tube (CRT) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid crystal display (LCD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laser printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ink-jet printer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plotter </li></ul></ul>
    • 23. Communication Devices <ul><li>Communication device - equipment used to send information and receive it from one location to another </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dial-up access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital subscriber line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite </li></ul></ul>
    • 24. COMPUTER CATEGORIES <ul><li>Computer categories include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal digital assistant (PDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tablet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workstation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minicomputer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainframe computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supercomputer </li></ul></ul>
    • 25. Computer Categories PDA Laptop/Tablet SmartPhone Desktop/Workstation Microcontroller Mainframe Supercomputer Ultra-Mobile PC Minicomputer Business, Industrial, Scientific, and Academic Personal (Micro Computers)
    • 26. COMPUTER CATEGORIES <ul><li>For the past 20 years, federally funded supercomputing research has given birth to some of the computer industry’s most significant technology breakthroughs including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clustering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parallel processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosaic browser </li></ul></ul>
    • 27. SOFTWARE BASICS <ul><li>System software - controls how the various technology tools work together along with the application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating system software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utility software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software </li></ul></ul>
    • 28. Categories of Software
    • 29. Utility Software <ul><li>Types of utility software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crash-proof </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disk optimization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encrypt data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File and data recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text protect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preventative security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spyware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uninstaller </li></ul></ul>
    • 30. Application Software <ul><li>Types of application software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bowser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Desktop publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul></ul>
    • 31. How Hardware and Software Interact
    • 32. OPENING CASE QUESTIONS Electronic Breaking Points <ul><li>Identify six hardware categories and place each product listed in the case in its appropriate category </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the CPU and identify which products would use a CPU </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the relationship between memory sticks and laptops. How can a user employ one to help protect information loss from the other? </li></ul><ul><li>What different types of software might each of the products listed in the case use? </li></ul>
    • 33. SECTION 5.1 MANAGING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
    • 34. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>5.1 Explain the three components of an enterprise architecture </li></ul><ul><li>5.2 Describe how an organization can implement a solid information architecture </li></ul>
    • 35. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>5.3 List and describe the five-ilities in an infrastructure architecture </li></ul><ul><li>5.4 Compare web services and open systems </li></ul>
    • 36. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES <ul><li>Enterprise architecture - includes the plans for how an organization will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and IT assets </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise architect (EA) - a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, a patient diplomat, and provides the important bridge between IT and the business </li></ul>
    • 37. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES <ul><li>Primary goals of enterprise architectures </li></ul>
    • 38. ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
    • 39. INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Information architecture - identifies where and how important information, such as customer records, is maintained and secured </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise information architecture should focus on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Backup and recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information security </li></ul></ul>
    • 40. INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE
    • 41. Backup and Recovery <ul><li>Backup - an exact copy of a system’s information </li></ul><ul><li>Recovery - the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure and includes restoring the information backup </li></ul>
    • 42. Backup and Recovery <ul><li>Fault tolerance - a computer system designed that in the event a component fails, a backup component or procedure can immediately take its place with no loss of service </li></ul><ul><li>Failover - a backup operational mode in which the functions of a computer component (such as a processor, server, network, or database) is assumed by secondary system components when the primary component becomes unavailable through either failure or scheduled down time </li></ul>
    • 43. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Disaster recovery best practices include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mind the enterprise architectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor the quality of computer networks that provide data on power suppliers and demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure the networks can be restored quickly in the case of downtime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set up disaster recovery plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide adequate staff training </li></ul></ul>
    • 44. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Financial Institutions Worldwide Spending on Disaster Recovery </li></ul>
    • 45. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Disaster recovery plan - a detailed process for recovering information or an IT system in the event of a catastrophic disaster such as a fire or flood </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster recovery cost curve - charts (1) the cost to the organization of the unavailability of information and technology and (2) the cost to the organization of recovering from a disaster over time </li></ul>
    • 46. Disaster Recovery
    • 47. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Hot site - a separate and fully equipped facility where the company can move immediately after a disaster and resume business </li></ul><ul><li>Cold site - a separate facility that does not have any computer equipment, but is a place where employees can move after a disaster </li></ul>
    • 48. Disaster Recovery <ul><li>Business continuity planning (BCP) - is a plan for how an organization will recover and restore partially or completely interrupted critical function(s) within a predetermined time after a disaster or extended disruption </li></ul>
    • 49. Information Security <ul><li>Good information architectures include… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A strong information security plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing user access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up-to-date antivirus software and patches </li></ul></ul>
    • 50. INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Infrastructure architecture - includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provides the underlying foundation to support the organization’s goals </li></ul><ul><li>As an organization changes, its systems must be able to change to support its operations </li></ul>
    • 51. INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE
    • 52. INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Five primary characteristics of a solid infrastructure architecture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul></ul>
    • 53. Flexibility <ul><li>Organizations must watch today’s business, as well as tomorrow’s, when designing and building systems </li></ul><ul><li>Systems must be flexible enough to meet all types of business changes </li></ul>
    • 54. Scalability <ul><li>Scalability - refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity planning - determines the future IT infrastructure requirements for new equipment and additional network capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Performing a capacity plan is one way to ensure the IT infrastructure is scalable </li></ul></ul>
    • 55. Reliability <ul><li>Reliability ensures all systems are functioning correctly and providing accurate information </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability is another term for accuracy when discussing the correctness of systems within the context of efficiency IT metrics </li></ul>
    • 56. Availability <ul><li>Availability - addresses when systems can be accessed by users </li></ul><ul><li>High availability - refers to a system or component that is continuously operational for a desirably long length of time </li></ul>
    • 57. Performance <ul><li>Performance - measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction (in terms of efficiency IT metrics of both speed and throughput) </li></ul><ul><li>Not having enough performance capacity can have a devastating, negative impact on a business </li></ul>
    • 58. APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Application architecture - determines how applications integrate and relate to each other </li></ul><ul><li>With new architectures, IT can build new business capabilities faster, cheaper, and in a vocabulary the business can understand </li></ul>
    • 59. Web Services <ul><li>Web service - contains a repertoire of Web-based data and procedural resources that use shared protocols and standards permitting different applications to share data and services </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability - the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers </li></ul>
    • 60. Web Services
    • 61. Web Services <ul><li>The two primary parts of web services are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Event - detect threats and opportunities and alert those who can act on the information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service - more like software products than they are coding projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need to be reusable if they are going to have an impact on productivity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 62. Open Systems <ul><li>Open system - a broad, general term that describes nonproprietary IT hardware and software made available by the standards and procedures by which their products work, making it easier to integrate them </li></ul><ul><li>Open source - refers to any program whose source code is made available for use or modification as users or other developers see fit </li></ul>
    • 63. OPENING CASE QUESTIONS Virgin Mobile <ul><li>How can an organization use an information architecture to protect its IT investment in electronic devices outlined in the case? </li></ul><ul><li>How can an organization use the architectures mentioned in the case to protect information security? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the five-ilites and rank them in order of importance for a cell phone (1 highest, 5 lowest) </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the importance of web services and open systems to companies such as Virgin Mobile </li></ul>
    • 64. SECTION 5.2 ARCHITECTURE TRENDS
    • 65. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><ul><li>5.5 Describe the business value in deploying a service oriented architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.6 Explain the need for interoperability and loose coupling in building today’s IT systems </li></ul></ul>
    • 66. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><ul><li>5.7 Identify the logical functions used in a virtualized environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.8 Explain the business benefits of grid computing </li></ul></ul>
    • 67. ARCHITECTURE TRENDS <ul><li>Organizations today must continually watch new architecture trends to ensure they can keep up with new and disruptive technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Three architecture trends that are quickly becoming requirements for all businesses including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service oriented architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grid computing </li></ul></ul>
    • 68. SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Service oriented architecture (SOA) is a business-driven IT architectural approach that supports integrating a business as linked, repeatable tasks or services </li></ul><ul><li>SOA ensures IT systems can adapt quickly, easily, and economically to support rapidly changing business needs </li></ul>
    • 69. SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE
    • 70. SOA Business Benefits <ul><li>The key technical concepts of SOA are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loose coupling </li></ul></ul>
    • 71. SOA Business Benefits
    • 72. Service <ul><li>Service oriented architecture begins with a service </li></ul><ul><li>(A SOA) service - can be a business task, such as checking a potential customer&apos;s credit rating only opening a new account </li></ul><ul><li>Services are “like” software products </li></ul>
    • 73. Service
    • 74. Interoperability <ul><li>Interoperability - is the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Extensible Markup Language (XML) - a markup language for documents containing structured information </li></ul>
    • 75. Loose Coupling <ul><li>Loose coupling - is the capability of services to be joined together on demand to create composite services, or disassembled just as easily into their functional components </li></ul><ul><li>Loose coupling is a way of ensuring that the technical details are decoupled from the service </li></ul>
    • 76. VIRTUALIZATION <ul><li>Virtualization - is a framework of dividing the resources of a computer into multiple execution environments </li></ul><ul><li>It is a way of increasing physical resources to maximize the investment in hardware </li></ul>
    • 77. VIRTUALIZATION
    • 78. What are Virtual Machines? <ul><li>System virtualization - is the ability to present the resources of a single computer as if it is a collection of separate computers (&amp;quot;virtual machines&amp;quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Each with its own virtual CPUs, network interfaces, storage, and operating system </li></ul>
    • 79. What are Virtual Machines?
    • 80. Virtualization Business Benefits <ul><li>Trends that have moved virtualization into the spotlight: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardware being underutilized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data centers running out of space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased energy costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System administration costs mounting </li></ul></ul>
    • 81. Additional Virtualization Benefits <ul><li>Rapid application deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic load balancing </li></ul><ul><li>Streamlined disaster recovery </li></ul>
    • 82. GRID COMPUTING <ul><li>Grid computing - is an aggregation of geographically dispersed computing, storage, and network resources, coordinated to deliver improved performance, higher quality of service, better utilization, and easier access to data </li></ul>
    • 83. GRID COMPUTING
    • 84. Grid Computing Business Benefits <ul><li>Improving productivity and collaboration of virtual organizations and respective computing and data resources </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing widely dispersed departments and businesses to create virtual organizations to share data and resources </li></ul><ul><li>Building robust and infinitely flexible and resilient operational architectures </li></ul>
    • 85. Grid Computing Business Benefit <ul><li>Providing instantaneous access to massive computing and data resources </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging existing capital investments, which in turn help to ensure optimal utilization and costs of computing capabilities </li></ul>
    • 86. Grid Computing Business Benefits
    • 87. OPENING CASE STUDY QUESTIONS Virgin Mobile <ul><li>Explain the advantages Virgin Mobile has using a service oriented architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Why does Virgin Mobile need to use interoperability and loose coupling in their architecture? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the business drivers for Virgin Mobile using virtualization </li></ul><ul><li>What business benefits would Virgin Mobile experience deploying grid computing? </li></ul>
    • 88. CLOSING CASE ONE Chicago Tribune <ul><li>Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on the Tribune Co.’s business </li></ul><ul><li>What is the disaster recovery cost curve? Where should the Tribune Co. operate on the curve? </li></ul><ul><li>Define backups and recovery. What are the risks to the Tribune’s business if it fails to implement an adequate backup plan? </li></ul>
    • 89. CLOSING CASE ONE Chicago Tribune <ul><li>Why is a scalable and highly available enterprise architecture critical to the Tribune Co.’s current operations and future growth? </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the need for information security at the Tribune Co. </li></ul><ul><li>How could the Tribune Co. use a classified ad web service across its different businesses? </li></ul>
    • 90. CLOSING CASE TWO The US Open Supports SOA <ul><li>Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on the USOpen.org </li></ul><ul><li>What are the USTA security concerns regarding interoperability between the tournament database and its website? </li></ul><ul><li>How could the USTA benefit from virtualization? </li></ul>
    • 91. CLOSING CASE TWO The US Open Supports SOA <ul><li>Identify the value of integrating the tournaments information with the USTA website USOpen.org? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why a sudden surge in server utilization during the middle of the US Open could spell disaster for the USTA </li></ul><ul><li>Why is loose coupling a critical business component to the USTA architecture? </li></ul>
    • 92. CLOSING CASE THREE eBay’s Grid <ul><li>Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on eBay’s business </li></ul><ul><li>What are the business benefits that eBay enjoys thanks to grid computing? </li></ul><ul><li>What precautions would eBay take to ensure 100 percent security? </li></ul>
    • 93. CLOSING CASE THREE eBay’s Grid <ul><li>How can eBay take advantage of implementing SOA? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how eBay uses fault tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the potential value of eBay using virtualization </li></ul><ul><li>What ethical and security concerns should eBay be aware of to ensure its business operates properly? </li></ul>
    • 94. BUSINESS DRIVEN BEST SELLERS <ul><li>THE NEW LANGUAGE OF BUSINESS: SOA &amp; WEB 2.0 , by Sandy Carter </li></ul>
    • 95. BUSINESS DRIVEN BEST SELLERS <ul><li>DOES IT MATTER? , by Nicholas G. Carr </li></ul>

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