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BDIS 2e Chapter 5 Instructor PPT
 

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  • Technical architecture refers to the structured process of designing and building software architecture, with focus on interaction with software and hardware developers. Technical architecture is a part of software architecture, which focuses on how to deal with certain aspects of the software engineering process. It allows us to design better systems by: Meeting system requirements and objectives: Both functional and non-functional requirements can be prioritized as "must have", "should have" or "want", where "must have" identifies properties that the system must have in order to be acceptable. An architecture allows us to evaluate and make tradeoffs among requirements of differing priority. Though system qualities (also known as non-functional requirements) can be compromised later in the development process, many will not be met if not explicitly taken into account at the architectural level. Enabling flexible partitioning of the system: A good architecture enables flexible distribution of the system by allowing the system and its constituent applications to be partitioned among processors in many different ways without having to redesign the distributable component parts. This requires careful attention to the distribution potential of components early in the architectural design process. Reducing cost of maintenance and evolution: Architecture can help minimize the costs of maintaining and evolving a given system over its entire lifetime by anticipating the main kinds of changes that will occur in the system, ensuring that the system's overall design will facilitate such changes, and localizing as far as possible the effects of such changes on design documents, code, and other system work products. This can be achieved by the minimization and control of subsystem interdependencies. Increasing reuse and integration with legacy and third party software: An architecture may be designed to enable and facilitate the (re)use of certain existing components, frameworks, class libraries, legacy or third-party applications, etc..
  • 5.1 Explain the three components of an enterprise architecture. Basic enterprise architectures contain three components: Information architecture identifies where and how important information, like customer records, is maintained and secured. Infrastructure architecture includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provide the underlying foundation to support the organization’s goals. Application architecture determines how applications integrate and relate to each other. 5.2 Describe how an organization can implement a solid information architecture. An information architecture identifies where and how important information, like customer records, is maintained and secured. Three primary areas an enterprise information architecture should focus on are: Backup and recovery Disaster recovery Information security
  • 5.3 List and describe the five- ilities of an infrastructure architecture. Infrastructure architecture includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provide the underlying foundation to support the organization’s goals. The following are the five primary characteristics of a solid infrastructure architecture: Flexibility Scalability Reliability Availability Performance 5.4 Compare web services and open systems. Web services contain a repertoire of web-based data and procedural resources that use shared protocols and standards permitting different applications to share data and services. Interoperability is the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers. An open system is a broad, general term that describes nonproprietary IT hardware and software made available by the standards and procedures by which their products work, making it easier to integrate them.
  • CLASSROOM OPENER Top Ten Data Failure Stories 10. PhD Almost an F -- A PhD candidate lost his entire dissertation when a bad power supply suddenly zapped his computer and damaged the USB Flash drive that stored the document. Had the data not been recovered, the student would not have graduated. 9. Suffering from Art -- While rearranging her home office, a woman accidentally dropped a five pound piece of clay pottery on her laptop, directly onto the hard drive area that contained a book she'd been working on for five years and 150 year-old genealogy pictures that had not yet been printed. 8. Domestic Dilemma -- A husband deleted all of his child's baby pictures when he accidentally hit the wrong button on his computer. His wife hinted at divorce if he did not get the pictures back. 7. Bite Worse than Bark -- A customer left his memory stick lying out and his dog mistook it for a chew toy. 6. Don't Try this at Home -- A man attempting to recover data from his computer on his own found the job too challenging mid-way through and ended up sending Ontrack his completely disassembled drive -- with each of its parts in a separate baggie. 5. Out of Time -- A clockmaker suffered a system meltdown, losing the digital designs for all of its clocks. Ontrack literally beat the clock recovering all their data just in time for an important international tradeshow. 4. Drilling for Data -- During a multi-drive RAID recovery, engineers discovered one drive belonging in the set was missing. The customer found the missing drive in a dumpster, but in compliance with company policy for disposing of old drives, it had a hole drilled through it. 3. Safe at Home -- After one of their executives experienced a laptop crash, the Minnesota Twins professional baseball team called on Ontrack to rescue crucial scouting information about their latest prospects. The team now relies on Ontrack for all data recoveries within its scouting and coaching ranks. 2. Hardware Problems -- A frustrated writer attacked her computer with a hammer. When the engineers received the computer, the hammer imprint was clearly visible on the top cover. 1. La Cucaracha -- In hopes of rescuing valuable company information, a customer pulled an old laptop out of a warehouse where it had been sitting unused for 10 years. When engineers opened the computer, it contained hundreds of husks of dead and decaying cockroaches.
  • A solid enterprise architecture can decrease costs, increase standardization, promote reuse of IT assets, and speed development of new systems. The right enterprise architecture can make IT cheaper, strategic, and more responsive.
  • Enterprise architecture: Information architecture identifies where and how important information, like customer records, is maintained and secured Infrastructure architecture includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provide the underlying foundation to support the organization’s goals Application architecture determines how applications integrate and relate to each other
  • A single backup or restore failure can cost an organization more than time and money; some data cannot be recreated, and the business intelligence lost from that data can be tremendous. Chief information officers (CIO) should have enough confidence in their backup and recovery systems that they could walk around and randomly pull out cables to prove that the systems are safe. The CIO should also be secure enough to perform this test during peak business hours.
  • A single backup or restore failure can cost an organization more than time and money; some data cannot be re-created, and the BI lost from that data can be tremendous Chief information officers should have enough confidence that they could walk around and randomly pull out cables to prove that the systems are safe. The CIO should also be secure enough to perform this test during peak business hours. If the thought of this test makes the CIO cringe then the organization's customers should also cringe. CLASSROOM EXERCISE Backup and Recovery Ask your students to answer the following questions: Do you have a backup strategy for your computer? How often do you backup? What do you backup? What type of format do you use for your backup? Where do you save the backup? How long do you save the backup? Now ask your students that if you stole their computer or spilled a hot cup of coffee on their computer right now how much information would they lose? Encourage your students to create a backup strategy.
  • A failover procedure involves automatically offloading tasks to a standby system component so that the procedure is as seamless as possible to the end user. Used to make systems more fault tolerant, failover is typically an integral part of mission-critical systems that must be constantly available, such as systems used in the financial industry.
  • Organizations should choose a backup and recovery strategy that is in line with its business goals. If the organization deals with large volumes of critical information, it will require daily backups, perhaps even hourly backups, to storage servers. If the organization deals with small amounts of noncritical information, then it might require only weekly backups to tapes, CDs, or DVDs. Deciding how often to back up information and what media to use is a critical business decision. If an organization decides to back up on a weekly basis, then it is taking the risk that, if a total system crash occurs, it could lose a week’s worth of work. If this risk is acceptable, then a weekly backup strategy will work. If this risk is unacceptable, then the organization needs to move to a daily backup strategy. Some organizations find the risk of losing a day’s worth of work too high and move to an hourly backup strategy.
  • Be sure to explain to your students that an organization's backup strategy must fit the organization’s needs. If the organization only needs to backup its information daily, then there is no need to backup the information hourly Ask your students how many of them backup the information on their computers. Ask your students what would happen if their computer crashed right now and they couldn’t recovery any of their information. Would they lose days, weeks, or months of information? Encourage your students to research the Internet for PC backup information and create a personal information backup plan. www.docsonline.com is a great place to store important information
  • Hurricanes, floods, fires, and many other types of natural disasters can have devastating effects on businesses. One of the most common types of hardware failures occurs from rats, mice, and squirrels chewing on cords, cables, and devices.
  • Explain to your students that the optimal recovery plan in terms of costs and time is where the two lines intersect.
  • Union Bank of California has created a disaster recovery plan that includes multiple data centers in diverse locations, mirrored sites which can take over at the flick of a switch, hot sites - where staff can walk in and start working exactly as they would if they were in their normal location - and a vast amount of redundancy.
  • Union Bank of California has created a disaster recovery plan that includes multiple data centers in diverse locations, mirrored sites that can take over at the fl ick of a switch, hot sites where staff can walk in and start working exactly as they would if they were in their normal location, and a vast amount of redundancy. In addition, the bank has created real-time mirroring between data centers.
  • Passwords may still be the weakest link in the security chain. There is little doubt that security is a top priority for business managers, regardless of the size of their company. Among Fortune 500 companies, more than 80 percent of those surveyed described updating security procedures, tools, and services as a key business priority. That desire holds true for small, midsize, or large companies and for IT managers and corporate managers.
  • If an organization grows by 50 percent in a single year, its systems must be able to handle a 50 percent growth rate. Systems that cannot adapt to organizational changes can severely hinder the organization’s ability to operate. The future of an organization depends on its ability to meet its partners and customers on their terms, at their pace, any time of the day, in any geographic location.
  • Five characteristics of adaptable systems: Flexibility – systems must meet all types of business changes Scalability – refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands Reliability – ensures all systems are functioning correctly and providing accurate information Availability – addresses when systems can be accessed by employees, customers, and partners Performance – measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction in terms of efficiency IT metrics of both speed and throughput
  • These are commonly known as the “ilities” Flexibility – a flexible system is designed to include the ability to handle multiple currencies and languages, even if the company is not yet operating abroad Scalability refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands Capacity planning determines the future IT infrastructure requirements for new equipment and additional network capacity Reliability ensures all systems are functioning correctly and providing accurate information Availability (an efficiency IT metric) addresses when systems can be accessed by employees, customers, and partners High availability refers to a system or component that is continuously operational for a desirably long length of time Performance measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction in terms of efficiency IT metrics of both speed and throughput
  • For example, a system might be designed to include the ability to handle multiple currencies and languages, even though the company is not currently performing business in other countries. When the company starts growing and performing business in new countries, the system will already have the flexibility to handle multiple currencies and languages. If the company failed to recognize that its business would someday be global, it would need to redesign all its systems to handle multiple currencies and languages, not easy once systems are up and running.
  • Web 2.0 is driving demand for capacity planning. Delivering entertainment-grade video over the Internet poses significant challenges as service providers scale solutions to manage millions of users, withstand periods of peak demand, and deliver a superior quality of experience while balancing network capacity and efficient capital investment. Given the success of YouTube.com and the likelihood of similar video experiences, the bandwidth required to transport the video services will continue to increase and the possibility of video degradation will become more challenging.
  • Inaccurate information processing occurs for many reasons, from the incorrect entry of data to information corruption. Unreliable information puts the organization at risk when making decisions based on the information.
  • Availability is typically measured relative to “100 percent operational” or “never failing.” A widely held but difficult-to-achieve standard of availability for a system or product is known as “five 9s” (99.999 percent) availability. Some companies have systems available 24x7 to support business operations and global customer and employee needs. With the emergence of the Web, companies expect systems to operate around the clock. A customer who finds that a website closes at 9:00 p.m. is not going to be a customer long. Systems, however, must come down for maintenance, upgrades, and fixes. One challenge organizations face is determining when to schedule system downtime if the system is expected to operate continually.
  • To ensure adaptable systems performance, capacity planning helps an organization determine future IT infrastructure requirements for new equipment and additional network capacity. It is cheaper for an organization to design and implement an IT infrastructure that envisions performance capacity growth than to update all the equipment after the system is already operational.
  • Gartner Inc. research indicates that application problems are the single largest source of downtime, causing 40 percent of annual downtime hours and 32 percent of average downtime costs. Advances in integration technology—primarily web services and open systems—are providing new ways for designing more agile, more responsive enterprise architectures that provide the kind of value businesses need.
  • Web services encompass all the technologies that are used to transmit and process information on and across a network, most specifically the Internet. It is easiest to think of an individual web service as software that performs a specific task, with that task being made available to any user who needs its service. For example, a “Deposit” web service for a banking system might allow customers to perform the task of depositing money to their accounts. The web service could be used by a bank teller, by the customer at an ATM, and/or by the customer performing an online transaction through a web browser. The “Deposit” web service demonstrates one of the great advantages of using the web service model to develop applications. Developers do not have to reinvent the wheel every time they need to incorporate new functionality. A web service is really a piece of reusable software code. A software developer can quickly build a new application by using many of these pieces of reusable code. The two primary parts of web services are events and services.
  • Events Events are the eyes and ears of the business expressed in technology—they detect threats and opportunities and alert those who can act on the information. Pioneered by telecommunication and financial services companies, this involves using IT systems to monitor a business process for events that matter—a stock-out in the warehouse or an especially large charge on a consumer’s credit card—and automatically alert the people best equipped to handle the issue. For example, a credit monitoring system automatically alerts a credit supervisor and shuts down an account when the system processes a $7,000 charge on a credit card with a $6,000 limit. Services Services are more like software products than they are coding projects. They must appeal to a broad audience, and they need to be reusable if they are going to have an impact on productivity. Early forms of services were defined at too low a level in the architecture to interest the business, such as simple “Print” and “Save” services. The new services are being defined at a higher level; they describe such things as “Credit Check,” “Customer Information,” and “Process Payment.” These services describe a valuable business process. For example, “Credit Check” has value not just for programmers who want to use that code in another application, but also for businesspeople who want to use it across multiple products—say, auto loans and mortgages—or across multiple business.
  • Can you name any open systems? Linux Mozilla Firefox
  • 1. How can an organization use an information architecture to protect its IT investment in electronic devices outlined in the case? An information architecture identifies where and how important information, like customer records, is maintained and secured. Three primary areas an enterprise information architecture should focus on are: Backup and recovery Disaster recovery Information security Information architecture identifies where and how important information, like customer records, is maintained and secured. A single backup or restore failure can cost an organization more than time and money; some data cannot be re-created, and the business intelligence lost from that data can be tremendous. A backup is an exact copy of a system’s information. Recovery is the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure and includes restoring the information backup. Using a proper backup and recovery and disaster recovery strategy will safe guard a company from losing any of the devices mentioned in the case – especially a laptop. 2. How can an organization use the architectures mentioned in the case to protect information security? Backup and recovery Strong information security plan Manage user access Anti-virus software and patches 3. Identify the five ilites and rank them in order of importance for a laptop (1 highest, 5 lowest). The following are the five primary characteristics of a solid infrastructure architecture: Flexibility Scalability Reliability Availability Performance Student rankings will vary. The important part of the answer is their justification for the ranking. Makes for an excellent classroom debate. 4. Describe the importance of web services and open systems to the companies such as Virgin Mobile. Web services allows for interoperability. Interoperability is the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers. In this day and age of mergers and acquisitions, this is critical for all companies. IT systems need to be able to talk to each other, no matter what the underlying infrastructure or architecture is. Having an open system creates this interoperability with nonproprietary IT hardware and software. Having Virgin Mobile use an open source operating system simplifies the process by which their business partners can build true collaboration into their applications.
  • 5.5 Describe the business value in deploying a service oriented architecture. Service oriented architecture (SOA) is a business-driven IT architectural approach that supports integrating a business as linked, repeatable tasks or services. SOA helps businesses innovate by ensuring that IT systems can adapt quickly, easily, and economically to support rapidly changing business needs. SOA increases the flexibility of business processes, strengthens underlying IT architectures, and reuse s existing IT investments by creating connections among disparate applications and information sources. 5.6 Explain the need for interoperability and loose coupling in building today’s IT systems. Interoperability is the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers. Businesses today have a variety of systems that have resulted in a heterogeneous environment. This heterogeneity has inundated businesses with the lack of interoperability. Loose coupling is a way of ensuring that the technical details such as language, platform, and so on are decoupled from a service.
  • 5.7 Identify the logical functions used in a virtualized environment. In a virtualized environment, the logical functions of computing, storage and network elements are separated from their physical functions. The logical functions are: CPU virtualization, memory virtualization, network virtualization, disk virtualization. These functions can be applied broadly across the enterprise.   5.8 Explain the business benefits of grid computing. Business benefits of grid computing include: Improved productivity and collaboration of virtual organizations and respective computing and data resources. Allowing widely dispersed departments and businesses to create virtual organizations to share data and resources. Robust and infinitely flexible and resilient operational architectures. Providing instantaneous access to massive computing and data resources. Leveraging existing capital investments, which in turn help to ensure optimal utilization and costs of computing capabilities.
  • To keep business systems up-and-running 24x7x365 while continuing to be flexible, scalable, reliable, and available is no easy task.
  • CLASSROOM EXERCISE Understanding SOA Tell your students to imagine for a moment that they have a goal to get from their house in Cleveland, Ohio, to a hotel in Denver, Colorado. How might they accomplish this? A few responses might be… You will drive in your car to off-site parking near an airport. You’ll park your car and ride a shuttle bus to the airport where (if you successfully get through security) you board an airplane for Denver. When you get off, you walk to the taxi stand and take a taxi to the hotel.   Each of these modes of transportation — car, the shuttle bus, the airplane, and the taxi — came together as you needed them. Or, said another way, when you set out from your home in Cleveland, you had not specified the entire transportation network from exactly which shuttle bus you would take to exactly which taxi you would use. In addition, at the intersection of each of these transportation modes — where one mode stopped and you were not yet at your goal — there is likely more than one option you can use that will take you a step closer to your destination. For example, you could have started from your house with a walk to a light rail station that took you directly into the airport terminal, thus eliminating the car ride and the shuttle bus. In this analogy, one could call the transportation modes “services.” A service can be defined as “the capability to perform work for another, the specification of the work offered for another, and the offer to perform work for another.” The car, airplane, bus, taxi, and light rail are all services used to reach the end goal.
  • SOA is not a concrete architecture: it is something that leads to a concrete architecture. It is a style, paradigm, concept, perspective, philosophy, or representation. SOA is not a concrete tool or framework you can purchase. It is an approach, a way of thinking, a value system that leads to certain concrete decisions when designing a concrete software architecture.
  • SOA with its loosely coupled nature allows enterprises to plug in new services or upgrade existing services in a granular fashion. This allows businesses to address the new business requirements, provides the option to make the services consumable across different channels, and exposes the existing enterprise and legacy applications as services, thereby safeguarding existing IT infrastructure investments.
  • Tell students to think about what a company does on a day-to-day basis, and break up those business processes into repeatable business tasks or components. Make a list on the board and then describe each one as having the potential to be a SOA service.
  • Businesses have become increasingly complex over the past couple of decades. Factors such as mergers, regulations, global competition, outsourcing, and partnering have resulted in a massive increase in the number of applications any given company might use. These applications were implemented with little knowledge of the other applications with which they would be required to share information in the future. As a result, many companies are trying to maintain IT systems that coexist but are not integrated.
  • Heterogeneity has inundated businesses with the lack of interoperability. However, SOA is based on open standards, therefore, businesses are able to create solutions that draw upon functionality from existing, previously isolated systems that are portable and/or interoperable, regardless of the environment in which they exist. The best-practice implementation of SOA for flexibility always involves web services because of their value proposition around interoperability for flexibility.
  • An example of loose coupling is common customer identification. In most businesses, there is no common customer ID and, therefore, no way to determine who the customers are and what they buy for what reason, let alone being able to harvest any information about them. By creating a common customer ID that is independent of applications and databases, you are loosely coupling the service "Customer ID" to CRM, data, and applications without the application or database ever knowing who it is or where it is.
  • In a virtualized environment, the logical functions of computing, storage and network elements are separated from their physical functions. Functions from these resources can then be manually or automatically allocated to meet the changing needs and priorities of a business. These concepts can be applied broadly across the enterprise, from datacenter resources to PCs and printers. Through virtualization, people, processes and technology work together more efficiently to meet increased service levels. Since capacity can be allocated dynamically, chronic over-provisioning is eliminated and an entire IT architecture is simplified.
  • Through virtualization, people, processes and technology work together more efficiently to meet increased service levels. Since capacity can be allocated dynamically, chronic over-provisioning is eliminated and an entire IT architecture is simplified.
  • CLASSROOM EXERCISE Intel and Apple Ask your students if they use an Intel based Apple (Macintosh). If they raise their hands, they have the ability to use virtualization. Parallels Desktop and VMware Fusion make it possible to run Windows and other PC-based operating systems on a Mac. Until the release of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard Server, Apple's software license agreement explicitly forbade running multiple copies of Mac OS X Server on a single Mac, preventing Parallels and VMware from including Mac OS X Server among the operating systems that could be virtualized legally.
  • Today, many data centers have machines running at only 10 or 15 percent of total processing capacity which translates to 85 or 90 percent of the machine’s power is unused. In a way, Moore’s Law is no longer relevant to most companies because they are not able to take advantage of the increased power available to them. A second virtualization trend concentrates on data centers running out of space. The business world has undergone an enormous transformation over the past 20 years. In 1985, the vast majority of business processes were paper based. Computerized systems were confined to so-called backroom automation: payroll, accounting, and the like. That has all changed, thanks to the steady march of Moore’s Law. Business process after business process has been captured in software and automated, moving from paper to computers. Energy costs rapidly escalating is another trend of virtualization. The cost of running computers, coupled with the fact that many of the machines filling up data centers are running at low utilization rates, means that virtualization’s ability to reduce the total number of physical servers can significantly reduce the overall cost of energy for companies. Data center power is such an issue that energy companies are putting virtualization programs into place to address it. Virtualization enables data center managers to make far better use of computer resources than in non-virtualized environments, and enables an enterprise to maximize its investment in hardware.
  • Virtualization technologies can reduce application test and deployment time from days or weeks to a matter of hours. This is because you can test and qualify software in isolation but also in the same environment as the production workload. Other benefits of virtualization include a variety of security benefits (stemming from centralized computing environments); improved service level management (i.e. the ability to manage resource allocation against service levels for specific applications and business users); the ability to more easily run legacy systems; greater flexibility in locating staff; and reduced hardware and software costs.
  • CLASSROOM OPENER Grid Computing Great opening video on grid computing… http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ootglemktTU . Discuss some real-world examples of grid applications (not mentioned in the book): A company needing to reach a decision on the placement of a new factory invokes a sophisticated financial forecasting model from an Application Service Provider (ASP), providing the ASP with access to appropriate proprietary historical data from a corporate database on storage systems operated by a Storage Service Provider (SSP). During the decision-making meeting, what-if scenarios are run collaboratively and interactively, even though the division heads participating in the decision are located in different cities. The ASP itself contracts with a cycle provider for additional "oomph" during particularly demanding scenarios, requiring of course that cycles meet desired security and performance requirements. An industrial consortium formed to develop a feasibility study for a next-generation supersonic aircraft undertakes a highly accurate multidisciplinary simulation of the entire aircraft. This simulation integrates proprietary software components developed by different participants, with each component operating on that participant’s computers and having access to appropriate design databases and other data made available to the consortium by its members. A crisis management team responds to a chemical spill by using local weather and soil models to estimate the spread of the spill, determining the impact based on population location as well as geographic features such as rivers and water supplies, creating a shortterm mitigation plan (perhaps based on chemical reaction models), and tasking emergency response personnel by planning and coordinating evacuation, notifying hospitals, and so forth. Thousands of physicists at hundreds of laboratories and universities worldwide come together to design, create, operate, and analyze the products of a major detector at CERN, the European high energy physics laboratory. During the analysis phase, they pool their computing, storage, and networking resources to create a "Data Grid" capable of analyzing petabytes of data.  
  • Grid computing enables the virtualization of distributed computing and data resources such as processing, network bandwidth, and storage capacity to create a single system image, granting users and applications seamless access to vast IT capabilities. Virtualizing these resources yields a scalable, flexible pool of processing and data storage that the enterprise can use to improve efficiency. Moreover, it will help create a sustainable competitive advantage by way of streamlining product development and allowing focus to be placed on the core business. Over time, grid environments will enable the creation of virtual organizations and advanced Web services as partnerships and collaborations become more critical in strengthening each link in the value chain.
  • Grid computing goes far beyond sheer computing power. Today’s operating environments must be resilient, flexible, and integrated as never before. Organizations around the world are experiencing substantial benefits by implementing grids in critical business processes to achieve both business and technology benefits.
  • Many organizations have started identifying the major business areas for grid computing business applications. Some examples of major business areas include: Life sciences, for analyzing and decoding strings of biological and chemical information. Financial services, for running long, complex financial models and arriving at more accurate decisions. Higher education for enabling advanced, data- and computation-intensive research. Engineering services, including automotive and aerospace, for collaborative design and data-intensive testing. Government, for enabling seamless collaboration and agility in both civil and military departments and other agencies. Collaborative games for replacing the existing single-server online games with more highly parallel, massively multiplayer online games.
  • At its core, grid computing is based on an open set of standards and protocols (e.g., Open Grid Services Architecture) that enable communication across heterogeneous, geographically dispersed environments.
  • 5. Explain the advantages Virgin Mobile has using a service oriented architecture. Service oriented architecture (SOA) will allow Virgin Mobile to integrate its business as linked, repeatable tasks or services. SOA will also be able to ensuring that its IT systems can adapt quickly, easily, and economically to support its rapidly changing business needs. SOA will also allow for flexibility of Virgin Mobile’s business processes, strengthen its underlying IT architectures, and reuse its existing IT investments by creating connections among disparate applications and information sources.   6. Why does Virgin Mobile need to use interoperability and loose coupling in its architecture? Interoperability will allow Virgin Mobile the capability of two or more of its computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers. Loose coupling is a way of ensuring that the technical details such as language, platform, and so on are decoupled from a service.   7. Explain the business drivers for Virgin Mobile using virtualization. Hardware being underutilized. Today, many data centers have machines running at only 10 or 15 percent of total processing capacity which translates to 85 or 90 percent of the machine’s power is unused. In a way, Moore’s Law is no longer relevant to most companies because they are not able to take advantage of the increased power available to them. Data centers running out of space. The business world has undergone an enormous transformation over the past 20 years. In 1985, the vast majority of business processes were paper based. Computerized systems were confined to so-called backroom automation: payroll, accounting, and the like. That has all changed, thanks to the steady march of Moore’s Law. Business process after business process has been captured in software and automated, moving from paper to computers. Increased energy costs. The cost of running computers, coupled with the fact that many of the machines filling up data centers are running at low utilization rates, means that virtualization’s ability to reduce the total number of physical servers can significantly reduce the overall cost of energy for companies. Data center power is such an issue that energy companies are putting virtualization programs into place to address it. System administration costs mounting. Virtualization enables data center managers to make far better use of computer resources than in non-virtualized environments, and enables an enterprise to maximize its investment in hardware.   8. What business benefits would Virgin Mobile experience deploying grid computing? Business benefits of grid computing include: Improved productivity and collaboration of virtual organizations and respective computing and data resources. Allowing widely dispersed departments and businesses to create virtual organizations to share data and resources. Robust and infinitely flexible and resilient operational architectures. Providing instantaneous access to massive computing and data resources. Leveraging existing capital investments, which in turn help to ensure optimal utilization and costs of computing capabilities.
  • 1. Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on the Tribune Co.’s business. The following are the five primary characteristics of a solid infrastructure architecture: Flexibility Scalability Reliability Availability Performance Student rankings will vary. The important part of the answer is their justification for the ranking. Makes for an excellent classroom debate. 2. What is the disaster recovery cost curve? Where should the Tribune Co. operate on the curve? A disaster recovery cost curve charts (1) the cost to the organization of the unavailability of information and technology and (2) the cost to the organization of recovering from a disaster over time. The disaster recovery cost curve shows where the two lines intersect is the best recovery plan in terms of cost and time. Creating an organization’s disaster recovery cost curve is no small task. It must consider the cost of losing information and technology within each department or functional area, and the cost of losing information and technology across the whole enterprise. During the first few hours of a disaster, those costs will be low but become increasingly higher over time. With those costs in hand, an organization must then determine the costs of recovery. Cost of recovery during the first few hours of a disaster is exceedingly high and diminishes over time. 3. Define backups and recovery. What are the risks to the Tribune’s business if it fails to implement an adequate backup plan? A backup is an exact copy of a system’s information. Recovery is the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure and includes restoring the information backup. If the Tribune failed to backup and it lost all of its servers it would be devastating for its business.
  • 4. Why is a scalable and highly available enterprise architecture critical to the Tribune Co.’s current operations and future growth? Scalability refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands. Availability (an efficiency IT metric) addresses when systems can be accessed by employees, customers, and partners. High availability refers to a system or component that is continuously operational for a desirably long length of time. 5. Identify the need for information security at the Tribune Co. Information security is important for everyone and every organization. The Tribune needs to keep its sensitive information secure and ensure it is protected against hackers and viruses. 6. How could the Tribune Co. use a classified ad Web service across its different businesses? The Tribune could write a Web service ad that it could then use across all of its different businesses. That is the advantage of Web services, you write the code once and can reuse it as many times as you need.
  • 1. Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on the USOpen.org. The characteristics of infrastructure architecture for the USOpen.org would be: Availability Reliability Performance Flexibility Scalability   Student rankings might vary slightly, although the first three bullets should all be the same. The important part of the answer is their justification for the ranking.   2. What are the USTA security concerns regarding interoperability between the tournament database and its website? A system that has more points of open access to data, in the simplest formulation, might lead to the ability of more people to access these data. This security concern is not precisely a problem with interoperability, nor is it insurmountable. The fact that the systems can interoperate does not per se mean that more people have access to underlying data in a given system. It is theoretically possible that increased interoperability between systems could lead to further vulnerability of the different components or systems if sound security measures are not taken. It is also the case that there are high security risks associated with systems that are not at all interoperable. Therefore, USTA security concerns should be minimal.   3. How could the USTA benefit from virtualization? Allocating adequate resources The need to run legacy applications is served well by virtual machines Being able to consolidate several under-utilized servers into one Added control regarding access to hardware Allows for powerful debugging and performance monitoring Make software easier to migrate, thus aiding application and system mobility Enable existing operating systems to run on shared memory multiprocessors Make tasks such as system migration, backup, and recovery easier and more manageable
  • 4. Identify the value of integrating the tournament information with the USTA website, USOpen.org. Provides a comprehensive, unified foundation for enterprise information architectures with scalability at lower cost to manage current and future data requirements. Provides flexibility for integrating and enriching information. Offers data quality and data governance capabilities to ensure consistent and accurate delivery of information for greater trust and compliance with information-centric regulations and requirements. Accelerates time-to-value with proven, industry-aligned solutions and expertise combined with consistent, reusable information services. Maximizes value and flexibility of IT investments by leveraging existing resources. 5. Why would a sudden surge in server utilization during the middle of the US Open spell disaster for the USTA. Not if the USTA used virtualization or grid computing.   6. Why is loose coupling a critical business component to the USTA architecture? Loose coupling allows for… Adaptability - the adaptability of a loosely coupled system, especially in situations in which the system should be able to adjust to environmental changes. Efficiency - by enabling the linkages between elements to be broken or reconfigured easily, loose coupling can promote optimal efficiency of a system. Innovation - efficient for knowledge sharing because it provides access to novel information by bridging otherwise disconnected groups and individuals, while avoiding the pitfalls of redundant information seen in tight coupling. Flexibility - task uncertainty can be mitigated through loose structures and incremental adaptation paths. Loose coupling promotes flexibility by allowing a "diversity of response to unanticipated events."
  • 1. Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on eBay’s business. The characteristics of infrastructure architecture for eBay would be: Availability Reliability Performance Flexibility Scalability   Student rankings might vary slightly, although the first three bullets should all be the same. The important part of the answer is their justification for the ranking.   2. What are the business benefits that eBay enjoys thanks to grid computing? Improved productivity and collaboration with current or prospective business partners. Ability to share data and resources. Robust and infinitely flexible and resilient operational architectures. Providing instantaneous access to massive computing and data resources. Leveraging existing capital investments, which in turn help to ensure optimal utilization and costs of computing capabilities. Provide cost-effective services to customers and business partners. Improve time to results for new products and services. Scale to meet variable business demands. Leverage existing capital investments.   What precautions would eBay take to ensure 100 percent security? eBay needs to make sure that they have a security plan in place as well as: Backup and recovery Disaster recovery Information security
  • 4. How can eBay take advantage of implementing SOA? Better flexibility and extensibility at lower cost through re-usable, self-contained software modules. Ability to collaborate securely with business partners. Bridging business and IT to enable the rapidly-building new capabilities. Improving business performance by harnessing the full strategic power of IT. Reducing integration and application development complexity through the use of standards. Rapid adaptation and delivery of key business services to customers and business partners.   5. Explain how eBay uses fault tolerance. eBay uses fault-tolerance to continue operating properly in the event of the failure of (or one or more faults within) some of its components. If its operating quality decreases at all or in the event that a component fails, a backup component or procedure can immediately take its place with no loss of service.   6. Describe the potential value of eBay using virtualization. Allocating adequate resources. The need to run legacy applications is served well by virtual machines. Being able to consolidate several under-utilized servers into one. Added control regarding access to hardware. Allows for powerful debugging and performance monitoring. Make software easier to migrate, thus aiding application and system mobility. Enable existing operating systems to run on shared memory multiprocessors. Make tasks such as system migration, backup, and recovery easier and more manageable.   7. What ethical and security concerns should eBay be aware of to ensure its business operates properly? Unlike most leading ecommerce sites, eBay does not automatically encrypt much of the data sent between customers' computers and eBay's servers, which means that when customers type their password into eBay's Web site, that information can be viewed by hackers. Most ecommerce sites use Secure Socket Layer (SSL), a technology that encrypts sensitive information such as customer passwords and account activity while the data is in transit to another computer.
  • There is now a direct, provable link between an organization’s flexibility and business performance. To optimize flexibility, companies must achieve unprecedented levels of integration and automation of key processes and infrastructure, both internally and externally. At the same time, they must learn to manage their processes far more dynamically and responsively. Until recently, technology stood in the way of achieving these goals. Thanks to the emergence of service oriented architecture (SOA), Web 2.0, and open standards, technology now enables companies to achieve those goals. In The New Language of Business, one of IBM’s top SOA strategist demonstrates how business leaders can use innovations in technology to drive dramatic process improvements and support accelerating change. Sandy Carter shows how to deconstruct a business into a “componentized” business model, then support that model with linked, repeatable IT services that can adapt quickly, easily, and economically. These techniques will help both IT professionals and business leaders reach new levels of operational excellence to deliver the market-focused innovations that matter most.
  • Every year, companies spend more than $2 trillion on computer and communications equipment and services. Underlying these enormous expenditures is one of modern business's most deeply held assumptions: that information technology is increasingly critical to competitive advantage and strategic success. In this explosive and engaging book, Nicholas G. Carr calls the common wisdom into question, contending that IT's strategic importance has actually dissipated as its core functions have become available and affordable to all. Expanding on the controversial Harvard Business Review article that provoked a storm of debate around the world, Does IT Matter? shows that IT–like earlier infrastructural technologies such as railroads and electric power–is steadily evolving from a profit-boosting proprietary resource to a simple cost of doing business. Carr draws on convincing historical and contemporary examples to explain why innovations in hardware, software, and networking are rapidly replicated by competitors, neutralizing their strategic power to set one business apart from the pack. But more important, he shows why IT's emergence as a shared and standardized infrastructure is a natural and necessary process that may ultimately deliver huge economic and social benefits.

BDIS 2e Chapter 5 Instructor PPT BDIS 2e Chapter 5 Instructor PPT Presentation Transcript

  • CHAPTER 5 ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES Business Driven Information Systems 2e
  • Chapter Five Overview
    • SECTION 5.1 - MANAGING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
      • Enterprise Architectures
      • Information Architecture
      • Infrastructure Architecture
      • Application Architecture
    • SECTION 5.2 - ARCHITECTURE TRENDS
      • Service Oriented Architecture
      • Virtualization
      • Grid Computing
  • MANAGING ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES SECTION 5.1
  • LEARNING OUTCOMES
    • 5.1 Explain the three components of an enterprise architecture
    • 5.2 Describe how an organization can implement a solid information architecture
  • LEARNING OUTCOMES
    • 5.3 List and describe the five-ilities in an infrastructure architecture
    • 5.4 Compare web services and open systems
  • ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
    • Enterprise architecture - includes the plans for how an organization will build, deploy, use, and share its data, processes, and IT assets
    • Enterprise architect (EA) - a person grounded in technology, fluent in business, a patient diplomat, and provides the important bridge between IT and the business
  • ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
    • Primary goals of enterprise architectures
  • ENTERPRISE ARCHITECTURES
  • INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE
    • Information architecture - identifies where and how important information, such as customer records, is maintained and secured
    • Enterprise information architecture should focus on:
      • Backup and recovery
      • Disaster recovery
      • Information security
  • INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE
  • Backup and Recovery
    • Backup - an exact copy of a system’s information
    • Recovery - the ability to get a system up and running in the event of a system crash or failure and includes restoring the information backup
  • Backup and Recovery
    • Fault tolerance - a computer system designed that in the event a component fails, a backup component or procedure can immediately take its place with no loss of service
    • Failover - a backup operational mode in which the functions of a computer component (such as a processor, server, network, or database) is assumed by secondary system components when the primary component becomes unavailable through either failure or scheduled down time
  • Disaster Recovery
    • Disaster recovery best practices include:
      • Mind the enterprise architectures
      • Monitor the quality of computer networks that provide data on power suppliers and demand
      • Make sure the networks can be restored quickly in the case of downtime
      • Set up disaster recovery plans
      • Provide adequate staff training
  • Disaster Recovery
    • Financial Institutions Worldwide Spending on Disaster Recovery
  • Disaster Recovery
    • Disaster recovery plan - a detailed process for recovering information or an IT system in the event of a catastrophic disaster such as a fire or flood
    • Disaster recovery cost curve - charts (1) the cost to the organization of the unavailability of information and technology and (2) the cost to the organization of recovering from a disaster over time
  • Disaster Recovery
  • Disaster Recovery
    • Hot site - a separate and fully equipped facility where the company can move immediately after a disaster and resume business
    • Cold site - a separate facility that does not have any computer equipment, but is a place where employees can move after a disaster
  • Disaster Recovery
    • Business continuity planning (BCP) - is a plan for how an organization will recover and restore partially or completely interrupted critical function(s) within a predetermined time after a disaster or extended disruption
  • Information Security
    • Good information architectures include…
      • A strong information security plan
      • Managing user access
      • Up-to-date antivirus software and patches
  • INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE
    • Infrastructure architecture - includes the hardware, software, and telecommunications equipment that, when combined, provides the underlying foundation to support the organization’s goals
    • As an organization changes, its systems must be able to change to support its operations
  • INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE
  • INFRASTRUCTURE ARCHITECTURE
    • Five primary characteristics of a solid infrastructure architecture:
      • Flexibility
      • Scalability
      • Reliability
      • Availability
      • Performance
  • Flexibility
    • Organizations must watch today’s business, as well as tomorrow’s, when designing and building systems
    • Systems must be flexible enough to meet all types of business changes
  • Scalability
    • Scalability - refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands
    • Capacity planning - determines the future IT infrastructure requirements for new equipment and additional network capacity
      • Performing a capacity plan is one way to ensure the IT infrastructure is scalable
  • Reliability
    • Reliability ensures all systems are functioning correctly and providing accurate information
    • Reliability is another term for accuracy when discussing the correctness of systems within the context of efficiency IT metrics
  • Availability
    • Availability - addresses when systems can be accessed by users
    • High availability - refers to a system or component that is continuously operational for a desirably long length of time
  • Performance
    • Performance - measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction (in terms of efficiency IT metrics of both speed and throughput)
    • Not having enough performance capacity can have a devastating, negative impact on a business
  • APPLICATION ARCHITECTURE
    • Application architecture - determines how applications integrate and relate to each other
    • With new architectures, IT can build new business capabilities faster, cheaper, and in a vocabulary the business can understand
  • Web Services
    • Web service - contains a repertoire of Web-based data and procedural resources that use shared protocols and standards permitting different applications to share data and services
    • Interoperability - the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers
  • Web Services
  • Web Services
    • The two primary parts of web services are:
      • Event - detect threats and opportunities and alert those who can act on the information
      • Service - more like software products than they are coding projects
        • Need to be reusable if they are going to have an impact on productivity
  • Open Systems
    • Open system - a broad, general term that describes nonproprietary IT hardware and software made available by the standards and procedures by which their products work, making it easier to integrate them
    • Open source - refers to any program whose source code is made available for use or modification as users or other developers see fit
  • OPENING CASE QUESTIONS Virgin Mobile
    • How can an organization use an information architecture to protect its IT investment in electronic devices outlined in the case?
    • How can an organization use the architectures mentioned in the case to protect information security?
    • Identify the five-ilites and rank them in order of importance for a cell phone (1 highest, 5 lowest)
    • Describe the importance of web services and open systems to companies such as Virgin Mobile
  • ARCHITECTURE TRENDS SECTION 5.2
  • LEARNING OUTCOMES
      • 5.5 Describe the business value in deploying a service oriented architecture
      • 5.6 Explain the need for interoperability and loose coupling in building today’s IT systems
  • LEARNING OUTCOMES
      • 5.7 Identify the logical functions used in a virtualized environment
      • 5.8 Explain the business benefits of grid computing
  • ARCHITECTURE TRENDS
    • Organizations today must continually watch new architecture trends to ensure they can keep up with new and disruptive technologies
    • Three architecture trends that are quickly becoming requirements for all businesses including:
      • Service oriented architecture
      • Virtualization
      • Grid computing
  • SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE
    • Service oriented architecture (SOA) is a business-driven IT architectural approach that supports integrating a business as linked, repeatable tasks or services
    • SOA ensures IT systems can adapt quickly, easily, and economically to support rapidly changing business needs
  • SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE
  • SOA Business Benefits
    • The key technical concepts of SOA are:
      • Services
      • Interoperability
      • Loose coupling
  • SOA Business Benefits
  • Service
    • Service oriented architecture begins with a service
    • (A SOA) service - can be a business task, such as checking a potential customer's credit rating only opening a new account
    • Services are “like” software products
  • Service
  • Interoperability
    • Interoperability - is the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers
    • Extensible Markup Language (XML) - a markup language for documents containing structured information
  • Loose Coupling
    • Loose coupling - is the capability of services to be joined together on demand to create composite services, or disassembled just as easily into their functional components
    • Loose coupling is a way of ensuring that the technical details are decoupled from the service
  • VIRTUALIZATION
    • Virtualization - is a framework of dividing the resources of a computer into multiple execution environments
    • It is a way of increasing physical resources to maximize the investment in hardware
  • VIRTUALIZATION
  • What are Virtual Machines?
    • System virtualization - is the ability to present the resources of a single computer as if it is a collection of separate computers ("virtual machines")
    • Each with its own virtual CPUs, network interfaces, storage, and operating system
  • What are Virtual Machines?
  • Virtualization Business Benefits
    • Trends that have moved virtualization into the spotlight:
      • Hardware being underutilized
      • Data centers running out of space
      • Increased energy costs
      • System administration costs mounting
  • Additional Virtualization Benefits
    • Rapid application deployment
    • Dynamic load balancing
    • Streamlined disaster recovery
  • GRID COMPUTING
    • Grid computing - is an aggregation of geographically dispersed computing, storage, and network resources, coordinated to deliver improved performance, higher quality of service, better utilization, and easier access to data
  • GRID COMPUTING
  • Grid Computing Business Benefits
    • Improving productivity and collaboration of virtual organizations and respective computing and data resources
    • Allowing widely dispersed departments and businesses to create virtual organizations to share data and resources
    • Building robust and infinitely flexible and resilient operational architectures
  • Grid Computing Business Benefit
    • Providing instantaneous access to massive computing and data resources
    • Leveraging existing capital investments, which in turn help to ensure optimal utilization and costs of computing capabilities
  • Grid Computing Business Benefits
  • OPENING CASE STUDY QUESTIONS Virgin Mobile
    • Explain the advantages Virgin Mobile has using a service oriented architecture
    • Why does Virgin Mobile need to use interoperability and loose coupling in their architecture?
    • Explain the business drivers for Virgin Mobile using virtualization
    • What business benefits would Virgin Mobile experience deploying grid computing?
  • CLOSING CASE ONE Chicago Tribune
    • Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on the Tribune Co.’s business
    • What is the disaster recovery cost curve? Where should the Tribune Co. operate on the curve?
    • Define backups and recovery. What are the risks to the Tribune’s business if it fails to implement an adequate backup plan?
  • CLOSING CASE ONE Chicago Tribune
    • Why is a scalable and highly available enterprise architecture critical to the Tribune Co.’s current operations and future growth?
    • Identify the need for information security at the Tribune Co.
    • How could the Tribune Co. use a classified ad web service across its different businesses?
  • CLOSING CASE TWO The US Open Supports SOA
    • Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on the USOpen.org
    • What are the USTA security concerns regarding interoperability between the tournament database and its website?
    • How could the USTA benefit from virtualization?
  • CLOSING CASE TWO The US Open Supports SOA
    • Identify the value of integrating the tournaments information with the USTA website USOpen.org?
    • Explain why a sudden surge in server utilization during the middle of the US Open could spell disaster for the USTA
    • Why is loose coupling a critical business component to the USTA architecture?
  • CLOSING CASE THREE eBay’s Grid
    • Review the five characteristics of infrastructure architecture and rank them in order of their potential impact on eBay’s business
    • What are the business benefits that eBay enjoys thanks to grid computing?
    • What precautions would eBay take to ensure 100 percent security?
  • CLOSING CASE THREE eBay’s Grid
    • How can eBay take advantage of implementing SOA?
    • Explain how eBay uses fault tolerance
    • Describe the potential value of eBay using virtualization
    • What ethical and security concerns should eBay be aware of to ensure its business operates properly?
  • BUSINESS DRIVEN BEST SELLERS
    • THE NEW LANGUAGE OF BUSINESS: SOA & WEB 2.0 , by Sandy Carter
  • BUSINESS DRIVEN BEST SELLERS
    • DOES IT MATTER? , by Nicholas G. Carr