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    Architecture - Complete.doc.doc.doc Architecture - Complete.doc.doc.doc Document Transcript

    • Introduction This document covers the following: Brief description of the project, context, business goals, and constraints for the system being developed. Requirements and prioritized utility tree. Architecture presented by various architectural viewtypes. Architecture trade-off analysis based on architectural alternatives. This document is intended for the following audience: Stakeholders of the ZEN Tool Project: client, mentors, and development team. Those who want to understand the architecture of the ZEN Tool. Every image with the icon represents an image which maps to other architectural views. [edit] Project Overview [edit] ZEN Tool The ZEN Tool Project is sponsored by the Integration of Software Intensive Systems (ISIS) initiative at the Software Engineering Institute (SEI). The intention of the project is to automate a portion of the Service Migration and Reuse Technique (SMART) that helps organizations analyze legacy systems to determine whether their functionality, or subsets of it, can be reasonably exposed as services in a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). The portion that needs to be automated is the data collection process guided by the Service Migration Interview Guide (SMIG). The process is currently manual and time-consuming. With the tool support, SEI expects to see some fundamental improvement on efficiency and quality when they conduct SMART engagements. [edit] Business Goals Author's note: this set of goals was used for quality attribute workshop. This tool should reduce the cost of SMART interviews in terms of time by at least one day.
    • This tool should reduce the cost of SMART analysis (creating reports) in terms of time and effort by presenting the data in a useful and efficient way for the SEI personnel to use. This tool should improve the capability of the SEI to generate a SMART "Standard", which would improve market awareness of the technique, thus expanding the market of potential users for the SMART technique. This tool should improve the market's reception of the SMART technique via improving the market's perception of the technique's formality. [edit] Business Context This view defines the context of the system during normal operation and maintenance. Related use cases can be found in Use Case View section. Related quality attribute scenarios can be found in Quality Attributes section.
    • [edit] Constraints The following constraints are applied to the design of the architecture. [edit] Business Constraints SMART Engagements involve SEI personnel traveling to client locations and performing interviews. Data taken in these engagements must be consolidated into a central repository.
    • The SMART team has no budget for commercial software; any third-party software must be free. [edit] Technical Constraints Java will be the language used. The advantage in writing the code in Java is portability. There is no dependency on the operating system, either during the development process or during deployment. Java has been chosen for the purpose of maintainability as well. The SEI staff is comfortable using Java. The ZEN Tool will need to work on a Windows XP machine. Connection to SEI requires using virtual private network (VPN). Requirements Overview [edit] Use Case View The functional requirements are presented using a use case model. Detail information can be found in Use Case Specification. This use case model shows the allocation of requirement between roles (aka, actors). The relation between roles is generalization. SMART Member is a generalization of Interview, Analyst and Administrator.
    • Key: UML Use Case Catalog Use Case Description Name Sign In SMART Member needs to sign in the system before performing any other operations. Sign Out SMART Member can sign out from the system during any give time. Acquire Prior to any interview phases of a given engagement, the interviewer obtains a copy of Engagement the engagement setup data prepared in the Setup Engagement Data use case. Data During an interview, the interviewer chooses a question in the system as the focus of the discussion. The interviewer browses through the categories of topics, and from Choose which a desired question is located. To quickly locate a question, the interviewer can Question enter keywords and instruct the system to search the matching questions. The interviewer can also follow a predefined sequence of questions that facilitates a smoother interview session. During an interview, the interviewer records annotations to a selected question. The possible types of annotations include predefined answers, comments, and tags. One possible predefined answer can be "not-applicable". For the purpose of status, a question is considered to be "answered" if one of two mutually exclusive conditions are met. First, if there are one or more predefined answers associated with a particular question, then the question is considered to be "answered" if and only if at least one of Record Answer the predefined answers has been selected or a comment has been entered. Second, if there are no predefined answers associated with a particular question, then the question is considered to be "answered" if and only if there is a comment entered for that question. A question may be annotated with one or more tags, but applying tags has no effect on the question's "answered" status. The purpose of the tags is for generating templates (Authors' note: Should we distinguish answer from annotation?) After each interview phase of a given engagement, the interviewers submit their individual interview data for consolidation. Each interviewer associated with a specific Consolidate engagement is expected to upload the data they took, however this is not mandated. Interview Data Once at least two sets of data has been submitted, anyone of the interviewers can explicitly trigger the consolidation. This consolidated interview data can then be obtained by the interviewers. This use case applies to two circumstances: First, during an engagement, the analyst instructs the system to generate reports based on interview data collected so far. The analyst first chooses a report type, such as Current SMIG or Migration issues table, and Generate then the system generates the report. Second, in between engagements, the analyst Report instructs the system to generate reports based on historical engagements. The analyst selects one report type, such as Draft of final report or List of questions per tag, and then the system generates the report accordingly. Analyst generates two kinds of templates: service table or component table. The format of the templates must be editable. The preferred format is xls but csv is also Generate acceptable. The system is given the templates that are used during interview, and then Template the system adds new columns to them. The columns are the short names of questions marked with specific tags. Setup Administrator prepares an engagement by entering information obtained prior to an
    • Engagement engagement. The information includes the engagement client organization, type of Data system under evaluation, profiles of interviewees, the version of the SMIG which will be used, and the set of tags that will be used. Administrator updates SMIG information. It includes the basic create, read, modify and Update SMIG delete operations. The administrator can also promote the updated SMIG into a new Information version. The system has to keep the old versions of SMIG in order to maintain data consistency for old engagement data. Update Tag Administrator updates the default tag list, which is used during Setup Engagement List Data. It includes the basic create, read, modify, and delete operations. Register User Administrator registers user account, which can be used in the Sign In use case. Account Additionally, administrator can modify, delete and reset user account. [edit] Quality Attributes The following quality attributes, represented with the utility tree, drive the design of architecture. The quality attribute scenarios in a six-part format can be found in Six-Part Quality Attribute Scenarios section. This table is derived from quality attribute scenarios. Each quality attribute scenario is ranked with importance (I) defined by the client, and estimated level of difficulty (D). Both values are based on a scale of high(H)- medium(M)-low(L). Color scheme: Red: High importance scenarios with high level of difficulty. Yellow: High importance scenarios with low to medium level of difficulty. Rank Attributes Concerns Scenario# Description (I, D) At the end of an interview day, the system generates a consolidated report based on the input data of Reliability Data integrity #1 (H, L) three team members that shows the risk factors that reflect correctly what was captured. When a report is generated, then the report includes Usability Smartness #2 (L, H) risks based on historical data. When Dennis, a non-technical person, generates a (M, Modifiability Flexibility #3 report, he can specify the information printed within M) 10 minutes.
    • Entering New SMIG information (offline) Question Answers Risk factor Recommendation Input (H, Usability #4 Related questions correctness M) Category can be entered consistently and that the tool provides hints when inconsistent inputs are received. The process should be termed complete only when all inconsistencies have been resolved. When entering a new thought-about SMIG question, User's mental (M, Usability #5 Dennis will find and enter the question in the right model H) place in not more than 5 minutes. Client provides information not related to current question, the person using the tool will navigate to Usability Navigation #6 the related topic within 15 seconds and then be able (H, L) to return to the previous question with one push of button. A developer is able to add the generation of the (H, Modifiability Flexibility #7 migration issue template within 1 person-week effort. M) A developer will be able to add a new risk analysis (M, Modifiability Flexibility #8 capability reflected in report with only changing 1 H) component. A developer will be able to add new fields specific to (M, Modifiability Flexibility #9 a question or an engagement via modifications to the H) GUI within 2 person-days per field. A developer will be able to create new specified (H, Modifiability Flexibility #10 report type within 5 person-days M) Integrity of Unauthorized access to the application, and all these (H, Security SMART #11 attempt are recognized and denied. M) process Integrity of Unauthorized access to the data in to database and (H, Security SMART #12 all such attempts are recognized and denied. M) process Integrity of Eavesdropping on any communications is not Security SMART #13 (H, L) possible based on current technical standard. process Performance UI Response #14 During the interview, the status will be updated within (H, L)
    • Time 1 second of a change occurring. During an interview, the interview module will be (M, Availability Robustness #15 available at 99.9%. H) In the event of a system crashes, the application will (H, Availability Downtime #16 return to former state within 30 seconds from H) application start. While entering information to a question, this Usability Intuitiveness #17 question can be tagged with multiple tags in less (H, L) then 1 second per tag [edit] Six-Part Quality Attribute Scenarios Quality Attribute Scenario #4 Stimulus: Administrator enters new SMIG information Source of Administrator Stimulus: Environment: At runtime Artifact: ZEN Server New SMIG information can be entered consistently and that the tool provides hints Responses: when inconsistent inputs are received. The process should be termed complete only when all inconsistencies have been resolved. Response Inconsistent inputs are rejected with hints showing where the inconsistency is. Measure: Quality Attribute Scenario #6 Stimulus: Client (interviewee) provides information not related to current question Source of The person using the tool (interviewer) Stimulus: Environment: At runtime Artifact: ZEN Client Responses: Navigate to the related topic and then be able to return to the previous question Response Navigate to the related topic in 15 seconds; return to the previous question with Measure: one push of button Quality Attribute Scenario #7
    • Stimulus: A developer wishes to add the generation of the migration issue template Source of Developer Stimulus: Environment: At design time Artifact: Migration issue template Locates the migration issue template; makes modification; tests modification; Responses: deploys modification Response Within 1 person-week effort. Measure: Quality Attribute Scenario #10 Stimulus: A developer wishes to create new specified report type (template) Source of Developer Stimulus: Environment: At design time Artifact: Report type (template) Locates the report type (template); makes modification; tests modification; deploys Responses: modification Response Within 5 person-days Measure: Quality Attribute Scenario #11 Stimulus: Tries to access the application Source of Internal or external individual who are not authorized Stimulus: Environment: At runtime Artifact: ZEN Client and ZEN Server Responses: All these attempts are recognized (recorded) and denied Response TBD (Time/effort/resources required to circumvent security measures with Measure: probability of success) Quality Attribute Scenario #12 Stimulus: Tries to access the data in the database
    • Source of Internal or external individual who are not authorized Stimulus: Environment: At runtime Artifact: ZEN Client Responses: Stores data in unreadable format Response TBD (Time/effort/resources required to circumvent security measures with Measure: probability of success) Quality Attribute Scenario #14 Stimulus: A change occurs during the interview Source of Stimulus: Interviewer Environment: At runtime Artifact: ZEN Client Responses: Status is updated Response Measure: The status is updated within 1 second Quality Attribute Scenario #16 Stimulus: System crashes Source of Stimulus: Internal to the system Environment: At runtime Artifact: ZEN Client Responses: System restarts manually and returns to the last saved state Response Measure: Return to the last saved state within 30 seconds from system start. Quality Attribute Scenario #17 Stimulus: A question can be tagged with multiple tags Source of Stimulus: Interviewer Environment: At runtime Artifact: ZEN Client Responses: Support for efficient tagging Response Measure: In less then 1 second per tag
    • Matrices [edit] Architecture Views and Quality Attributes This following matrix shows the mapping between views and high priority quality attributes. A × indicates that a quality attribute is addressed by the mapped views. Views and Quality Attributes Matrix Quality Attributes Viewtypes Views #4 #6 #7 #10 #11 #12 #14 #16 #17 ZEN Server JSP Decomposition View × Module ZEN Tool Data Model × ZEN Client UI Decomposition View × × × ZEN Server High Level View × ZEN Server With Struts 2 × ZEN Client Interview Perspective × × × × C&C ZEN Client Analysis Perspective × × × ZEN Client Initial Configuration × × ZEN Client Authentication × × [edit] Elements and Use Cases The Element and Use Case Matrix explains the relation between the use cases and the two major elements. Element and Use Case Matrix Use Cases Elemen Choos Recor Synchron Genera Update Upda Genera Setup Sig Sig ts e d ize te SMIG te te Engagem n n Questi Answ Engagem Templa Informati Tag Report ent Data In Out on er ent Data te on List ZEN × × × × × × × Client ZEN × × × × × × × Server
    • [edit] Client-Server Architecture The following component and connector view shows the highest level of partitioning the ZEN Tool in a client-server style. The rationale of choosing the style is as follows: A client-side desktop application is needed because the environment of using the application may not have network access. A centralize server-side application is needed because potentially large amount of historical data needs to be accumulated for trend analysis. The server-side application can be further divided into logic tier and data tier. However, we do not expect heavy loading on the server-side application. The client-server style is sufficient for current performance requirements. The later sections will provide further decomposition of the architecture with multiple architectural views.
    • Element Catalog Element Description ZEN ZEN Client is a standalone application that can be used during an interview. ZEN Client can Client operate in an environment without network access. ZEN ZEN Server is a standalone application that keeps track of all SMART engagements. Server [edit] Allocation Architectural Viewtype [edit] ZEN Tool Physical Deployment View This view shows the physical elements of the ZEN Tool system and how they communicate.
    • Element Catalog Element Description This is the physical server located at the SEI. It receives connections from multiple offsite ZEN Server Zen Client machines via a VPN connection. The communication can be either a direct data transfer or a web browser-based transfer. This is the physical laptop in use at the SEI and at client locations. It can communicate ZEN Client with the ZEN Server. When at a client location, it does so in a direct data transfer or a Computer web browser-based transfer via a VPN connection.
    • This is the client portion of the ZEN Tool; it provides users the ability to conduct SMART ZEN Client interviews in an automated environment. Web Browser This is a standard web browser. Rationale The system is partitioned into these components and connectors due to the following: Business Constraint: SMART Engagements involve SEI personnel traveling to client locations and performing interviews. Data taken in these engagements must be consolidated into a central repository. Thus we have chosen to use a client-server system. Quality Attribute: As indicated in Quality Attribute Scenario #13, all data captured during a SMART Engagement must be 100% secure during transfer. Therefore we use the HTTPS protocol for communication. [edit] ZEN Server Deployment View This view shows the primary components of the ZEN Server. It includes the web server, which contains the Zen Server software component, and the MySQL database being used as the primary repository.
    • Element Catalog Element Description ZEN Server This is the physical server located at the SEI. It contains a web server which contains Machine the ZEN Server software component. It also contains a MySQL database. This is the web server software component. It contains the ZEN Server and provides Web Server remote access to it. This is the ZEN Server software component. It performs all of the critical repository ZEN Server functionality. MySQL This is the primary data repository for the ZEN Server. It contains all of the engagement Database information and all of the SMIG information. Rationale The ZEN Server is partitioned into these components due to the following: Business Constraint: SMART Engagements involve SEI personnel traveling to client locations and performing interviews. Data taken in these engagements must be consolidated into a central repository. Thus to support a client-server system, we have chosen to use a web server.
    • Business Constraint: The SMART team has no budget for professional database software. Therefore the database choice must be free. Quality Attribute: To promote modifiability, a database with complaint JDBC drivers, such as MySQL, is used because it is common and well-documented. [edit] ZEN Client Deployment View This view shows the primary components of the ZEN Client. It includes the Zen Client software component and a database being used as the primary local repository. Element Catalog Element Description This is the physical laptop used by SMART personnel to perform engagements. It can be ZEN Client used both at the SEI (without VPN access) and at client locations, using a VPN connection Machine to communicate with the ZEN Server. It contains both the ZEN Client software component and a database. This is the ZEN Client software component. It performs all of the critical interview ZEN Client functionality. Database This is the primary data repository for the ZEN Client. It contains sets of Engagement data. Rationale The ZEN Server is partitioned into these components due to the following:
    • Business Constraint: The SMART team has no budget for professional database software. Therefore the database choice must be free. Quality Attribute: To promote modifiability, A database with complaint JDBC drivers is used because it is common and well-documented. [edit] ZEN Tool Deployment View This view shows the deployment configuration of ZEN Tool. This view highlights several architectural decisions: ZEN Client heavily depends on Eclipse RCP. See Rich Client Platform for the trade-off analysis. ZEN Client requires obfuscation to prevent reverse engineering. ZEN Server depends on Struts 2, which is compliant to Java Servlet and JavaServer Pages (JSP) standards. Therefore, any compliant servlet container can be used to replace JBoss Web (Tomcat). Standards such as HTTP/HTTPS and JDBC are applied in both ZEN Client and ZEN Server. Therefore, it is easy to replace HTTP/HTTPs implementation and database. AJP is specifically for Apache HTTP Server communicating with JBoss Web (Tomcat). Therefore, using other HTTP server, such as Microsoft IIS , will require a different configuration.
    • Key: UML Element Catalog Element Description Personal One or more laptops installed with ZEN Client communicate with the Central Server Laptop through HTTPS protocol. Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP) provides the runtime environment for ZEN Eclipse RCP Client. In this view, ZEN Client is more precisely defined as a plugin deployed inside Eclipse ZEN Client RCP. The binaries of ZEN Client have to be obfuscated to prevent reverse engineering.
    • Embedded This is an optional plugin that is intended to be the default database for ZEN Client. Database See ZEN Client Data Store for the trade-off analysis. Eclipse BIRT is a reporting engine that can be used as a set of plugins in Eclipse Eclipse BIRT RCP and a servlet in JBoss Web (Tomcat). Eclipse BIRT handles directly the JDBC connections. External ZEN Client can be configured to use an External Database with a compliant JDBC Database driver. Central Server is located inside SEI. It has been specified that the server will run on Central Server Windows XP, but in fact, the deployment applies to any OS with a standard JDK/JRE. Apache HTTP The most popular web server. It communicates with JBoss Web using the Apache Server JServ Protocol (AJP). MySQL The most popular open source database. JBoss Application JBoss Application Server is a J2EE 1.4 compliant application server. Server JCA stands for J2EE Connector Architecture. JBoss JCA is the implementation of JBoss JCA JCA specification. The Data Source is deployed into JBoss using the JBoss JCA. Data Source represents a JDBC data source that is available through a JNDI (Java Data Source Naming and Directory Interface) repository. JBoss Naming JBoss Naming Server (JBossNS) is implemented as a JNDI repository. ZEN Server Server looks up a JDBC data source from JBossNS. JBoss Web JBoss Web is in fact an embedded Tomcat, a servlet container that ZEN Server is (Tomcat) deployed into. Struts 2 is a web application framework on which that ZEN Server is based. Its runtime Struts 2 behavior can be found in the ZEN Server With Struts 2 section. In this view, ZEN Server is more precisely defined as a component (or a set of actions, ZEN Server interceptors, etc.) that resides in Struts 2. Detail run-time behavior can be found in ZEN Server With Struts 2 section. ZEN Server Directory Structure The following is a list of packages that comprise the server:
    • All packages ending with .test are test cases while others are described in the individual Zen module pages. All .builder packages are related with building the source code All packages follow the Eclipse project conventions [edit] Zen Common Directory Structure The following is a list of packages that serve as a common resource for both the client and the server: All packages ending with .test are test cases while others are described in the individual Zen module pages. All .builder packages are related with building the source code All packages follow the Eclipse project conventions [edit] ZEN Client Directory Structure The following is a list of packages that comprise the client:
    • All packages ending with .test are test cases while others are described in the individual Zen module pages.
    • All .builder packages are related with building the source code All packages follow the Eclipse project conventions [edit] Work Assignment View Element Catalog Notes (Note: All components include UI, Component Allen Marc Sajjad Session Somakala logic and data access wherever applicable) ZEN This component includes role Authentication × Server based management aspects Creating SMIG and exposing SMIG an interface to communication × Maintenance component for creating an XML structure of SMIG data This includes report creation Reporting × × and report generation Creating new engagement setup and exposing an Engagement interface to communication × Setup component for creating an XML structure of engagement setup data This ensures secure ports listening for information. Communication × There should be a single point of entry This module consolidates the Consolidation interview data from multiple × users This task involves ensuring that common tasks for database access like establishing connection etc. is Data Access provided as a utility. This task × Layer also involves verifying that the data model is normalized and does not have redundant information. This task involves ensuring that the UI developed by all UI Layer team members integrates well × and it looks like one well developed UI Installation and This component is for × Configuration installing the component and
    • configuring it for use. Configuration should be available wherever applicable for later use during the lifetime of the tool Interface for creating roles, Administration usernames and passwords on × the server ZEN This component includes role Authentication × Client based management aspects SMIG Navigation, storing Interview answers, comments, tags, × displaying risks Interview - Updating status on the UI × Status based on the interview This includes report Reporting × generation This includes generating templates, component table Template and service table on the × client. This is the Excel table (can be CSV) Interface for connecting to server, downloading Administration engagement setup, uploading × interview data, downloading interview consolidated data This ensures secure ports communicating with the Communication × server. There should be a single point of contact This task involves ensuring that common tasks for database access like establishing connection etc. is Data Access provided as a utility. This task × Layer also involves verifying that the data model is normalized and does not have redundant information. This task involves ensuring that the UI developed by all UI Layer team members integrates well × and it looks like one well developed UI Installation and This component is for ×
    • Configuration installing the component and configuring it for use. Configuration should be available wherever applicable for later use during the lifetime of the tool [edit] Module Architectural Viewtype [edit] ZEN Tool Decomposition View ZEN Tool is composed of two major modules: ZEN Client and ZEN Server. Key: UML Element Catalog Element Description edu.cmu.sei.smart.zen The module represents the ZEN Tool. The module represents the ZEN Client, which is a standalone GUI edu.cmu.sei.smart.zen.client application. edu.cmu.sei.smart.zen.server The module represents the ZEN Server, which is a centralize server. [edit] ZEN Tool Module Dependency View The ZEN Tool is composed of the a number of modules illustrated below. NB: For both the client and server, two modules (more accurately, tasks) are not shown:
    • The UI module, which consists of harmonizing the UI across multiple modules on the client or server. The installation and configuration task, that involves deploying the system to the SEI environment. NB: The ZEN Client Administration module currently only consists of the synchronization of data between the client and the server, but in the future it may take on added functionalities.
    • Element Catalog Notes (Note: All components include UI, Component Allen Marc Sajjad Session Somakala logic and data access wherever applicable) ZEN This component includes role Authentication × Server based management aspects Creating SMIG and exposing SMIG an interface to communication × Maintenance component for creating an XML structure of SMIG data This includes report creation Reporting × × and report generation Creating new engagement setup and exposing an Engagement interface to communication × Setup component for creating an XML structure of engagement setup data This ensures secure ports listening for information. Communication × There should be a single point of entry This module consolidates the Consolidation interview data from multiple × users This task involves ensuring that common tasks for database access like establishing connection etc. is Data Access provided as a utility. This task × Layer also involves verifying that the data model is normalized and does not have redundant information. This task involves ensuring that the UI developed by all UI Layer team members integrates well × and it looks like one well developed UI This component is for Installation and installing the component and × Configuration configuring it for use.
    • Configuration should be available wherever applicable for later use during the lifetime of the tool Interface for creating roles, Administration usernames and passwords on × the server ZEN This component includes role Authentication × Client based management aspects SMIG Navigation, storing Interview answers, comments, tags, × displaying risks Interview - Updating status on the UI × Status based on the interview This includes report Reporting × generation This includes generating templates, component table Template and service table on the × client. This is the Excel table (can be CSV) Interface for connecting to server, downloading Administration engagement setup, uploading × interview data, downloading interview consolidated data This ensures secure ports communicating with the Communication × server. There should be a single point of contact This task involves ensuring that common tasks for database access like establishing connection etc. is Data Access provided as a utility. This task × Layer also involves verifying that the data model is normalized and does not have redundant information. This task involves ensuring that the UI developed by all UI Layer team members integrates well × and it looks like one well developed UI Installation and This component is for × Configuration installing the component and
    • configuring it for use. Configuration should be available wherever applicable for later use during the lifetime of the tool [edit] ZEN Server Layered View This view shows the ZEN Server in a layered style. It depicts three key architectural properties: 1. Higher-level layers are allowed to use any lower-level layers, but not the reverse. 2. Higher-level layers depend on the services provided by the lower-level layers. 3. Higher-level layers may hide certainly functionalities in the lower-level layers, but not all of them.
    • Element Catalog Element Description ZEN Server represents the web application layer that is based on JBoss Application ZEN Server Server. JBoss JBoss Application Server is a J2EE 1.4 compliant application server, but only the Application following modules will be used by the ZEN Server. Server JMX stands for Java Management Extension. JBoss JMX is the implementation of JMX JBoss JMX specification. All the services in JBoss, such as JBoss Web and JBoss JCA are implemented as ManagedBean (MBean) that can be added to the JMX kernel. JCA stands for J2EE Connector Architecture. JBoss JCA is the implementation of JCA JBoss JCA specification. The Data Source is deployed into JBoss using the JBoss JCA. Data Source Data Source represents a JDBC data source that is available through a JNDI (Java
    • Naming and Directory Interface) repository. JBoss has a bounded JNDI implementation, which is not shown in the view. JBoss Web is in fact the Tomcat wrapped as a MBean. It's a servlet container that ZEN JBoss Web Server is deployed into. Struts 2 is a web application framework that ZEN Server is based on. Its runtime Struts 2 behavior can be found in the ZEN Server With Struts 2 section. The Java Virtual Machine layer provides the Java Runtime Environment for the ZEN JVM Client to run. The Operation System layer provides the memory management, file I/O and other OS functionalities that are essential for the ZEN Client to run. [edit] ZEN Client Layered View This view shows the ZEN Client in a layered style. It depicts three key architectural properties: 1. Higher-level layers are allowed to use any lower-level layers, but not the reverse. 2. Higher-level layers depend on the services provided by the lower-level layers. 3. Higher-level layers may hide certainly functionalities in the lower-level layers, but not all of them.
    • Element Catalog Element Description ZEN Client represents the rich client application layer that is based on Eclipse Rich ZEN Client Client Platform. ZEN Client relies heavily on Eclipse Rich Client Platform. It extends the Generic Eclipse Rich Workbench to provide the views, editors and perspectives as described in the ZEN Client Platform Client UI Decomposition View section. The Generic Workbench manages the editors, views and perspectives. It provides Generic the selection service for transmitting events between views and editors. One example Workbench of its runtime behavior can be found in the ZEN Client Interview Perspective section. SWT stands for the Standard Widget Toolkit. ZEN Client uses SWT to construct the SWT user interface.
    • JFace is a UI toolkit for handling common UI programming tasks. It is designed to work JFace with SWT without hiding it. ZEN Client uses its data binding framework to decouple model from UI presentation. Optional Plug- Optional plug-ins such as help and update can be added to ZEN Client with ease. ins Platform The Eclipse's core platform runtime module provides the fundamental functionalities for Runtime the rich client application to run. Equinox OSGi The Eclipse Equinox implements the OSGi R4 Framework. The Java Virtual Machine layer provides the Java Runtime Environment for the ZEN JVM Client to run. The Operation System layer provides the memory management, file I/O and other OS functionalities that are essential for the ZEN Client to run. ZEN Server Decomposition View The decomposition view represented here is the highest level of decomposition of functionality of the ZEN server. The different functions have been grouped together based on the activity they perform. Key: UML Element Catalog Element Responsibilities Authentication is responsible for verifying that the user or application accessing the Authentication server is a valid user of the system. This process is responsible for modifications to the SMIG by supporting the following SMIG Adding a question to the SMIG (and answers, risks, mitigation strategies) Maintenance Modifying an existing SMIG question (and answers, risks, mitigation strategies)
    • Marking SMIG questions as no longer active This process is responsible for creating the initial data setup for a particular engagement. This includes Enter preliminary information about the engagement Engagement Setup Enter tags to be used for the engagement Allow the user to download SMIG data for that engagement Allow the user to download tag data for that engagement Allow the user to download setup data for that engagement This process is responsible for allowing the user to view reports on a browser. (TBD: Reporting And what else?) This process is responsible for consolidating the interview data across the interviewers Consolidation per each engagement. This process will allow the user to upload the interview data and download the consolidated interview data. This process is responsible for communication between any outside component with Communication the ZEN server. The outside component includes the ZEN client and browser access. This process must provide secure communication. [edit] ZEN Server Reporting Decomposition View The decomposition view splits reporting into two main functionalities, one for viewing the reports (report generation) and the other for creating new reports (report customization). Report generation and report customization use the Model-View- Controller (MVC) pattern. This pattern allows us to separate the presentation layer from the data access layer. Key: UML Element Catalog Element Responsibilities Report generation is used for generating reports and rendering it on the browser. This Report will use the MVC pattern. The functionality which needed to be provided for reports Generation are
    • Filtering the data based on queries Sorting (TBD) Exporting to PDF and HTML (TBD) Printing data Report This process can be used to customize reports (TBD) Customization [edit] ZEN Server JSP Decomposition View This view enumerates all the JSP pages. See ZEN Server With Struts 2 for its runtime behavior.
    • Element Catalog Element Responsibilities This is the default page that is displayed to users who enter the Index.jsp web site's URL; it provides an authentication form with username and password fields for users to enter. This is the main menu of functionalities that a user can choose Main_Menu.jsp from depending on the role he is authenticated in.
    • This is a dynamically generated page that gives feedback to the Error_Page.jsp user about improper or inconsistent information entry (i.e. bad username or password), or server processing error. This page provides the user with a list of engagements to choose from, and a list of reports to generate for the chosen Generate_Report.jsp engagement. Note that only one type of report is generated at a time. This is the resulting report generated by the server and displayed Report.jsp to the user, who can then print it from his browser. This page lists out all of the SMIG questions, and allows the user to choose to: add additional ones (which directs them to Add_SMIG_Question.jsp). edit existing ones (which directs them to Manage_SMIG.jsp Edit_SMIG_Question.jsp). mark a question as inactive for a particular version of the SMIG. reactivate a question that was inactive for a particular version of the SMIG. This page provides the following fields to add a new question: the SMIG version in which the question should be activated. the text of the question. potential answers for the question with their associated risks. Additional answers can be added or existing ones can Add_SMIG_Question.jsp be removed. a multi-choice selection list of existing questions to which the new one will be related. The question ID will be automatically generated by the server. The user will be returned to Manage_SMIG.jsp, and the confirmation of the addition will be displayed on that page. This page provides the following fields to edit an existing question: Edit_SMIG_Question.jsp the SMIG version in which the question should be
    • activated. the text of the question. potential answers for the question with their associated risks. Additional answers can be added or existing ones can be removed. a multi-choice selection list of existing questions to which the new one will be related. The user will be returned to Manage_SMIG.jsp, and the confirmation of the edits will be displayed on that page. This page lists out all of the engagements, and allows the user to choose to: add additional ones (which directs them to Add_Engagement.jsp). Manage_Engagement.jsp edit existing ones (which directs them to Edit_Engagement.jsp). delete existing ones (which directs them to Delete_Engagement_Confirmation.jsp). This page provides the following fields to add a new engagement: engagement title. engagement description. the SMIG version associated with the engagement. customized tags associated with the engagement. Additional tags can be added or existing ones can be Add_Engagement.jsp removed. a multi-choice selection list of current users that will participate in the given engagement. The engagement ID will be automatically generated by the server, and the engagement's creation date and creator will be deduced by the server as well. The user will be returned to Manage_Enagement.jsp, and the confirmation of the addition will be displayed on that page.
    • This page provides the following fields to edit an existing engagement: engagement title. engagement description. the SMIG version associated with the engagement. customized tags associated with the engagement. Edit_Engagement.jsp Additional tags can be added or existing ones can be removed. a multi-choice selection list of current users that will participate in the given engagement. The user will be returned to Manage_Enagement.jsp, and the confirmation of the edits will be displayed on that page. This page asks the user to confirm his choice to delete the selected engagement. Because an engagement, unlike a tag, Delete_Engagement_Confirmation.jsp consists of many pieces of data, and it is an important part of the interview process, the user must really be sure that he wants to delete one. This page displays all of the users of the ZEN Server and allows an administrator to: add users Manage_Users.jsp remove users change the information of a user (name, type, ...) reset the password of a user This page displays all of the default tags and allows a user to: add more tags one at a time. select a single tag and edit it. Manage_Tags.jsp select one to many tags and remove them. The confirmation of the addition, edits, or removals will be displayed on this page. This page displays all of the engagements and the users who have uploaded their interview reports for a particular Consolidate_Interview_Data.jsp engagement, and it allows the user to select an engagement with more than one interview report to consolidate all of them. Download_Consolidated_Data.jsp This page displays that the consolidation process was successful
    • and gives the user the ability to download the resulting consolidated report. This page allows the user to download the ZEN Client tool onto Download_ZEN_Client.jsp his computer. ZEN Client Decomposition View The decomposition view represented here is the highest level of decomposition of functionality of the ZEN client. The different functions have been grouped together based on the activity they perform. Key: UML Element Catalog Element Responsibilities Authentication is responsible for verifying that the user or application accessing the Authentication server is a valid user of the system. This process is responsible for allowing the user to interview and capture data. Browse through the SMIG Interview Record answers to SMIG questions Apply tags to SMIG questions Record comments on SMIG questions This process generates a file (Microsoft Excel or CSV (TBD)) which will create the Service and Component Tables with default columns initially. When columns are Template tagged to be added to the template files, this process will be run by the user again. Generation The original data will be retained and the new columns will be appended wherever applicable. Reporting on the ZEN client involves on report generation. Report generation is used for generating reports and rendering it on the client. The functionality which needed to be provided for reports are Reporting Filtering the data based on queries
    • Sorting (TBD) Exporting to PDF and HTML (TBD) Printing data This process is responsible for connecting to the server and uploading and downloading data. This includes Downloading engagement setup data Communication Uploading interview data Downloading consolidated data Download system updates (TBD: For now this includes newly created reports) [edit] ZEN Client Interview Decomposition View The decomposition view represents the decomposition of the interview process of the ZEN client. The different functions have been grouped together based on the activity they perform. Key: UML Element Catalog Element Responsibilities This process is responsible for allowing the user to interview and capture data. Browse through the SMIG Interview Record answers to SMIG questions Apply tags to SMIG questions Record comments on SMIG questions
    • SMIG Navigation allows the client to navigate between questions. The questions can be navigated in the following ways Sequentially SMIG Navigation A new question can be triggered based on the answer chosen Navigate to the last answered question Search for a question and jump directly the one chosen by the user from the search results Information Gathering allows the client to record interview data. This will follow the MVC pattern. Information Record answers to SMIG questions Gathering Apply tags to SMIG questions Record comments on SMIG questions Record data in the Service and Component Tables Answer The UI process gets the answer from the user. This will follow the MVC pattern Tag This process captures user's tag updates. This will follow the MVC pattern The process captures comment information stored by the user. This will follow the Comment MVC pattern The status of the answers which have been completed so far will be displayed to the Status user. This will follow the MVC pattern [edit] ZEN Client Communication Decomposition View Provide a rationale as to why a particular pattern, or the given architectural representation is used. Key: UML Element Catalog Element Responsibilities
    • This process is responsible for allowing the ZEN client to communicate with the ZEN server and transfer data. This data includes Communication Engagement setup data Interview data Consolidated interview data Engagement Setup This process is responsible for downloading the engagment setup data from the Download server This process is responsible for uploading interview data from the Zen client to Interview Data Upload the ZEN server and downloading the consolidated interview data from the ZEN Download server This process is responsible for communication between the ZEN client and the Remoting ZEN server [edit] ZEN Client UI Decomposition View Eclipse Rich Client Platform (Eclipse RCP) has been chosen as the framework for ZEN Client. The rationale is documented in the Architecture Trade-off Analysis section. The ZEN Client UI is decomposed according to the Eclipse RCP framework and the two major actors of the ZEN Client, Interviewer and Analyst.
    • Key: UML Element Catalog Element Description The Workbench class is responsible for creating, managing and navigating Workbench its workspace resources, which include perspectives, views and editors. This class is part of the Eclipse RCP. This InterviewPerspective class represents the initial user interface layout InterviewPerspective designed for the Interview Module in the Controller Layer. This class represents the initial user interface layout designed for the AnalysisPerspective Report Module in the Controller Layer. This class represents the initial user interface layout designed for the SynchronizationPerspective Synchronization Module in the Controller Layer. This class is responsible for displaying SMIG questions in a hierarchical SmigView way. It also provides search feature to assist the Interviewer to find a desired question quickly. The Interviewer selects a question and opens an
    • AnswerEditor to record information. This class allows the Interviewer to record interview information, such as AnswerEditor answer choices, comments and tags. This class is responsible for displaying the tags. The state of checked tags TagsView changes according to what question is selected in the SmigView and in the editor area. This class is responsible for displaying the associated risks to a selected RiskView answer choices in the AnswerEditor. This class is responsible for showing the interview status. It displays the StatusView progress of each SMIG category. This class is responsible for displaying available report templates for the TemplateView Analyst to choose from. This class is responsible for producing report according to the chosen template and the collected interview information. It uses the Ecliipse BIRT, ReportEditor an reporting engine chosen according the rationale documented in the Architecture Trade-off Analysis section. This class shows the locally available engagements. See Issues section for EngagementView issues related to this class. MessageConsole This class shows the communication between ZEN Client and ZEN Server. ZEN Tool Data Model This diagram shows how different data entities relate to each other.
    • Element Description The table can be aptly described by the following SQL snippet: Engagement (engagement_ID VARCHAR(64), engagement_Title VARCHAR(100), engagement_Description VARCHAR(400), client_Name VARCHAR(400), Engagement table creation_Time BIGINT, modification_Time BIGINT, synch_Time BIGINT, repository VARCHAR(400), engagement_State INT, PRIMARY KEY (engagement_ID)) The table can be aptly described by the following SQL snippet: Smig (smig_ID VARCHAR(64), smig_version VARCHAR(20), smig_description Smig table VARCHAR(400), creation_Time BIGINT, last_Modification BIGINT, PRIMARY KEY (smig_ID)) The table can be aptly described by the following SQL snippet: Category table Category (category_ID VARCHAR(64), category_name VARCHAR(500), category_description VARCHAR(500), PRIMARY KEY (category_ID)) The table can be aptly described by the following SQL snippet: Question (question_ID VARCHAR(64), question_Text VARCHAR(500), Question table question_short_name VARCHAR(500), default_next_question_ID VARCHAR(64), isDisabled INT, PRIMARY KEY (question_ID)) The table can be aptly described by the following SQL snippet: Answer table Answer (answer_ID VARCHAR(64), answer_Text VARCHAR(400), related_Question_ID VARCHAR(64), PRIMARY KEY(answer_ID)) The table can be aptly described by the following SQL snippet: Risk table Risk (risk_ID VARCHAR(64), risk_Text VARCHAR(400), PRIMARY KEY (risk_ID)) The table can be aptly described by the following SQL snippet: Tag table Tag (tag_ID VARCHAR(64), tag_Title VARCHAR (400), PRIMARY KEY (tag_ID)) The table can be aptly described by the following SQL snippet: Comment table Comment (comment_ID VARCHAR(64), comment_Text VARCHAR (10000),
    • PRIMARY KEY (comment_ID)) The table can be aptly described by the following SQL snippet: MitigationStrategy table Tag (tag_ID VARCHAR(64), tag_Title VARCHAR (400), PRIMARY KEY (tag_ID)) The table can be aptly described by the following SQL snippet: User(user_ID VARCHAR(64), user_description VARCHAR(400), encrypt_String User table VARBINARY(200), random_Number VARBINARY(200), PRIMARY KEY (user_ID)) Other tables All other tables are simple M x N mapping tables. [edit] ZEN Engagement State Maintenance Engagement State Transition The engagements in the server shall maintain one of the four different states at any given time. The following state transition diagram dictates the rules, conditions, and the sequence surrounding the change in states and the execution of transitions. All transitions to "closed" and "new" state should be decided by the engineer responsible for the engagement setup component. This is because such transitions are controlled and managed by that component. State transition diagram:
    • Engagement State Description Table State Constant Name Description Code Represents a state where the subject engagement has 1 NEW not been downloaded, stored, or closed. 2 DOWNLOADED Represents a state where the subject engagement has
    • been downloaded by one or more client(s). Represents a state where client data for the subject engagement has been submitted by one or more 6 STORED client(s). Stored assumes that the engagement has been downloaded. Represents a state where a "new" engagement has 8 CLOSED_WITHOUT_DOWNLOADING been closed i.e. it was NOT downloaded or stored prior to closure. Represents a state where an engagement has been 10 CLOSED_AFTER_DOWNLOADING closed after it was DOWNLOADED by one or more clients. Represents a state where an engagement has been 14 CLOSED_AFTER_STORING closed after it was STORED by one or more clients. [edit] Component & Connector Architectural Viewtype [edit] ZEN Tool High Level C&C View This high level C&C view shows the architectural styles employed in the design of ZEN Tool. ZEN Tool is divided into two major elements, ZEN Client and ZEN Server. There is also an administration tool on the client side; however, it doesn't fit within the RCP model, which is the main framework of the client. Therefore, the administration tool is not represented in this view. ZEN Client is based on the Eclipse Rich Client Platform. Its design uses heavily the vocabulary from Eclipse such as views, editors, actions and adapter factories. See Rich Client Platform for the trade-off analysis. ZEN Server is based on the Servlet and JavaServer Page technologies. Struts 2 is selected as the implementation framework. See Web Application Framework for the trade-off analysis. ZEN Client communicates with ZEN Server using the XML-RPC over HTTPS connector. See ZEN Client Remoting for the trade-off analysis. BIRT Reporting Engine is used in both ZEN Client and ZEN Server. See Report Engine for the trade-off analysis. Data Access Objects are shared between ZEN Client and ZEN Server.
    • Element Catalog Element Description
    • SelectionService is part of the Eclipse RCP. It acts as an event bus that propagates SelectionService events between view and editor objects. Views provide users with a graphical representation of data and editors allow users Views/Editors to interact with that data. Adapter Factories are objects that link views and editors to the data access objects Adapter Factories on which they depend to display and edit data for the user. JFace Actions are the actions to be implemented to link ZEN client functionalities JFace Actions with services offered on the ZEN server. Data Access Objects extract data out of the database, based on the specific command which is received. For example, download engagement setup would Data Access result in engagement data being extracted. On the other hand download Objects consolidated data would return the user's data along with the consolidated data of all other users. BIRT Reporting The Eclipse BIRT reporting engine generates the report display by contacting the Engine database and using the report template file (*.rptdesign) for generating the report. These are the report design files which contain details about the report structure, namely what columns to show and how, the tables they communicate with in the Report Templates database, database connection details (password is encrypted) and other (*.rptdesign) presentation related details. It has an XML structure. (TBD: See how database communication details can be overriden with application's data). This is the data store that holds the data of the ZEN Tool. This will be accessed via Data a JDBC connector. XML-RPC is a specification written to address sharing XML data irrespective of the XML-RPC over operating system or the environment. Using HTTPS ensures secured HTTPS communication between ZEN Client and ZEN Server. Browser This is a standard web browser. Https Secure connection over port 443. The Request Dispatcher parses and executes http requests containing servlet Tomcat Request commands. It determines which requests should be handled by the BIRT reporting Dispatcher engine and which ones should be sent to the Struts 2 actions. Struts 2 The Filter Dispatcher determines whether a request should invoke an action, and FilterDispatcher delegates control to the appropriate action if required. Java Server Pages The JSP pages displayed to the browser upon authentication and authorization. The Actions are user-defined objects that implement the functionalities that are to Struts 2 Actions be expressed. They may access database through the Data Access Object. These Business Objects are implemented as POJOs (Plain Old Java Objects), Business Objects which can be invoked by the XML-RPC over HTTPS . [edit] ZEN Server High Level View This view shows the high level C&C view of ZEN Server.
    • Element Catalog Element Type Responsibilities The client CPUs run the ZEN Client and communicate with the ZEN Client CPU Computer Server to accomplish a number of server specific tasks. Browsers communicate with the ZEN Server to accomplish a number Browser Browser of tasks. The Firewall filters incoming traffic to the applications and databases Firewall Application residing on the server, in order a higher level of network security. Tomcat is a servlet filter container that processes JSP tag Tomcat Web Web Server commands from client or web page requests, and displays the result Server of those requests to the client or browser. Tomcat Web Server Contains a number of modules (servlets) provided by Tomcat, and Components components that will be used to communicate with the Struts 2 Server. Struts 2 contains the ZEN Server functional components and Application Struts 2 processes requests that require an action to be executed (this may Server involve the database). Database Database The database is a repository of all of the ZEN Server data. [edit] ZEN Server With Struts 2 This view shows the runtime behavior of Struts 2, a web application framework that ZEN Server uses to handle browser requests.
    • Element Catalog Element Type Responsibilities The browser submits the following requests to the server: Interview consolidation requests to merge all of the interview data for a given engagement. Standard Requests for engagement reports. Browser web browser Modification requests for the SMIG. Modification requests for tags. Download requests for data. Setup requests for new engagements. The Firewall filters incoming traffic to the applications and SEI Firewall Application databases residing on the server, in order a higher level of network security. Tomcat is a servlet filter container that processes JSP tag Tomcat Web Server Web Server commands from web page requests, and displays the result of those requests to the browser. Web Server Contains a number of modules (servlets) provided by Tomcat, Tomcat Components components and that will be used to communicate with the Struts 2 Server. The servlet filters parse and execute http requests containing servlet commands. These filters are optional. If the ActionContextCleanUp filter is present, the FilterDispatcher will Servlet filters Objects not clean up the ThreadLocal ActionContext once the Result is returned. If the ActionContextCleanUp filter is not present, the FilterDispatcher will cleanup all ThreadLocals. The FilterDispatcher checks the ActionMapper to determine whether a request should invoke an action, and delegates FilterDispatcher Object control to the ActionProxy if an action is require. This filter IS required. The web.xml file describes all necessary framework components web.xml File for web deployment, including servlet filters. This is a required configuration file. Struts 2 contains the ZEN Server functional components and Application Struts 2 processes requests that require an action to be executed (this Server may involve the database). The ActionMapper determines whether a request requires an ActionMapper Object action to be invoked. The ActionProxy refers to the ConfigurationManager to ActionProxy Object determine which ActionInvocation to create to process the
    • action, and it creates that ActionInvocation object. The ConfigurationManager uses the information from struts.xml ConfigurationManager Object to tie an ActionInvocation with the action that it handles. The struts.xml file initializes the ConfigurationManager and struts.xml File contains result/view types, action mappings, interceptors, and so forth. This is an optional configuration file. The ActionInvocation is responsible for the command pattern implementation of Struts 2, which includes invoking interceptors ActionInvocation Object and actions, and looking up the proper report type to create based on an Action's result code (mapped in struts.xml). Interceptors apply common functionality to the requests before or after an Action is executed, like validation and file upload handling. Interceptors act like listeners on an event bus, and Interceptors Objects they are called as soon as an action to which they are associated is "fired". The number and type of interceptors to run can be set for each Action individually or across all of them. The Action is a user-defined class that implements the Action Objects functionality that is to be expressed. It may access database through the Data Access Object. The Data Access Object is responsible for accessing database Data Access Object Objects through JDBC connection. Modification to database must be transactional, i.e., it's either all or nothing. The Database is the central repository of the ZEN Server Tool Database Database (including engagement data, SMIG version, interview reports, ...). The Result is an (optional) object that is created after the Action Result Object executes, and returned to the browser. The Result may optionally use a rendering Template (JSP, FreeMarker, ...). The Template is a file that is used to describe how the Result Template File data should be rendered. [edit] ZEN Client Initial Configuration This view shows the ZEN Client's runtime behavior during initial configuration. The view depicts three key architectural properties: 1. To enforce security, a secret (Authentication Text) is stored instead of actual password. 2. The call-return connectors represent function calls inside one JVM. There is no inter-process communication.
    • 3. The security is implemented with random number generator (using SecureRandom), cryptographic hash function (using MessageDigest) and encryption/decryption (using Cipher). The behavior information is expressed using a sequence diagram in the end of this section.
    • Element Catalog Element Description ConfigurationDialog ConfigurationDialog allows the user to enter information during initial configuration.
    • The information depicted here is focused on enabling the authentication process. Other information may be still needed. SecureRandom A secure random number generator. This is part of the JDK. This object implements the one-way cryptographic hash function. Possible hash MessageDigest functions are SHA-256 and SHA-512. MD5 and SHA-1 are ruled out because of identified security flaw. This object encrypts Authentication Text and Encryption Key #1 into the Cipher Encryption String by using Encryption Key #2. AccountDAO AccountDAO is responsible for accessing the actual database table using JDBC. AccountModel stores the Username, Random Number and Encryption String in a AccountModel database table. [edit] Sequence Diagrams The sequence of the initial configuration process is as follows: The user enters Username and Password through the ConfigurationDialog. The Username is stored in plain text in the database. The system generates a Random Number and stores that number in the database, associating it with the Username. The system now generates an encryption key (Encryption Key #2) using a 1- way encryption algorithm based on the entered Password and the Random Number associated with the Username. i.e., encryption_key = Algorithm(password + random#) The system then takes the Encryption String (consisting of the Authentication Key and the Encryption Key #1) and encrypts it using Encryption Key #2. Finally, the system saves the encrypted Encryption String into the database, associating it with the Username.
    • Key: UML Element Catalog Element Description This is the username the user uses to log into the ZEN Client. It is recorded in the Username database in plain text. This is the password the user uses to log into the ZEN Client. It is never recorded in Password the database, at all. Random This is a random number, called the "Salt", which is associated with a particular Number Username. It is stored in the database in plain text. Authentication This is a text string which is stored in the database in an encrypted format. It is used to Text verify that the user has entered the correct password. Encryption Key This is the key used for the encryption and decryption of the actual interview data. It is #1 stored in the database in an encrypted format.
    • Encryption Key This is the key generated from a 1-way encryption algorithm based upon the entered #2 Password and the Random Number. This is the concatenation of the Authentication Text and Encryption Key. The two Encryption elements are concatenated in plain text format, then the entire string is encrypted String using Encryption Key #2. [edit] ZEN Client Authentication This view shows the ZEN Client's runtime behavior during authentication. The view depicts three key architectural properties: 1. To enforce security, only the components that are required for performing authentication are loaded into JVM. 2. The call-return connectors represent function calls inside one JVM. There is no inter-process communication. 3. The security is implemented with cryptographic hash function and encryption/decryption (using Cipher). The Authentication module will compare user entered information with encrypted keys stored in the database. The behavior information is expressed using a sequence diagram (seen below this view).
    • Element Catalog Element Description
    • The system starts in this component. It calls the AuthenticationController to ApplicationEntryPoint enforce security. To enforce security, the authentication must be done in the AuthenticationController AuthenticationController before loading any other resources. LoginDialog LoginDialog allows user to enter user name and password. Cipher This object decrypts Encryption String by using Encryption Key #2'. AccountDAO is responsible for accessing the actual database table using AccountDAO JDBC. AccountModel stores the Username, Random Number and Encryption AccountModel String in a database table. This is an abstracted portion of ZEN Client that will be loaded after successful MainApplicatoin authentication. [edit] Sequence Diagrams The sequence of the authentication process is as follows: User enters username & password through the LoginDialog. The system checks the database for the Username. If it exists, it retrieves the Random Number associated with that Username. The system then generates a new encryption key (Encryption Key #2') using a 1-way encryption algorithm based upon the entered Password and the Random Number it retrieved. The system now attempts to decrypt the Encryption String using the new encryption key (Encryption Key #2'). The system then attempts to decouple the Challenge Authentication Text from the Encryption String. If it matches the answer (Authentication Text) it expects, the user is known to be valid. The system then decouples the Encryption Key #1' from the Encryption String.
    • Key: UML Element Catalog
    • Element Description This is the username the user uses to log into the ZEN Client. It is recorded in the Username database in plain text. It is initially created during installation, when the user selects login information. This is the password the user uses to log into the ZEN Client. It is never recorded in Password the database, at all. However, it is used to create an encryption key which IS stored in the database (this will be explained later). This is a random number, called the "Salt", which is associated with a particular Random Number username. It is stored in the database in plain text. This is a text string which is stored in the database in an encrypted format. It is Authentication Text used to verify that the user has entered the correct password. Challenge This is the text extracted from Encryption String using Encryption Key #2'. It Authentication Text should match the original Authentication Text for a successful authentication. This is the key that is extracted from the Encryption String using the Encryption Encryption Key #1' Key #2'. This is the key generated from one-way encryption algorithm based upon the Encryption Key #2' entered Password and the Random Number retrieved from database. Encryption String This is the Encryption String produced during initial configuration. [edit] ZEN Client Interview Perspective This architectural view shows the interaction between objects in the InterviewPerspective of ZEN Client using an implicit invocation style. The view depicts three key architectural properties: 1. The interaction between parts (the view and editor objects in Eclipse's term) is decoupled by using the SelectionService, which is part of the Eclipse RCP. 2. The model is decoupled from view and editor objects by using the ModelEventBus. 3. The view and editor objects do not directly access the model but through the controller objects. The behavior information is expressed using sequence diagrams in the end of this section. The related module decomposition view can be found in ZEN Client UI Decomposition View section.
    • Element Catalog Element Description SelectionService is part of the Eclipse RCP. It acts as an event bus that SelectionService propagates events between view and editor objects. SmigView is responsible for displaying SMIG data model using a tree. It SmigView announces selection events to the event bus indicating which question is selected. AnswerEditor is responsible for providing the answering form and accepting response information. It announces activation events indicating an AnswerEditor AnswerEditor has been activated. NavigationHistoryAction listens to these events to keep track the navigation history. It's possible to have multiple instances of AnswerEditor opened at the same time. StatusView is responsible for displaying the progress of an interview. (To be StatusView refined) SmigFilter is responsible for matching questions to key words. The matching SmigFilter results are then presented in the SmigView. NavigationHistoryAction keeps track of the navigation history. This object directly addresses the quality attribute scenario #6: Client provides information NavigationHistoryAction not related to current question, the person using the tool will navigate to the relate topic within 15 seconds and then be able to return to the previous question with one push of button. This object listens to the selection events from SmigView. If a question, instead of a category, is selected, the action is enabled. It uses the AnswerAction ResponseDAO object to retrieve responses from the database. The information is then passed to the AnswerEditor. It also activates the AnswerEditor. This object hooks up the SmigView object with the SMIG data model. It uses SmigAdaptorFactory the SmigDAO object to retrieve SMIG data model from the database. This object hooks up the StatusView object with the response data model. It StatusAdaptorFactory uses the ResponseDAO object to retrieve data from database and construct the status data model for the StatusView. This object is responsible for saving information gathered by the AnswerEditor SaveAction to the database. The actual database access is done by the ResponseDAO object. SmigDAO SmigDAO is responsible for accessing the actual database table using JDBC. ResponseDAO is responsible for accessing the actual database table using ResponseDAO JDBC. Modification to ResponseModel must be transactional, i.e., it's either all or nothing. ResponseDAO uses Cipher object to encrypt/decrypt data before storing it Cipher into database. ModelEventBus ModelEventBus is an event bus that propagates model change events from
    • model to view and editor objects. SmigModel SmigModel is a set of database tables that represent the SMIG data model. ResponseModel is a set of database tables that represent the responses to ResponseModel the SMIG questions. [edit] Sequence Diagrams [edit] Browse and Search The Browse and Search sequence diagram shows the behavior of Interviewer interacting with the SmigView.
    • Key: UML [edit] Navigation History The Navigation History sequence diagram shows the behavior of Interviewer working on various AnswerEdiotr and the NavigationHistoryAction keeps track the navigation history, thus enabling the back and forward actions.
    • Key: UML [edit] Status Update The Status Update sequence diagram shows the behavior of saving answers and the corresponding status update.
    • Key: UML [edit] ZEN Client Analysis Perspective This view represents the runtime behavior of the AnalysisPerspective specified in the ZEN Client UI Decomposition View section. It depicts three key architectural properties: Eclipse BIRT has been chosen as the report engine. See Report Engine for the trade-off analysis. Report format is customizable through modifying the Report Template (*.rptdesign), but ZEN Client itself does not support the modification of Report Template in normal operation context. See Business Context for the representation. BIRTWebViewer handles the JDBC connection directly. Customization is needed to support decryption of the data in ZENToolModel.
    • Element Catalog Element Description SelectionService is part of the Eclipse RCP. It acts as an event bus that SelectionService propagates events between view and editor objects. TemplateView TemplateView is responsible for displaying the reports available using a tree.
    • It announces selection events to the event bus indicating which report is selected. ReportAction listens to the selection events from TemplateView. If a report, ReportAction instead of the report group, is selected, the action is enabled. It instantiates a ReportEditor and passes the associated report object. TemplateAdapterFactory hooks up the TemplateView object with the list of reports available. It reads the report list file (in xml format) and extracts the TemplateAdapterFactory report category and report user friendly name, and the actual report name and instantiates a TemplateView object. ReportEditor is the UI page on which the report is rendered. The editor initializes a browser window where the generated report is displayed. It retrieves the name of the report file (stored as a part of the report object) and ReportEditor calls the PreviewBirtAction. It is possible to have multiple instances of ReportEditor opened at the same time, enabling multiple reports to be open at a time. PreviewBirtAction instantiates Eclipse BIRT report viewer with the link to the PreviewBirtAction report design file and the browser which is instantiated in ReportEditor. BIRTWebViewer is the Eclipse BIRT reporting engine which generates the BIRTWebViewer report display by contacting the database and using the report template file (*.rptdesign) for generating the report. This is the report design file which contains details about the report structure, namely what columns to show and how, the table it communicates to in the Report Template database, database connection details (password is encrypted) and other (*.rptdesign) presentation related details. It has an XML structure. (TBD: See how database communication details can be overriden with application's data) This is the file which contains details about the list of reports, the names of Report List (*.xml) the files on the file systems, the names which will be used during display and the category under which they are listed. It has an XML structure. ZENToolModel holds the entire data of the ZEN Tool on which reports have ZENToolModel to be generated. This will be accessed via a JDBC connector. [edit] Usage on client side and server side The Eclipse BIRT engine allows reports to be generated using a browser. On the client side, this browser is embedded within the Eclipse RCP and uses the HTML server functionality provided by the Eclipse BIRT engine internally. The advantage is that the same report template file (*.rptdesign) can be used on the server side as well with the same functionality as provided on the client side. This is assuming that data model between the client and server for common functionality are shared.
    • On the server side, BIRT allows the capability to interact with servlet mechanisms and application servers like JBoss. [edit] ZEN Client Synchronization Perspective Brief description to be added. Element Catalog Element Description ZEN Client ZEN Client initiates connection to the server. It provides credentials for authentication. ZEN Server receives connections from the client. It has a HTTPS port open and listens ZEN Server for requests for clients.
    • Eclipse Eclipse Workbench manages the editors, views and perspectives. It provides the Workbench selection service for transmitting events between views and editors. JFace Actions are the actions to be implemented to integrate the ZEN client JFace Actions functionality, specifically here, the synchronization tasks using the JFace library provided within Eclipse. Tomcat is a servlet filter container that processes HTTP/HTTPS commands from client Tomcat or web page requests, and returns/displays the result of those requests to the client or browser. . Business Business Objects are implemented as POJOs (Plain Old Java Objects), which can be Objects invoked by the XML-RPC over HTTPS. XML-RPC is a specification written to address sharing XML data irrespective of the XML-RPC operating system or the environment. Using HTTPS ensures secured communication over HTTPS between ZEN Client and ZEN Server. Data Access extracts data out of the database, based on the specific command which is received. For example, download engagement setup would result in engagement data Data Access being extracted. On the other hand download consolidated data would return the user's data along with the consolidated data of all other users. This is the data store that holds the data of the ZEN Tool. This will be accessed via a Data JDBC connector. [edit] Architecture Trade-off Analysis [edit] Rich Client Platform ZEN Client, a standalone desktop GUI application, has been identified as possessing many important quality attributes, such as usability, security, availability and performance. To efficiently build the GUI application, a readily available framework is preferred. Rich Client Platform (RCP) is the realization of such framework for building desktop GUI application. There are two notable RCPs in the market: NetBeans Platform and Eclipse RCP. In deciding which one to adopt, an evaluation based on quality attributes is conducted with the following outcome. RCP Usability Security Availability Performance Good with it's native Eclipse Both have no build-in Both are proven Both are able to SWT approach. features for security. and stable support creating Not as good; depending (Supported by underlying solutions in the NetBeans usable UI. JDK/JRE.) market. on the implementation of JRE. Additionally, the following factors are considered:
    • Eclipse has a lager market share than NetBeans. (We use Eclipse in two of our core courses.) Eclipse has a larger amount of sample projects that we can study and refer to. In conclusion, Eclipse RCP seems to be more favorable than NetBeans Platform. [edit] Report Engine The three main open source tools considered were JasperReports BIRT OpenReports The pros and cons for each are as follows JasperReports Pros  This is the most popular open source reporting tool (based on the number of downloads). It supports reporting functionality and exports to a variety of formats like PDF, HTML, XLS, CSV and XML. Cons  Web reporting functionality does not seem to be straightforward. The idea is to export to HTML (or XML) and then use that for rendering. BIRT Pros  This is a reporting tool provided by Eclipse. It supports reporting functionality and exports to formats like PDF and HTML.  Web reporting is straightforward. Same code can be used on the client side (within an application) and on server side (to render on a browser)  Easy to integrate in Eclipse RCP framework Cons  Export to CSV is not straightforward. OpenReports Pros
    •  This is a web reporting tool. It supports reporting functionality and exports to formats like PDF, HTML, CSV, XLS, RTF, and Image  It interacts with other reporting engines like BIRT and Jasper to provide one unified reporting framework. Cons  Integrating OpenReports into a standalone application is not straightforward. Since all of the three tools have satisfactory support on modifiability, our decision was based on the integration effort that each tool may require. BIRT turned out to be a more favorable choice because it is easy to integrate into both Eclipse RCP-based client side application and servlet-based server side application. [edit] ZEN Client Authentication Two significant alternatives are considered: Coupled with ZEN Server: The same account and password are used to access both ZEN Client and ZEN Server. This will require the account and password on ZEN Server to be deployed to ZEN Client in a secured and trusted way. This approach promotes usability because the user only needs to remember one account and password. In the Synchronize Engagement Data use case, the user is spared from entering account and password to access ZEN Server. De-coupled with ZEN Server: The user uses independent account and password to access ZEN Client. We chose de-coupled authentication because it greatly simplifies the architecture and the security scenario is acceptable for our client. [edit] ZEN Client Installation A variety of alternatives are considered: Online distribution: The binary file of ZEN Client is stored on the ZEN Server and can be accessed after entering the password. This approach promotes security.
    • Offline distribution: The binary file of ZEN Client is distributed manually, through direct copying of the file. This approach is convenient but prohibits security because there is no control on the binary file. Automatic installation program: ZEN Client is packaged as an automatic installation program. This approach promotes usability because it's easy for the user to use. However, it is difficult to develop and test. Archived file: ZEN Client is packaged as a archived file, such as a zip file. This approach requires the user to unpack the archived file, so intuitively it can also be easy the user to use. What's more, it's easier to develop and test. Java Web Start: A fairly sophisticated mechanism for automatic and secured application deployment. However, our experiment showed that the integration between Java Web Start and Eclipse RCP still requires significant hacking. We chose online distribution with an archived file because online distribution provides superior security control, and archived file is easier to develop and test. [edit] ZEN Client Data Store Three significant alternatives are considered: Flat file in XML format: Using flat file in XML format is extremely lightweight. XML supports easier migration from one version to another, so it promotes modifiability. Flat file can be easily encrypted, so it also promotes security. However, using flat file will require the data to be decrypted and loaded into memory, it prohibits scalability if there is a significant capacity requirement. Embedded database: Embedded database promotes security because other processes are not allowed to access the database. It also promotes usability because there is no upfront setup for the user. However, using embedded database also has the scalability limitation, unless we can justify there won't be a significant capacity requirement in ZEN Client. External database: External database promotes modifiability because database can be easily switched as long as a compliant JDBC driver is used. It also (indirectly) promotes scalability because sophisticated database can be used. However, it requires some upfront setup tasks, which may be challenging for nontechnical users.
    • We have decided that ZEN Client should support any database with a compliant JDBC driver. Optionally, we should be able to bundle an embedded database as the default database and give users an option to use an external database if so desired. [edit] ZEN Client User Interface See ZEN Client UI Decomposition View section to gain an overview of this tradeoff analysis. Two significant alternatives are considered: Integrate tags and risks into the AnswerEditor: tags and risks become an integral part of the AnswerEditor. Separate tags and risks into viewers: Put tags into TagsView and risks into RiskView. We chose to separate tags and risks into viewers because it promotes both modifiability and usability. [edit] Database Record Id Generation Two significant alternatives are considered: Automatic id generation: This method depends on the database providing such functionality. It reduces implementation effort and promotes performance in creating a new record. Universally Unique Identifier (UUID): This method decouple the dependency on any specific database implementation; therefore, it promotes modifiability in that any database can be used. We chose to use UUID because modifiability outweighs ease of implementation and performance in this particular decision. [edit] ZEN Client Remoting Alternative A: XML-RPC XML-RPC is an extensible format. Since the data is sent across using HTTP layer it is easy to implement the communication between the client and the server. This makes the code easy to maintain. Apache XML-RPC for Java provides a secure way to establish communication between the client and the server. XML is standard and
    • XML-RPC is a specification written to address sharing XML data irrespective of the operating system or the environment. Alternative B: SOAP SOAP is an enhancement over XML-RPC. It offers a wide range of features over XML-RPC including user defined data types, ability to specify the recipient, message specific processing control etc. However to implement SOAP we need to add extra components on both the server and the client side. For the purpose of this tool, the requirement is simple file upload and download and the complexity of SOAP is not necessary to accomplish the task when it can be efficiently and securely done by XML-RPC. [edit] Web Application Framework There are probably too many web application framework out there. We only consider the following two alternatives. Pure Servlet/JSP: Also known as "not using any web application framework at all". It's possible to implement web application with only these two standards, but the development effort will be high. Struts 2: Struts 2 is one of the popular web application frameworks that implement design patterns such as front controller and command pattern. We chose to use Struts 2 simply because it reduces development effort and allows us to focus on the business logics. [edit] Glossary [edit] Acronyms for Institutions SEI - Software Engineering Institute MSE - Master of Software Engineering CMU - Carnegie Mellon University SMART - Service Migration And Reuse Technique SMIG - Service Migration Interview Guide (Refer to ZEN Tool Glossary below) [edit] Architecture related acronyms
    • QAW - Quality Attribute Workshop ACDM - Architecture Centric Development Method [edit] Planning related acronyms ETVX - Entry Task Validation eXit PERT - Program evaluation and review technique [edit] MSE acronyms MOSP - Middle Of Semester Presentation EOSP - End Of Semester Presentation [edit] ZEN Tool Glossary SMIG - Service Migration Interview Guide. The SMIG contains the following information in a hierarchical format Categories of topics to be discussed with the stakeholders Questions to be asked during a SMART Interview phase under each category Predefined answer(s) for each question. There need not be an answer at all, or there can more than one answer for each question Each pre-defined answer has 0..n risk factors associated with it. Each risk factor has 1..n mitigation strategies ZEN Tool - The software product delivered to the SEI. Performs functions in both client and server roles. ZEN Client - The set of functions within the ZEN Tool which will be used by the SEI personnel while on engagements. Functionality includes interview capturing software and report generation. The ZEN client forms the client portion of the ZEN tool. ZEN Server - The set of functions within the ZEN Tool which will be used as a repository for engagement information. Functionality includes report generation, SMIG maintenance, tag maintenance, and synchronization. The ZEN server
    • forms the server portion of the ZEN tool. The ZEN client communicates with the ZEN server for various activities ZEN Users - The set of users authorized by the SEI to work on the SMART process. This includes technical and non-technical users Interviewer - This person uses the ZEN Client before and during engagement interviews. He can perform the following:  Download engagement file  Record answers to SMIG questions  Apply tags to SMIG questions  Record comments on SMIG questions  Browse through the SMIG  Record data in the Service and Component Tables Analyst - This person uses the ZEN Client and the ZEN Server after an engagement. She can perform the following:  Upload interview data from the ZEN Client to the ZEN Server  Consolidate multiple sets of data from the same engagement on the ZEN Server  Download consolidated interview data from the ZEN Server to the ZEN Client  Produce reports on the ZEN Client and/or the ZEN Server Admin - This person uses the ZEN Client and the ZEN Server. This person need not be a technical user. Any user who is aware of basic computer usage and who is slightly knowledgeable about the SMART process can be considered as an Admin. He can perform the following:  Create & set up engagement files on the ZEN Server  Create, modify, and delete custom tags  Associate a custom list of tags with a particular engagement file  Modify the SMIG in the following ways:  Add a question  Modify a question  Delete a question (this does not actually delete the question, it simply marks it as inactive) Maintainer - TBD.
    • Engagement - A set of interviews with a client company during which the feasibility of migrating a legacy system to a SOA architecture is determined. Involves the following phases (some of which are performed multiple times): Interview - A question and answer session with client representatives. The client representatives can vary in role from managers to developers. This is to ensure as much information is captured about the legacy system. Involves use of the Interview set of functions of the ZEN Client. Once this phase is complete, the Engagement shifts to the Analysis phase. Analysis - A review session covering all data captured to date. The purpose of this phase is to identify risks for the migration. Involves use of the reporting functions of both the ZEN Server and the ZEN Client. If further information is needed to make a final recommendation, the Engagement shifts back to the Interview phase. If a final recommendation can be made, the Engagement shifts to the Final Report phase. Final Report - A consolidation session where a final evaluation of the risks for the SOA migration is created and delivered to the client. Involves use of the reporting functions of both the ZEN Server and the ZEN Client. Engagement File - This file is initially created prior to an engagement and includes all information pertinent to the engagement. This includes: SMIG Any existing consolidated interview data Custom tags Interview Data - This represents all data captured during an Interview phase of an Engagement. Includes answers to SMIG questions, comments, and applied tags. Also includes all Service and Component table data captured. These pieces are defined as follows: Answers - Each question in the SMIG currently has associated predefined answers in multiple choice format. When the client answers a question during the Interview phase, the Interviewer will select the closest predefined answer. Comments - Because each question in the SMIG has predefined answers, often clients will answer in a way that does not fully fit one of the predefined answers. Therefore, the Interviewer may record comments on each question which notes the actual answer and expands on any related issues considered pertinent.
    • Tags - When applying a comment to a question, the Interviewer may feel that the answer to a particular question is very important in terms of the SOA migration, and may wish to mark the answer for easy reference during the Analysis phase. To do so, the Interviewer will apply one or more pre- defined tags to the question. The tags will be reflected in the reports generated in the Analysis phase. In addition, the tags are used to set up the Service/Component table interface. SMART Templates - In addition to the SMIG questions, the Interviewer will want to capture information which fall under the category of SMART template. The service table and component table are examples of SMART templates. (TBD: Are these the only two?) The ZEN Client will provide a secondary interface to capture this information (the format of this interface has yet to be determined).