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    Academic Review Handbook Academic Review Handbook Document Transcript

    • Academic Review Handbook 2009-2010
    • February, 2010 2009-2010 VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Academic Review Handbook Developed by Office of School Improvement Virginia Department of Education Richmond, Virginia ii
    • Original Document Edited and produced by CTE Resource Center Richmond, Virginia Virginia Department of Education Copyright ©2005, 2006, 2007 Virginia Department of Education P.O. Box 2120 Richmond, VA 23218-2120 Original Document Edited and produced by CTE Resource Center Margaret L. Watson, Administrative Anita T. Cruikshank, Writer/Editor Virginia Sowers, Writer/Editor The Center is a grant project of the Virginia Department of Education, Office of Career and Technical Education Services, and is administered by Henrico County Public Schools, Department of Career and Technical Education. http://www.cteresource.org/ Notice to the Reader In accordance with the requirements of the Civil Rights Act and other federal and state laws and regulations, this document has been reviewed to ensure that it does not reflect stereotypes based on sex, race, or national origin. The Virginia Department of Education does not unlawfully discriminate on the basis of sex, race, color, religion, handicapping conditions, or national origin in employment or in its educational programs and activities. The activity that is the subject of this report was supported in whole or in part by the U.S. Department of Education. However, the opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position or policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and no official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education should be inferred. iii
    • Acknowledgments The Academic Review Handbook outlines and explains the Academic Review process for those Virginia schools rated as Accredited with Warning. It also provides information on Conditionally Accredited schools, PASS schools, schools with Accreditation Denied and No Child Left Behind federal legislation. The Academic Review process was developed in response to the requirements of the Standards of Accreditation (SOA): “The Department of Education shall develop a school academic review process and monitoring plan designed to assist schools rated as Accredited with Warning. All procedures and operations for the academic review process shall be approved and adopted by the Board.” (8 VAC 20-131-310.A) The goal of the Office of School Improvement (OSI) is to assist those schools striving to achieve full accreditation by conducting and monitoring academic reviews; designing and providing technical assistance; guiding and implementing quality instruction; and explaining and ensuring compliance with the statutes and regulations for schools in Virginia. The Academic Review process was first developed and implemented during the 2000-2001 school year. At the end of each school year since, the Office of School Improvement has analyzed the data collected in the schools, along with the results of evaluations completed by school and division staff, to determine the components of the process that were working well and those that needed to be adjusted. Each year, groups of stakeholders have met to discuss the process, analyze the data, identify needs, and offer potential solutions. The OSI staff has shared these ideas with other department staff to determine ways in which the Academic Review process will be modified and enhanced to better meet the needs of schools. These changes were implemented the following year and then the cycle was repeated. Following the 2002-2003 school year, the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) realized the need to formalize the process of reviewing and renewing the Academic Review process. With the yearly benchmarks for student achievement continuing to increase and with the rating of “Provisionally Accredited” being discontinued, the number of warned schools was expected to increase substantially in the coming years. The increased requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 were also expected to have an impact on the accreditation ratings of schools. The Academic Review process, as it was currently designed, would need to be revised to meet the unique challenges that lay ahead. For this reason, the department formed the first Academic Review Steering Committee. The steering committee was comprised of central office staff members, teachers, principals, independent contractors, and VDOE staff. The primary purpose of the committee was to provide guidance to the department in developing and revising Academic Review processes and materials and to bring recommendations forward to the full committee for agency/Board review, as necessary. Committee members were also assigned to one of six task forces to focus on specific issues related to the Academic Review process. Each task force was assigned specific outcomes related to one of the following tasks: ←Developing a division-level review process; ←Revising the Academic Review manual and materials; ←Recruiting and hiring independent contractors; ←Developing a training program for reviewers; 0Adjusting the Academic Review process, as needed, to meet the unique needs 1of alternative schools and centers; and, 2Scheduling academic reviews. iv
    • Each task force recruited additional team members to assist with completing the assigned tasks. Task forces met over the summer and provided the steering committee with updates of their progress. The steering committee provided each task force with feedback regarding its accomplished tasks and offered suggestions and insight to assist the team in completing other assigned tasks. After the 2003-2004 school year, academic reviewers provided feedback through a survey designed to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the process. As had occurred previously, task forces were developed from this data. The 2004 task forces were as follows: ←Division Level Review; ←Academic Review Manual; ←Academic Review Training; ←Technical Assistance; ←ART-TASS (The Academic Review Tool); ←Indicators-Essential Actions; and ←COSTWS (Coordination of Services to Warned Schools). The information included in the 2005-2006 update of the Academic Review Handbook represented the work of previous steering committees and many task forces. Their work was accomplished through the sharing of ideas, skills, and expertise in an atmosphere of collaborative problem solving. In October 2006, the Virginia Board of Education revised the Standards of Accreditation (SOA), and further revisions were made to the Academic Review process. The 2007-2008 update to the Handbook provided further clarification to the review process and incorporated the SOA changes into the Handbook. The reporting process for the reviews was refined in 2007-2008 with the addition of the WIRELESS reporting system. This process was used for first year warned schools only. School Support Team reports remained word processed documents. All reports were electronically exchanged between the review teams, schools, divisions, and VDOE. The revised Academic Review Handbook for the school year 2008-2009 was again a collaborative effort involving a committee composed of members of the Office of School Improvement and several Academic Review Team Coordinators and team leaders. The revisions reflect a need for the various sections of the handbook to be used independently according to the needs of the Academic Review contractor and the type of review that a particular school has been assigned. The handbook is posted on the OSI Web Site for ease of access and to enable current material to be revised and posted in a time efficient manner. All reporting forms, school materials, and review protocols are online, as well. Updates for the 2009-2010 academic year have been made to this document. The current handbook, as posted on the Office of School Improvement Web site, is accurate and applicable. The Office of School Improvement appreciates the time, energy, and resources devoted by committee and task force members to renew the Academic Review process so that our schools, and our students, are provided the assistance and support needed to raise student achievement. Contact Information: Office of School Improvement Virginia Department of Education P.O. Box 2120 Richmond, VA 23218 Telephone (804) 786-1062 Fax (804) 786-9763 v
    • http://www/pen/k12.va.us/VDOE/SchoolImprovement vi
    • Table of Contents Section 1: The Academic Review Process.............................................................. 1 Background Information...................................................................................... 2 Purpose of the School-level Academic Review............................................. 2 Overview of the Academic Review Process........................................................ 3 Figure1: Academic Review: A Continuous Process..................................... 5 Table 1: Overview of the Academic Review Process................................... 6 Table 2: Tier Assignments for Academic Review Teams............................ 7 Figure 2: Academic Review Flowchart........................................................ 8 Table 3: Academic Review Timeline of Activities....................................... 9 The Academic Review Team Glossary................................................................10 Section 2: Areas of Review and Their Indicators.................................................11 Introduction..........................................................................................................12 Curriculum Alignment.........................................................................................13 Curriculum Alignment Indicators........................................................................14 The Use of Time and School Scheduling Practices.............................................15 Time and Scheduling Indicators..........................................................................16 The Use of Data for Making Instructional and Planning Decisions....................17 Using Data Indicators..........................................................................................18 Professional Development...................................................................................19 Professional Development Indicators..................................................................20 School Improvement Planning.............................................................................21 School Improvement Planning Indicators............................................................22 Research-based Instructional Intervention...........................................................23 Research-based Instructional Intervention Indicators..........................................24 Organizational Systems and Processes................................................................25 Systems and Processes Indicators........................................................................26 School Culture.....................................................................................................27 School Culture Indicators....................................................................................28 Section 3: Academic Review for First Year Warned Schools..............................29 Overview of the Section.......................................................................................30 The Initial Visit: Academic Review Team Leader Duties...................................31 The On-site Visit: Conducted by the Academic Review Team..................................32 Academic Review Report…………………………………………..………….33 Follow-up Visits: Coordinated/Conducted by the Academic Review Team Leader .........................................................................................34 vi
    • Section 3 Appendix: Academic Review Team Resources…………………...…36 Summary of Responsibilities: Academic Review Team......................................37 Summary of Responsibilities: Division and School Staff....................................39 Academic Review Protocol..................................................................................42 Academic Review Protocol for Mathematics Targeted Review..........................44 On-site Visit Planning Worksheet.......................................................................46 Summary of School Staff Interview Questions...................................................49 School Staff Interviews: School Curriculum Alignment.....................................53 School Staff Interviews: Time and Scheduling...................................................54 School Staff Interviews: Use of Data...................................................................55 School Staff Interviews: Professional Development...........................................56 School Staff Interviews: School Improvement Planning.....................................57 School Staff Interviews: Research-based Instructional Intervention...................58 School Staff Interviews: Organizational Systems and Processes........................59 School Staff Interviews: School Culture..............................................................60 Classroom Observation Log................................................................................61 Classroom Observation: General.........................................................................62 Classroom Observation: English..........................................................................64 Classroom Observation: Mathematics.................................................................66 Classroom Observation: Science.........................................................................68 Classroom Observation History/Social Science……………………………….. 70 Mathematics Report and Essential Actions for Middle School Mathematics (MREA)..........................................................................................71 Observation Rubric for Mathematics Lesson......................................................73 Section 4: Academic Review for Second and Third Year Warned Schools………………………………………….…………….80 Modifications to the Academic Review Process…………………………..…......81 Protocol for School Support Team Coach……………………………….….…....81 Section 4 Appendix: School Support Resources...................................................82 Resource Tool for SS Coach – Principal Interview Questions..............................83 School Improvement Process Questions………………………………………....85 Superintendent’s Memo No. 202: Modifications to the School-level Academic Review Process Approved by the Board of Education……………......89 Section 5: Conditionally Accredited Schools............................................................91 Background Information………………………………………………………….92 Process for Obtaining Conditional Accreditation…………………………….…..92 Alternate Governance Committee..........................................................................94 Auditors of Conditionally Accredited Schools......................................................94 Monitoring Procedures...........................................................................................94 vii
    • Flowchart for the Conditional Accreditation Process................................................95 Conditional and PASS Reports…..............................................................................97 Section 6: Essential Actions....................................................................................102 Essential Actions for Use in Academic Reviews………...…………………...…104 Curriculum Alignment..........................................................................................104 Time and Scheduling Practices.............................................................................106 Using Data for Making Instructional and Planning Decisions............................107 Professional Development...................................................................................108 School Improvement Planning.............................................................................109 Research-based Instructional Intervention...........................................................110 Systems and Processes.........................................................................................111 School Culture.....................................................................................................113 Section 7: School Self-study Resources.................................................................114 Background Information......................................................................................115 Selecting Self- studies for Staff to Complete.......................................................115 Division Practices Self-study and Interview Form..............................................116 School Improvement Update Self-study..............................................................120 Instructional Practices Self-study........................................................................122 Instructional Practices Self-study Compilation of Results..................................126 Instructional Leadership Self-study.....................................................................129 Instructional Leadership Self-study Tally Sheet..................................................131 Instructional Leadership Self-study Results........................................................133 School Culture Self-study....................................................................................134 School Culture Self-study Tally Sheet.................................................................138 School Culture Self-study Results by Item..........................................................140 School Culture Self-study Results by Category...................................................143 Final School Self-study........................................................................................145 Research-based Instructional Intervention Self-study.........................................147 Section 8: School Improvement Planning.............................................................150 Background Information......................................................................................151 Process.................................................................................................................151 Sample of School Improvement Plan – Format #1..............................................153 Sample of School Improvement Plan – Format #2..............................................157 Section 9: October 1 Update Report.......................................................................164 Completion and Submission of Annual Reports..................................................165 Superintendent’s Memo No. 233, Annual Reports on Status of Three-Year School Improvement Plan Implementation......................................166 Sample of October 1 Signature Page ..................................................................168 Status of Implementation Three-Year School .....................................................169 viii
    • Section 10: Schools Denied Accreditation………………………………………..170 Background Information......................................................................................171 Flowchart of Options for Accreditation Denied……………...………….……...173 Section 11: Other Reviews and Interventions……………………………...……174 Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools (PASS)...................................175 Background Information......................................................................................175 Technical Assistance……………………………………………………………175 Requirements for Coaches...................................................................................176 PASS Reports..………………………………...………………………………..177 Section 12: No Child Left Behind..........................................................................183 Background…………………………………………………………….………..184 What Should Reviewers Know About School Improvement Schools…………..185 What Academic Information is Important to Know About Schools in Title I School Improvement…………………………………………………………………….188 Table 1 Overview of NCLB Process……………………………………….……189 No Child Left Behind School Plan Components Linked to Center on Innovation and Improvement (CII) Rapid Improvement Indicators………………….…….192 Section 13: Glossary.................................................................................................199 . Section 14: Office of School Improvement Contact Information........................204 Section 15: Helpful Websites...................................................................................206 Section 16: Resources and Presentations……………………………….…….….209 ix
    • Section 1 The Academic Review Process 1
    • SCHOOL-LEVEL ACADEMIC REVIEW PROCESS Background Information In 1995, the Board of Education approved revised Standards of Learning (SOL) to reflect higher student achievement expectations as part of Virginia’s educational reform program. In July 2000, the Board revised its Regulations Establishing Standards for Accrediting Public Schools in Virginia (SOA) to include increased accountability and support for schools. More recently, in July of 2002, former Governor Mark Warner announced the Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools (PASS) initiative and emphasized the importance of providing technical assistance to schools striving to improve student achievement. With that objective in mind, and with the support of the Board of Education and the Virginia Legislature, the Department of Education developed and refined the Academic Review process to provide assistance to schools needing improvement. A school-level Academic Review is one of many types of technical assistance available to public schools. A school rated Accredited with Warning in one or more content areas undergoes an Academic Review. The results of the Academic Review become the basis for school improvement planning and implementation, as described in the three-year School Improvement Plan (SIP) required by the Standards of Accreditation (SOA). Purpose of the School-level Academic Review The school-level Academic Review is designed to help schools identify and analyze instructional and organizational factors affecting student achievement. The focus of the review process is on the systems, processes, and practices that are being implemented at the school and division levels. Specifically, information is gathered that relates to the following areas of review: f Implementation of curriculum aligned with the Standards of Learning; Use of time and scheduling practices that maximize instruction; Use of data to make instructional and planning decisions; Design of ongoing, school-based program of professional development; Implementation of a school improvement plan addressing identified areas of weakness; Implementation of research-based instructional interventions for schools warned in English or mathematics; Organizational systems and processes; and School culture, including engagement of parents and the community. These areas of review provide a framework for the school-level Academic Review process. Within each of these areas, indicators reflecting effective practices have been identified for review. These areas of review are based on state and federal regulations and research-based practices found to be effective in improving student achievement. The Academic Review team collects and analyzes data that demonstrate the school’s status in implementing these practices. Based on their findings, the Academic Review team provides the school and the division with Essential Actions that can be used to develop or revise, and implement the school’s three-year School Improvement Plan, as required by the Regulations Establishing Standards for Accrediting Public Schools in Virginia. A three-year School Improvement Plan must be developed and implemented, based on the results of an academic review of each school that is rated Accredited with Warning [or Accreditation Withheld/Improving School Near Accreditation] upon receipt of notification of the awarding of this rating and receipt of the results of the academic review. (8 VAC 20-131-310.F) 2
    • The school-level Academic Review process is tailored to meet the unique needs and circumstances presented by the school. The first year that a school is rated Accredited with Warning an Academic Review team conducts a comprehensive review of the areas related to the systems, processes, and practices that are being implemented at the school and division levels as indicated above. Throughout the school’s continued status in warning, the Academic Review process is designed to monitor the implementation of the School Improvement Plan and provide technical assistance to support the school’s improvement efforts. The school-level Academic Review process is designed to be diagnostic in nature, meaning that the process is tailored to meet the unique needs and circumstances presented by the school. Specific activities are conducted during each visit. The review team collects and analyzes data that show the school’s status in implementing these practices. Based on their findings, the team provides the school and the division with information that can be used to develop, revise, and implement the school’s three-year School Improvement Plan (SIP), as required by the SOA. The division superintendent may request that the school division be allowed to conduct its own Academic Review process of schools Accredited with Warning, using its own established processes. Such requests must be sent to the Superintendent of Public Instruction for approval. The request must show that the proposed process and areas of review address the components of the school-level Academic Review process approved by the Board of Education. Overview of the Academic Review Process The school-level Academic Review is a continuous process. An overview of the process for identifying and supporting schools in the Academic Review process is described in Figure 1. The focus of the Academic Review is on the development, monitoring, and implementation of the SIP. Table 1 provides an overview of the implementation steps of the school-level Academic Review process. In the first year of warning, the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) assigns the school to one of three Academic Review “tiers” based on the circumstances of the school. Table 2 describes the tiered approach that is used to assign schools to an Academic Review process in their first year of warning. An Academic Review team, either state or locally directed, will conduct an on-site review and assist the school in identifying areas of need and writing an effective three-year SIP. Concurrent with developing a SIP, priority assistance is prescribed by the Academic Review team and approved by the Department of Education for immediate delivery. If the school is not Fully Accredited in the year following the Academic Review team’s visit, the VDOE will assign a School Support Coach to provide technical assistance to the school and/or division to modify, monitor, and implement the SIP. Figure 2 illustrates the Academic Review process for each year the school is Accredited with Warning. A full Academic Review is completed the first year of warning. If the school continues to be warned, the School Support Coach will focus on the SIP, its implementation, and rate of progress. The fourth year as Accredited with Warning can lead to a rating of Accreditation Denied or Conditionally Accredited as illustrated in Figure 2. The timeline of activities of Academic Reviews or School Support Coach visits are outlined in Table 3. Each review is unique based on the needs and challenges of each school. The goal of each review is to increase student achievement and to build local capacity for improvement at the school and division levels. Technical Assistance Profile (TAP) The Technical Assistance Profile (TAP) functions as the nucleus of the Academic Review reporting process by providing a comprehensive profile of schools that are not rated Fully Accredited and/or are identified in Title I School Improvement. Components of the TAP include school demographic information, needs assessments, current Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) interventions, and current and previous Virginia Department of Education reports. After accreditation ratings and adequate yearly progress (AYP) results are announced by the VDOE, the Office of School Improvement will complete the TAP for each school rated Accredited with Warning, Conditionally Accredited, in Title I School Improvement, as well as participants of the Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools (PASS). 3
    • This information will be distributed to the Academic Review Team Leaders, School Support Coaches, PASS Coaches, and Conditional Auditors. During the course of the academic year, additional Academic Review reports will be incorporated into the TAP with the final document encompassing all reports related to a particular school. 4
    • Figure 1 ACADEMIC REVIEW: A CONTINUOUS PROCESS Accreditation Ratings are Determined If Accredited With Warning If Accreditation is Denied, the SOA requirements are monitored by the Department of Education Academic Review Process Department of Education staff reviews data and assigns the school to an Academic Review tier or a School Support Coach (SS Coach) is assigned If Not Warned in Previous of the Table 1: Overview Year: School is assigned to an Academic Review If Warned in Previous Year, tier; Academic Review team assigned to the SS Coach is assigned school Based on academic review findings and current year’s data and review, SIP is reviewed, school improvement process is Academic Review team conducts on-site monitored, and technical support is given to review the school’s improvement committee by the SS Coach. SIP is written School and/or division technical assistance if provided by the SS Coach Priority technical assistance is provided SIP is implemented and monitored until the throughout the remainder of the year and school is no longer warned or accreditation is school improvement planning and denied implementation are monitored 5
    • Table 1 Academic Review Process Overview of the Academic Review Process Step 1 Review of Accountability Data The Department of Education reviews accountability data for all schools Accredited with Warning. Based on the review of data, if the school was not warned in the previous year, the school is assigned to one of three tiers of review (see Table 2) and the Department of Education identifies the membership of the Academic Review Team. If the school was warned in the previous year, based on the review of data and report of academic review findings, the Department of Education assigns a SS Coach to provide technical assistance. Step 2 Academic Review for First Year Warned Schools The Academic Review Team completes a review of the school resulting in a draft report of findings that is shared with the principal and superintendent or designee. The Department will approve the final report of findings and send a copy of the report to the division superintendent and local school board chairperson. Step 3 School Support Coach for Second-Year and Third -Year Warned Schools If a school is Accredited with Warning for the second or third year, the SS Coach provides focused technical assistance and monitoring of the School Improvement Plan (SIP) throughout the year as prescribed by the level of intervention (technical assistance). Step 4 School Improvement Planning The Academic Review Team assists the school in writing an effective School Improvement Plan (SIP) based on the team’s report of findings. Immediate priority assistance is provided throughout the remainder of the year. For those schools warned in the previous year, the Department of Education reviews accountability data, assigns the SS Coach and assigns a level of technical assistance. The SS Coach monitors the implementation of the SIP and assists, if necessary, with modifications to the plan. The SS Coach provides guidance and technical assistance to the school’s improvement committee in promoting school improvement. 6
    • Table 2 Tier Assignments for Academic Review Teams Tier* Characteristics of Schools Academic Review Academic Review Team Team Members Members Provided by Provided by VDOE Local Education Agency (LEA) (certified in process) Tier I: State Any school warned in 2 or more Academic Review None Directed content areas OR Title I school Team Leader, warned in English or VDOE staff or mathematics that DID NOT contractors meet requirements in the assigned to assist content area(s) to make in the school in the Adequately Yearly Progress area(s) of (AYP) under NCLB improvement Tier II: Locally Title I school warned in English Academic Review LEA staff assigned to assist Assisted or mathematics that DID meet Team Leader, the school in the area(s) of requirements in the content VDOE staff or improvement area(s) to make AYP under contractors assigned to assist NCLB OR Non-Title I school the school in the warned in English or area(s) of mathematics that DID NOT improvement meet requirements in the content area(s) to make AYP under NCLB OR Any school warned in science or history /social sciences with a pass rate more than 14 points lower than that required for full accreditation Tier III: Locally Non-Title I school warned in Academic Review LEA staff assigned to assist Directed Team Leader the school in the area(s) of English or mathematics that improvement DID meet requirements in the content area(s) to make AYP under NCLB OR Any school warned in science or history/ social sciences with pass rate within 14 points of that required for full accreditation *The Superintendent of Public Instruction may approve other school-level Academic Review tiers or other VDOE initiatives as alternatives to approved review processes dependent upon special needs and circumstances. 7
    • Figure 2 Office of School Improvement Academic Review Flow Chart WARNED SCHOOLS SS Coach SIP Review and School Improvement Technical Support Full Review OR School Support Review and Coach 8
    • Table 3 Academic Review Visit Timeline of Activities AR Visit Purpose Persons Responsible Preliminary • Academic Review Team Leader Academic Review Team meeting with should introduce himself/herself to Leader Principal (optional; the principal. • Ensure that the can be by principal has received the required telephone) self-studies and understands how to administer and compile them. • Describe the AR process and answer any questions that the principal may have. • Schedule the initial visit within the next weeks. Consider scheduling the on-site visit as well. • Review the school calendar and master schedule to ensure that the desired content observations can be completed on the scheduled review days. • Schedule and/or conduct the staff orientation, if desired. Initial Visit • Determine current status of Academic Review Team improvement efforts. • Interview Leader principal, staff, school improvement team and observe classrooms. • Prescribe on-site visit. On-Site Visit (All • Assess instructional and Academic Review Team Tiers) organizational practices. • Identify areas of strength and areas for improvement. • Establish essential actions for continued improvement. Follow-Up Visits (All Technical Assistance • Facilitate Coordinated by Academic Tiers as needed) incorporation of essential actions Review Team Leader; TA into SIP. • Facilitate and support providers may vary implementation of essential actions. Progress Check • Determine progress Academic Review Team of school in implementing Leader essential actions. 9
    • Final Visit (optional) • Identify significant changes in Academic Review Team practice, and recognize Leader accomplishments. • Assess status of school improvement planning efforts. 10
    • The Academic Review Team Glossary Academic Review Team Leader The Academic Review Team Leader (ARTL) is an experienced reviewer assigned specific schools within the state. This person assists the Office of School Improvement (OSI) with administrative duties such as scheduling and coordinating visits, training, facilitating technical assistance, reviewing School Improvement Plans (SIP) and reviewing and submitting reports. He or she is the leader of the Academic Review (AR) team for division-level and school reviews, serves as a liaison between the review team and the division superintendent, and leads the reviews in his/her assigned schools. Another Academic Review Team Leader responsibility is to assist and support principals with the implementation of the Essential Actions as recommended by the AR team. The Academic Review Team Leader may serve as a technical assistance provider for selected schools, as appropriate. The Academic Review Team Leader is responsible for the final report and distributes the report to the OSI, the division, the school, and the AR team. The Academic Review Team Leader is responsible for coordinating and conducting follow-up visits and any final visits to the school, as needed. The Academic Review Team Leader provides the school principal and the division superintendent with the names of the team members in advance of the review. The superintendent may, with good cause, request the replacement of a team member. Academic Review Tier Status Schools Accredited with Warning may be designated as Tier I, II, or III according to a variety of criteria. Table 2 in this section presents an explanation of tier status. Central Office Contact To facilitate the review process, the local superintendent assigns a central office staff member to serve as a contact person for the AR team. This person may also assist the team with review activities as appropriate. The ARTL consults with the OSI and the superintendent to determine in what capacity the central office contact person will assist and support the team. Review Team For the on-site visit, the AR team may include additional academic consultants, Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) staff members, special education staff and consultants, and Local Education Agency (LEA) representatives. Team members are experienced educators selected from a cadre of academic consultants and VDOE staff who meet specific criteria established by the department. All team members have participated in a training program and have had experience reviewing curriculum and analyzing data. An effort will be made to designate one member of the AR team who has expertise in one or more of the content areas in which the school is warned. School Support Coach (SS Coach) The AR process for schools warned for the second or third consecutive year is through the support of the SS Coach. Schools that have had an Academic Review but are subsequently warned will receive technical assistance from the SS Coach based on the specific needs of the school. Team Member Academic consultants serve as AR team members. The primary duty of the team members is to serve on AR teams during the on-site visit and provide technical assistance in follow-up visits. In local divisions with schools designated as Tier II or III, local school division personnel may serve as AR team members. 11
    • Section 2 Areas of Review and Their Indicators 12
    • Introduction By reviewing documents, conducting interviews, and observing classrooms and operational practices, Academic Review team members collect data related to the following eight primary areas of review: • Implementation of curriculum aligned with the Standards of Learning; • Use of time and scheduling practices that maximize instruction; • Use of data to make instructional and planning decisions; • Design of ongoing, school-based program of professional development; • Implementation of a school improvement plan addressing identified areas of weakness; • Implementation of research-based instructional interventions for schools warned in English or mathematics; • Organizational systems and processes; and • School culture, including engagement of parents and the community. School and division practices related to these primary areas of review are assessed within the context of the following: • The school’s three-year School Improvement Plan ( SIP) (8 VAC 20-131-310.F); • The research-based instructional intervention method adopted by the school, if the school was warned in English and/or mathematics (8 VAC 20-131-310.B); • The school division’s and school’s organizational systems and processes; • The school’s learning environment and readiness for change, as evidenced by the school’s culture; and • The school division’s and school’s use of resources, including fiscal resources. This section of the guide provides a research base for the eight areas of review. A summary of Virginia’s regulations related to these areas is also provided. 13
    • Curriculum Alignment with State Learning Standards What the Research Says What Virginia’s Educational Reform Says Curriculum alignment can be defined as The Standards of Quality (SOQ) require the Board of the degree to which expectations and Education to establish “educational objectives” (known as the assessments are in agreement and serve in Standards of Learning or SOL) and to revise them periodically. conjunction with one another to guide the Local school boards are also required to “implement these system in ensuring that students learn objectives.” The SOQ also authorize the Board of Education to what they are expected to know and do provide assessments that determine the level of achievement of (Webb, 1997). More specific to the the SOL by all students (22.1-253.13:1). Academic Review process and Virginia’s education reform initiatives, alignment The Standards of Accreditation (SOA) require school divisions may be defined as follows: to develop curricula based upon the SOL for students in grades The degree of agreement between the K-12. Classroom instruction of the SOL must be designed to local curriculum and the Virginia accommodate all students (8 VAC 20-131-70). Students must Standards of Learning (SOL) that ensures pass prescribed numbers of SOL tests to be eligible for valid and accurate information about Standard and Advanced Studies diplomas (8 VAC 20-131-50). student performance in an academic content area when measured by the SOL tests. Alignment, therefore, is achieved through the establishment of : • content—what students should know and be able to do (SOL); • a curriculum developed for each set of the broad content standards; and • systems of assessments matched with the content. In an aligned system, all content standards must be accounted for in some manner (Mitchell, 1996). Fenwick English (1997) summarizes the importance of curriculum alignment when he says, “Kids do better on tests when you teach them what it is you’re going to test them on than if you don’t. There’s no research to dispute that.” According to English (1997), curriculum, instruction, and assessments must be aligned so that what is taught is tested and what is tested is taught. 14
    • CURRICULUM ALIGNMENT INDICATORS Numbe r Descriptor CA 1 WRITTEN CURRICULUM CA 1.1 Making curriculum resources and supplementary materials available for use by teachers Establishing specific learning objectives that align with state learning standards and address CA 1.2 essential understandings, knowledge, and skills Listing instructional strategies and learning activities that align with state learning standards and CA 1.3 address essential understandings, knowledge, and skills Developing daily lesson plans that fit logically within the unit and within the context of the CA 1.4 overall curriculum Using student performance data to develop daily lesson plans that reflect consideration of the CA 1.5 learning strengths and needs of students Evaluating the appropriateness of pacing and mapping regularly, and making appropriate CA 1.6 adjustments Analyzing the curriculum components across grade levels in like content areas to identify areas CA 1.7 of strength and areas of weakness CA 2 TAUGHT CURRICULUM Focusing instruction on specific learning objectives that promote the attainment of state learning CA 2.1 standards and address essential understandings, knowledge, and skills Using available curriculum resources and supplementary materials appropriately to promote CA 2.2 attainment of state learning standards CA 2.3 Presenting accurate knowledge through meaningful contexts and connected disciplines CA 2.4 Employing instructional strategies that are research-based and proven effective Assigning projects and tasks that require students to integrate and apply their learning in CA 2.5 meaningful contexts and to reflect on what they have learned CA 2.6 Providing students with learning experiences that engage them in active learning Differentiating instruction to meet the identified needs of individual students and groups of CA 2.7 students CA 2.8 Providing all students access to available materials, resources, and services to support learning CA 2.9 Monitoring teacher implementation of the curriculum throughout the year CA Providing teachers with feedback on the alignment of instruction to state learning standards and 2.10 essential understandings, knowledge, and skills CA 3 ASSESSED CURRICULUM CA 3.1 Assessing student progress on a regular basis Ensuring that assessments are aligned with state learning standards and essential understandings, CA 3.2 knowledge, and skills Providing opportunities for students to take tests that are similar in content and format to state CA 3.3 assessments Using a variety of classroom-based assessment methods and tools (student self-evaluation, CA 3.4 performance checklists, rubrics, scales, projects, products, tests, quizzes) before, during, and after units of study to monitor student progress Providing assessments that require students to use knowledge, comprehension, application and CA 3.5 reasoning skills Periodically reporting student progress toward mastery of learning objectives to students and CA 3.6 parents in a way that is clear and understandable 15
    • Monitoring the results of classroom-based assessments to ensure attainment of the knowledge CA 3.7 and skills required for success on state assessments The Use of Time and School Scheduling Practices What the Research Says What Virginia’s Educational Reform Says When students spend time in classrooms Virginia’s SOA reflect the importance of maintaining a school actively focused on learning objectives, they do environment that maximizes its potential for instructional time. better at mastering the subject matter (Cawelti, Principals must protect academic instructional time from 1999). Fitzpatrick’s (1998) research supports interruptions to the greatest extent possible, allowing the the use of instructional practices that increase maximum time possible to be spent on teaching and learning time-on-task by actively engaging students in (8 VAC 20-131-210.B). Teachers are expected to use that learning. Cotton (1995) suggests that time effectively to provide educationally sound instruction classrooms be organized and managed to (8 VAC 20-131-220). minimize disruptions, to keep transition time between activities short, and to establish Virginia’s SOA prescribe the length of the school day, the routines for handling administrative matters, length of the school year (8 VAC 20-131-150), and the number thereby keeping non-instructional time to a of clock hours of instruction that schools must provide in the minimum. various courses taught (8 VAC 20-131-80; 8 VAC 20-131-90; 8 VAC 20-131-100). The SOA also offer opportunities for Effective schools manage operational practices schools to adjust their scheduling to meet these requirements to maximize the amount of time allocated for in different ways. learning (Cotton, 1995). They schedule core academics so that these subjects are least likely to be interrupted by other school events (Fitzpatrick, 1998). Effective schools use alternative scheduling practices to maximize academic learning time, and they also provide instructional support outside of the regular school day to students in need (Cotton, 2000). 16
    • TIME AND SCHEDULING INDICATORS Number Descriptor TS 1 INSTRUCTIONAL TIME Basing decisions related to the pacing of the curriculum on state test blueprints and on student TS 1.1 performance data TS 1.2 Arranging classroom instructional time to allow for a variety of instructional activities TS 1.3 Organizing instruction and structuring lessons to maximize student time on task TS 1.4 Maintaining a high level of student engagement throughout the lesson Using classroom instructional time to provide enrichment opportunities and support services to TS 1.5 individuals and small groups, based on students’ identified strengths and needs TS 1.6 Establishing classroom routines that maximize the use of non-instructional time Establishing school-wide organizational practices that minimize unnecessary interruptions to TS 1.7 instructional time TS 1.8 Regularly monitoring the use of instructional time in classrooms TS 2 SCHOOL SCHEDULING PRACTICES Meeting SOA requirements for length of school year, length of school day, or number of hours of instruction in core areas • Length of school year (180 days OR 990 hours grades 1-12; 540 hours TS 2.1 kindergarten) • Length of school day (5-1/2 hours; 3 hours minimum for kindergarten only) • Number or percentage of hours of instruction in core areas (ES: 75% in 4 core areas; MS/HS: 140 clock hours OR 560 total in 4 core areas for grade 6) Building schedules based on identified learning and instructional needs that support the TS 2.2 implementation of improvement initiatives TS 2.3 Scheduling nonacademic events to have a minimal impact on instructional time TS 2.4 Allocating time in the schedule for teachers to collaborate with other teachers, parents, and students TS 2.5 Establishing procedures and communicating expectations related to the allocation and use of time Ensuring that the time allocated for specific activities is used to complete essential tasks according to TS 2.6 established expectations Using a school schedule that is conducive to providing intervention and remediation strategies and TS 2.7 programs within the school day TS 2.8 Allocating resources to extend learning time beyond the regular school day Regularly monitoring the implementation of schedules and making adjustments, as needed, to TS 2.9 maximize efficient use of time 17
    • The Use of Data for Making Instructional and Planning Decisions What the Research Says What Virginia’s Educational Reform Says According to Joseph Juran (1992), the term The SOA address the need for schools to use data to make data refers to a body of information derived decisions about instruction and planning. The SOA require the from prior activity, organized and studied to school staff and community representatives to review annually aid in the conduct of future activities. Data is the extent to which the school has met its prior goals and the major resource for planning. objectives; to analyze the school's student performance data, including data by grade level or academic department as Tom Peters (1987) calls data the basis for necessary; and to report these outcomes to the division measuring improvement, saying, “What gets superintendent and the community in accordance with local measured gets done.” The continual collection school board policy (8 VAC 20-131-20). of important data fuels improvement. A quality system that includes data collection and analysis and the setting of goals drives positive change. The constant feedback provided by data keeps the achievement of goals in focus. 18
    • USING DATA INDICATORS Number Descriptor D1 INSTRUCTION Using data/evidence from multiple sources to plan instruction that promotes the attainment of state D 1.1 standards and essential understandings, knowledge, and skills Collecting, compiling, and analyzing data related to instructional practices to determine the degree D 1.2 of alignment with state learning standards and to identify professional development needs Sharing responsibility for collecting and compiling data related to instructional programs and D 1.3 services D 1.4 Sharing responsibility for analyzing data and making instructional decisions based on the results Collecting and compiling individual student performance data to identify students’ needs, plan D 1.5 instruction, and monitor individual student progress over time Using results of data analyses to design, monitor, and evaluate instructional programs, support D 1.6 services, and professional development activities Training staff in the processes and procedures for collecting and analyzing classroom-based, local, D 1.7 and state assessment data to make instructional decisions D2 SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PLANNING Compiling and using data/evidence from several sources to develop a profile of the school related D 2.1 to student performance Analyzing data/evidence related to the perceived limitations of instructional practices and D 2.2 organizational conditions to identify goals and objectives for school improvement planning Analyzing data over time to look for trends in student performance and to identify strengths and D 2.3 limitations of instructional programs and services Disaggregating state and local student performance data by appropriate subgroups of students to D 2.4 identify needs and monitor student progress Collecting and analyzing data/evidence on a regular, periodic basis to monitor plan D 2.5 implementation and to evaluate improvements over time Making data relevant to the implementation of school improvement strategies and initiatives D 2.6 available and accessible to staff Training staff in collecting and analyzing data to identify relevant goals and objectives for school D 2.7 improvement planning and to monitor the plan’s implementation and evaluate improvements over time 19
    • Professional Development What the Research Says What Virginia’s Educational Reform Says Not only does effective teaching require a The SOA require the principal to involve the staff of the thorough knowledge of academic content and a school in identifying the types of professional development mastery of professional teaching strategies, it needed to improve student achievement and to ensure that the also requires effective counseling and staff members participate in those activities. Additionally the communication skills. Professional development principal is required to provide for needed professional should be an ongoing initiative that assists development (8 VAC 20-131-210). The SOA also require, for teachers in assessing the effects of their teaching schools that are accredited with warning, the development of a on student performance. Darling-Hammond and School Improvement Plan that includes plans for professional McLaughlin (1995) found that successful development of staff (8 VAC 20-131-310). professional development strategies share several features. Such strategies tend to be • experiential, engaging teachers in concrete tasks of teaching, assessment, and observation that illuminate the processes of learning and development; • grounded in participants' questions, inquiry, and experimentation as well as profession-wide research; • collaborative, involving a sharing of knowledge among educators; • connected to and derived from teachers' work with their students, as well as to examinations of subject matter and teaching methods; • sustained and intensive, supported by modeling, coaching, and problem solving around specific problems of practice; and • connected to other aspects of school change. These approaches shift from old models of "teacher training" or "in-servicing" to a model in which teachers confront research and theory directly, regularly evaluate their practice, and make use of their colleagues for mutual assistance. 20
    • PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS Number Descriptor PD 1 ORGANIZATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Designing an ongoing, school-based program of professional development that is based on the PD 1.1 analyses of data and is aligned with the school’s goals for improving student achievement Basing professional development programs and activities on research-based principles and PD 1.2 practices Allocating resources to support the professional development program and ensure implementation PD 1.3 of improvement initiatives Focusing the core of staff learning on research-based content and instructional practices that have PD 1.4 been proven effective in improving student achievement Identifying essential learning outcomes from professional development activities that will be used PD 1.5 to change practice Including theory, demonstration, practice with feedback, and coaching in the school’s professional PD 1.6 development programs and activities PD 1.7 Monitoring the degree to which new practices are implemented as prescribed PD 1.8 Determining the effect of changes in practice on student learning PD 2 PERSONAL PROFESSIONAL GROWTH & EVALUATION Embedding professional growth and development into job performance expectations and the PD 2.1 performance evaluation process Analyzing data/evidence from a variety of relevant sources to identify goals for individual growth PD 2.2 and development Aligning plans for individual professional development with local improvement initiatives and with PD 2.3 areas identified for individual growth Connecting teachers’ learning outcomes from professional development activities directly to their PD 2.4 work in classrooms Connecting teachers to external resources such as conferences, workshops, and support networks PD 2.5 that align with the needs of individual teachers, departments/grade levels, or local improvement initiatives Providing opportunities for teachers to experiment, practice, and obtain feedback as they integrate PD 2.6 newly learned skills into their repertoire of instructional practices PD 2.7 Regularly monitoring the progress of staff in achieving individual professional development goals 21
    • School Improvement Planning to adjust effort toward improvement.” What the Research Says Glickman (1993), in Renewing America’s Schools, makes two According to DuFour and Eaker (1998), “One salient points regarding action without study and planning that of the most difficult problems that school never turns into action. Action is effective only with careful practitioners must overcome in their efforts to planning, and planning is wasted without effective action. He bring about meaningful school improvement is states, “Action, planning, and study should be simultaneous; the mistaken notion that school improvement is one activity should feed information into the others.” a short-term task to be completed rather than a long-term commitment to a new approach.” Planning efforts, therefore, should articulate goals and strategies over a number of years. Harris and Carr (2001), in Succeeding with Standards: Linking Curriculum, Assessment, and Action Planning, identify a school improvement planning process that involves collecting data, analyzing that data, and then making instructional decisions that are directly linked to the findings. After thoroughly examining data and making instructional decisions, the next step is to develop an action plan. The action plan establishes key benchmarks, interim checkpoints, and a timeline. Peters and Austin (1982) make a solid case for monitoring the progress of plan implementation over time in A Passion for Excellence. They define monitoring as paying attention to what is happening. For schools and students to make gains, there must be a system for collecting and analyzing data in place. Harris and Carr (2001) indicate that an important element of school improvement plans is the periodic, interim measurement of student performance. Interim measurements provide the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the action plan. Harris and Carr (2001) use the phrase “Keep your eye on the prize.” They suggest that collecting and analyzing data on a regular and consistent basis will track growth and flag stagnation. They cite Schmoker (1996) as saying that data can be “an invaluable tool, capable of telling us how we are doing, what is and is not working, and how What Virginia’s Education Reform Says 22
    • Virginia’s Standards of Quality (SOQ) speak to the need for school divisions and schools to develop long-range plans. Each school division is expected to develop a six-year School Improvement Plan that is based upon each school’s biennial plan (22.1253.13:6.C). The SOQ also require that “corrective action plans” be submitted to the Board of Education for any schools “not meeting the criteria for … effectiveness as determined by the Board” (22.1253.13:3.F). In the Regulations Establishing Standards for Accrediting Public Schools in Virginia (SOA), the Board determined that the schools not meeting the criteria for effectiveness are those schools rated Accredited with Warning in specific subject areas. The SOA require that each of these schools develop a three-year School Improvement Plan, which is to be based on the results of an Academic Review, and that this SIP be approved by the local superintendent and school board (8 VAC 20-131-310.F). This SIP must include nine components, which are described in Section 8 VAC 20-131-310.G of the SOA. Schools are required to report annually on the implementation status of their SIP (8 VAC 20-131-310.H). In this report, schools are to provide evidence (data) of implementation of specific strategies. SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PLANNING INDICATORS Number Descriptor SIP 1 CONTENT OF PLAN Basing the three-year School Improvement Plan (SIP) on the results of previous Academic SIP 1.1 Reviews, as required by the Standards of Accreditation (SOA) Developing the three-year SIP with the assistance of parents and teachers, as required by the SIP 1.2 SOA Using baseline data/measures relevant to areas for improvement to identify goals for school SIP 1.3 improvement planning SIP 1.4 Establishing clear goals that relate to student achievement SIP 1.5 Establishing yearly, measurable objectives or benchmarks that are linked to goals 23
    • Describing the strategies to be implemented and the specific action steps to be taken to meet SIP 1.6 each objective Including data collection activities at regular, logical (not random) intervals throughout plan, as SIP 1.7 part of strategies/action steps SIP 1.8 Including a system of monitoring student progress at regular, logical (not random) intervals SIP 1.9 Selecting achievement indicators that are appropriate to goals and objectives SIP 1.10 Identifying sources of evidence that are appropriate to strategies/action steps Identifying person(s) responsible for implementing strategies/action steps and collecting SIP 1.11 data/evidence Establishing timelines over a three-year period and linking shorter timeframes to specific action SIP 1.12 steps/strategies Including all nine components required by Section 8VAC20-131-310.G of the SOA (Refer to TA SIP 1.13 Document in AR User’s Handbook or SOA for list of components.) SIP 2 IMPLEMENTATION SIP 2.1 Focusing implementation on improved student achievement SIP 2.2 Implementing strategies and action steps in the manner described in SIP SIP 2.3 Documenting implementation of strategies/action steps Collecting and compiling data/evidence of the degree to which strategies and action steps are SIP 2.4 implemented as described in the SIP SIP 2.5 Monitoring the efforts of staff in carrying out their responsibilities SIP 2.6 Meeting established timelines for completing strategies/action steps and collecting data/evidence SIP 2.7 Establishing procedures for macro-to-micro analysis of data SIP 3 RESULTS SIP 3.1 Establishing a system for monitoring and adjusting the SIP Analyzing data/evidence to determine the degree to which strategies/actions steps are SIP 3.2 implemented as intended Systematically monitoring student achievement at regular intervals throughout the year to SIP 3.3 determine effectiveness of improvement initiatives SIP 3.4 Using data to determine the impact of improvement initiatives on student learning SIP 3.5 Modifying goals and/or objectives based upon the analyses of date/evidence Modifying less successful strategies and adding new strategies, as needed, to promote continued SIP 3.6 improvement SIP 3.7 Reaching established student achievement benchmarks and/or objectives SIP 3.8 Communicating the status of implementation and the results to stakeholders Research-based Instructional Intervention What the Research Says What Virginia’s Education Reform Says 24
    • Researchers have studied numerous Schools accredited with warning in English and/or instructional methods and models/programs mathematics are “expected to adopt a research-based designed to improve student achievement. instructional intervention that has a proven track record of Results of their studies have been compiled and success at raising student achievement in those areas” (8 VAC evaluated. 20-131-310.B). Schools that had such a method or model/program in place prior to an Academic Review would be considered to have met this requirement. The SOA require the Board to publish a list of “recommended instructional methods” (8 VAC 20131-310.D). The Department of Education has compiled a list of instructional interventions and cross-referenced them to instructional methods inherent in them. This list is provided on the DOE website http://www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/. Schools may adopt and implement a research-based instructional intervention that is not on the list by requesting a waiver from the VDOE. However, they must be able to show that the intervention meets the criteria established by the Board, which include • Science-based evidence of effectiveness; • Implementation and capacity for technical assistance; • Replicability; and • Correlation with or adaptability to the Virginia Standards of Learning in English or mathematics. • Information about how to access the waiver on the website Academic Review team members focus their review on the implementation of the instructional intervention and on how the school determines its effectiveness in improving student achievement. Reviewers do not evaluate the intervention itself. RESEARCH-BASED INSTRUCTIONAL INTERVENTION INDICATORS Number Descriptor RBI 1 PLANNING RBI 1.1 Describing baseline measures upon which the intervention selection is based 25
    • RBI 1.2 Using data to determine which intervention would best meet the needs of students Providing evidence that the available research supports the intervention as one that has been RBI 1.3 proven to positively affect student achievement Providing evidence that the adopted intervention meets Board of Education criteria for identifying and selecting interventions that are not on the Board approved list, but include instructional methods with a proven track record of success at raising student achievement. • Scientifically- RBI 1.4 based evidence of effectiveness • Implementation and capacity for technical assistance • Replicability • Correlation with or adaptability to the Virginia Standards of Learning in English or mathematics RBI 1.5 Linking implementation of the intervention with the three-year SIP Describing specific action steps that will be taken to provide training, feedback, and support for RBI 1.6 implementation RBI 1.7 Establishing specific timeframes for action steps RBI 1.8 Establishing regular intervals for collecting and analyzing data/evidence of implementation RBI 2 IMPLEMENTATION Designing a professional development program to train teachers in the intended outcomes, key RBI 2.1 aspects, and protocols of the intervention RBI 2.2 Ensuring that teachers understand and can articulate key aspects and protocols of the intervention Allocating sufficient resources to support implementation (time, materials, supplies, space, RBI 2.3 personnel) Making internal and/or external facilitators available to teachers to provide the technical RBI 2.4 assistance necessary for successful implementation (staff development, consultation, collaborative problem solving) RBI 2.5 Documenting implementation of the key aspects and protocols Analyzing data/evidence of implementation of the intervention to determine the degree to which it RBI 2.6 is being implemented as prescribed by developers RBI 2.7 Regularly providing teachers with feedback on the implementation of the intervention RBI 2.8 Focusing implementation on improving student achievement RBI 3 RESULTS RBI 3.1 Using student progress assessments inherent in the intervention as intended by developers RBI 3.2 Identifying other performance data that provide evidence of student achievement RBI 3.3 Systematically monitoring student achievement at regular intervals throughout the year RBI 3.4 Reaching the school’s established student achievement benchmarks Correlating data/evidence of implementation with student achievement data to determine RBI 3.5 effectiveness of the intervention RBI 3.6 Establishing a system for monitoring and adjusting the intervention RBI 3.7 Modifying implementation, as allowable, based upon the analyses of data RBI 3.8 Communicating implementation status and results to stakeholders Organizational Systems and Processes What the Research Says What Virginia’s Educational Reform Says 26
    • All organizations have systems by which they While neither Virginia law nor Board of Education regulations define roles and responsibilities, manage specifically require that certain systems be in place, best operations, and lead change. To operate practices dictate that effective systems and processes are effectively, the systems themselves must be needed to accomplish tasks required by SOA. For example, as clearly defined and managed (Bolman and the instructional leader of the school, the principal is expected Deal, 1988). An effective system has the to protect instructional time, analyze test results, provide “right” people doing the “right” things in the professional development, monitor and evaluate the quality of “right” way. instruction, allocate and manage resources, facilitate communications with parents, and maintain a safe environment As organizations seek to change, systems must for learning. The success of the principal in accomplishing change. If little systemic strength exists in an these tasks depends on the implementation of effective systems organization, then clearly defined plans must and processes. be developed and implemented to increase the probability that change will occur (Novick, Kress, et al., 2002). Research conducted by the Virginia Department of Education indicates that schools rated Accredited with Warning for multiple years tend to have weak systems for defining roles and responsibilities, for managing operations, and for leading change (Virginia Department of Education, 2002). Conversely, earlier research conducted by the VDOE found that high-poverty schools having high levels of student achievement had well-defined, effective systems in place (Virginia Department of Education, 2000). SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES INDICATORS Number Descriptor SP 1 SYSTEMS 27
    • SP 1.1 Using the school’s beliefs, vision, and mission to set goals, establish systems, and develop procedures SP 1.2 Analyzing data to identify strengths and needs at the individual and school levels SP 1.3 Involving stakeholders in developing systems and processes that address identified needs and the school’s improvement goals SP 1.4 Providing decision-makers with the information needed to solve problems and make effective instructional decisions SP 1.5 Using accurate and complete information to make decisions related to improvement initiatives SP 1.6 Monitoring and adjusting systems and processes to promote continued improvement SP 2 PROCESSES SP 2.1 Establishing systems and/or processes that focus on identified needs SP 2.2 Designing and defining processes so that desired tasks are accomplished according to expectations SP 2.3 Addressing issues that may hinder the accomplishment of tasks SP 2.4 Involving staff in the development of processes and in making decisions related to implementation SP 2.5 Designing processes that are cost effective with regard to the use of human, physical, and financial resources resources SP 2.6 Allocating sufficient resources to accomplish tasks SP 2.7 Assessing the degree to which processes are implemented and tasks are completed as intended SP 2.8 Assigning staff members to monitor implementation of processes SP 3 PROCEDURES AND ACTIVITIES SP 3.1 Providing opportunities for those affected by organizational changes to have input into the development of expectations and procedures related to the changes SP 3.2 Specifying procedures to be implemented and activities to be completed as part of the established system/process SP 3.3 Communicating expectations and responsibilities of individuals and groups in implementing procedures and activities SP 3.4 Establishing timelines for completing specific activities SP 3.5 Ensuring that activities are completed according to established timelines and procedures SP 3.6 Evaluating implementation of procedures based on their alignment with identified goals and the degree to which they advance the goals School Culture 28
    • Education, 2000). By sharing leadership and responsibilities, What the Research Says focusing on student achievement, and working collaboratively, school staff conduct well-planned and extensive outreach While systems, processes, and practices are the programs to communicate with parents and community focus of Academic Reviews, the importance of members. Doing so stimulates understanding of and support school culture in improving student for the school program (Cawelti, 1999). Extending the shared achievement cannot be ignored. It is the culture leadership opportunities to the school community encourages of the school that determines the effectiveness the community to share responsibility for student achievement of the systems, processes, and practices in and for school effectiveness (Walsh & Sattes, 2000). bringing about change in the organization and in supporting improved student achievement. The beliefs and actions of people within a school establish its culture (Novick, Kress, et al., 2002). A study of high-poverty schools with high student achievement showed that the staff believe all students to be capable of academic success, and they develop systems of high expectations reinforcing that belief (Virginia Department of Education, 2000). Strong leadership is essential for raising student achievement. An essential function of the school leader (principal) is to lead the process for establishing a common vision, clearly defined goals, and priorities related to school improvement (Corallo & McDonald, 2002). Effective principals take an active role in setting high expectations and instructional goals for student achievement (Bamburg, 1994). A study of high-poverty schools with high student achievement showed that principals of these schools are well aware of instructional practices in classrooms, regularly monitor the progress students are making, and have regular professional dialogues with teachers about student achievement data (Virginia Department of Education, 2000). Leadership must extend beyond the principal. It is essential for teachers to share in the leadership of and responsibility for student achievement (Corallo & McDonald, 2002). Principals in successful schools empower teachers as leaders, employ team-building strategies, and provide systems and processes by which teachers work collaboratively to improve student achievement. As a result, all teachers in the school accept responsibility for student achievement (Virginia Department of 29
    • What Virginia’s Educational Reform Say The SOA require each school to have a current philosophy, goals, and objectives that serve as a basis for establishing all policies and procedures (8 VAC 20131-20). The philosophy, goals, and objectives must be developed with the input of both professional and lay people who represent the populations served by the school. In addition, the school must consider the needs of the community when creating and reviewing the biennial school plan. This process of developing a shared mission based on a common set of beliefs is critical to establishing a school culture that is conducive to raising student achievement. Schools are also required by the SOA to promote communications and foster mutual understanding with parents and the community (8 VAC 20-131-270). To accomplish this, schools are expected to involve parents, teachers, citizens, businesses, and community agencies and representatives in the school improvement planning process and in the development of the educational program. Each year, parents and students must be informed of the school’s performance expectations for students. In addition, the school must provide parents and the community with an annual School Performance Report Card that includes data related to the academic achievement of students; student enrollment, attendance, and discipline information; the qualifications of teachers; and the accreditation rating of the school. Specific responsibilities of school staff related to school culture are also addressed in the SOA. As the instructional leader of the school, the principal is expected to effectively manage school operations, monitor instruction, and to involve parents and citizens in the educational program (8 VAC 20-131-210). Teachers are expected to provide instruction in an atmosphere of mutual respect and courtesy, serve as role models, and assess student progress and report such progress to parents (8 VAC 20-131-220). In addition, support staff are expected to work with the principal and teaching staff to promote student achievement and successful attainment of the school’s goals. SCHOOL CULTURE INDICATORS Number Descriptor SC 1 LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Basing the mission of the school on the shared beliefs and common vision of the members of the SC 1.1 school community SC 1.2 Clearly communicating expectations for student performance to students and parents Implementing instructional and organizational practices that reflect high expectations for all SC 1.3 students and consideration of the culture and needs of the school community 30
    • Assigning teachers by matching the needs of students with the endorsements and demonstrated SC 1.4 strengths of teachers SC 1.5 Maintaining a safe and orderly environment for learning Implementing activities, programs, and services that support and enhance the academic SC 1.6 achievement and social development of students SC 1.7 Structuring school activities, events and special programs to promote high levels of involvement SC 2 SHARED OWNERSHIP SC 2.1 Involving staff, parents, students and the larger community in the decision-making process Seeking and using community resources to support the school’s improvement initiatives and raise SC 2.2 student achievement Establishing an organizational structure within the school consisting of teacher-led teams that cut SC 2.3 across the school both horizontally and vertically Focusing team planning and collaboration on the school’s improvement planning initiatives and SC 2.4 goals for student achievement Implementing programs and activities to involve and assist families in raising their children’s SC 2.5 academic performance Providing opportunities for students to make choices, learn responsibility, and practice leadership SC 2.6 skills SC 2.7 Using multiple communication strategies to disseminate information to stakeholders SC 3 CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT SC 3.1 Focusing improvement efforts on student learning and achievement Basing school improvement initiatives on research-based, field-validated strategies and practices SC 3.2 that address the areas identified for improvement Identifying and addressing the challenges existing within the school and community that may SC 3.3 impede the progress of the school in implementing improvement initiatives Allocating and providing sufficient resources to assist and support staff in implementing school SC 3.4 improvement initiatives Recognizing significant milestones and achievements of the school in moving toward the SC 3.5 established goals Establishing a process for regularly reviewing and renewing the school’s vision, beliefs, and SC 3.6 mission to ensure alignment with the culture and beliefs of the school community 31
    • Section 3 Academic Review for First Year Warned Schools 32
    • Academic Reviews for First Year Warned Schools Overview of the Section The School-Level Academic Review (AR) is required by the Standards of Accreditation (SOA) for any school that is Accredited with Warning. The Office of School Improvement (OSI) at the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) assigns the type of review, based on the school’s status as determined by annual Standards of Learning (SOL) scores and Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status. There are three types of academic reviews: Tier I, Tier II, Tier III. The School-Level AR process consists of as many as five types of visits. Each visit has a specific purpose, projected timeframe and activities, and outcome. School and division staff may need to complete specific tasks in preparation for the visits. Some of these tasks are inherent in the process; the AR team assigns others in consultation with the principal. This section of the guide presents a detailed description of the process for schools warned for the first year. The School-Level AR will be conducted by a team which has been selected by the OSI based on the experience and expertise needed in the area of warning for the school. The AR team will also include a local school division designee preferably with expertise in the warned subject area. The eight main areas of the review will be: • Curriculum Alignment • Use of Time and Scheduling • Use of Data for Making Decisions • Professional Development • School Improvement Planning • Researched-based Instructional Intervention • Organizational Systems and Processes • School Culture The complete description of each area of review can be found in Section 2. Each School-Level AR team will be led by an Academic Review Team Leader(ARTL) whose responsibilities include: 1. Contacting the division superintendent to discuss the AR and informing him/her of the team members’ names; 2. Requesting from the division superintendent the name of the school division designee who will serve as a member of the team; 3. Contacting the AR team members to inform them of the details of the visit; and 4. Providing all AR team members with the necessary documents and information essential for a complete and accurate review. (Including the Areas of Review {Section 2} and Essential Actions {Section 5}). 5. Serve as the leader of all school review. All AR visits for first year warned schools are documented in a system designed by the Virginia Department of Education as the department’s technical assistance database. From this system, which is still in development, reviewers will be able to access the AR web-based data collection and reporting system. The ARC will enter all data related to a visit in the department’s system and then generate the corresponding report(s). 33
    • The Initial Visit: Academic Review Team Leader Duties Purpose In the past, some reviewers have found an Initial Visit with the principal to be very beneficial. The purpose of this contact is to introduce the principal both to the ARTL and to the School-Level AR process. The ARTL should: • Ensure that the principal understands the purpose of the AR Visit; • Collaborate with the principal to schedule the Initial Visit, making sure that the chosen day is free from non-instructional interruptions such as assemblies or field trips; • Examine the master schedule to map out possible observation schedules; • Review documents to prepare potential questions for the principal; • Observe classrooms; • Interview teachers; • With the principal’s guidance, make decisions to focus the AR team on certain Areas of Review to meet the needs of the school; • Ensure that the principal understands what is essential to have available for the AR Team to review (i.e. documents, test scores, self-studies, etc.); • If requested, meet briefly with the school staff to explain the purpose and process of an AR visit; and • Advise the principal of the self-studies which are available online. The chart below lists the self-study instruments that are used throughout the Academic Review process and indicates when the self-study is required and when it is recommended. Selecting Self-Studies for Staff to Complete Complete Required or Results need to Instrument prior to Who completes it? Recommended be compiled? which visit? Instructional Yes Required Initial Visit All teachers of warned areas Practices Self-Study Division Practices Central office staff, as Required Initial Visit No Self-Study assigned School Improvement School staff, as assigned by Required Initial Visit No Update the principal Research-Based Instructional leader in schools Instructional On-Site Recommended previously warned in English No Intervention Self- Review or mathematics Study On-Site Yes School Culture Self- School staff, parents, and/or Recommended Review or Study students Follow-Up Instructional On-Site Yes Leadership Self- Recommended Review or School staff Study Follow-Up 34
    • Final School Self- Study Recommended Final Visit School staff No Final Division Self- Central office staff, as Study Recommended Final Visit assigned No In an effort to facilitate discussion about the AR process, the principal will be encouraged to look for the reviewer materials (including the self-studies) available on the OSI website, including the Academic Review Handbook. Timeframe and Activities The ARTL should schedule the Initial Visit as soon as possible after receiving the assignment. Outcome Both the ARTL and principal should know the date of the AR visit as well as a tentative observation schedule and meeting schedule for that day, if applicable. The On-Site Visit: Conducted by the Academic Review Team Purpose The purposes of the On-Site Visit are to: • Assess the school’s implementation of specific instructional and organizational practices identified as effective in improving student achievement; • Provide school and division staff with helpful information that will assist in their efforts to improve student achievement; and • Aid in the development and/or revision of a comprehensive School Improvement Plan (SIP) which will direct all improvement efforts. To accomplish these objectives, the AR team collects data and studies evidence of the school’s systems, processes, and practices that relate to the prescribed Areas of Review. Preparation To prepare for the On-Site Visit, school staff members complete the self-studies and tasks assigned by the ARTL during the first contact (usually by telephone) or Initial Visit. They also collect the selected documents and prepare them for review by the AR team. In addition, the principal assists the AR team by preparing tentative schedules for interviews and classroom observations and assigning the team a workspace with access to the Internet. The ARTL will: 1. Contact the team members to set the date and details of the upcoming AR. 2. Contact the superintendent and principal to confirm the date and time of the On-Site Visit. 3. Request that copies of the following documents be available in the AR team workroom for the review: • School Improvement Plan (SIP) • Division curriculum guides for all subjects and grade-levels • Textbooks and any alignment materials developed by the division • Pacing guides and curriculum frameworks for all subjects and grade-levels • Sample lesson plans for all classes at each grade-level 35
    • • Sample quiz and test materials from all classes at each grade-level • Algebra Readiness Diagnostic Test (ARDT) and/or benchmark data for three years, if warned in mathematics • Standards of Learning (SOL) results for three years • Analysis of the patterns found in the Student Performance by Question (SPBQ) data for SOL tests in the warned subject areas Team members prepare for the On-Site Visit by reviewing the school’s profile and report card on the VDOE Website as well as all other materials provided by the ARTL. Timeframe and Activities Following the first contact or Initial Visit, the ARTL schedules the On-Site Visit for a period of two or three days, depending on the number of Areas of Warning and the identified areas of focus for the review. The ARTL is on site for the entire visit, while other AR team members may be on site for part or all of the On-Site Visit, depending on the focus of the review and the needs of the team. While on site, the AR team • Analyzes the results of Self-Studies; • Reviews documents provided by school staff; • Conducts interviews with school and division staff; • Observes classroom instruction and the implementation of operational practices; and, • If the school is warned in English or mathematics, the AR team needs to be sure to ask about the research-based instructional intervention being utilized as required by the SOA. The AR team compiles and analyzes the data collected from these activities to determine the school’s Areas of Strength and Areas for Improvement and records the data in the VDOE data collection and reporting system. The rubric utilized in the Academic Review reporting can be found on the OSI website. Team Planning Worksheets, Interview Formats, and Observation Forms can be found at the end of this chapter. These documents help the AR team members organize the data collection while interviewing staff, observing classrooms, and reviewing documents. It is highly recommended that the ARTL become familiar with and utilize these organizational tools. Academic Review Report The AR team studies and compiles the data collected during the On-Site Visit and utilizes the VDOE data collection and reporting system to prepare an AR Report, which details the school’s Areas of Strength, Areas for Improvement, and Essential Actions. The school must implement the Essential Actions recommended in the AR report and integrate them within the School Improvement Plan (SIP). During the Exit Meeting at the end of the On-Site Visit, the ARTL reviews the draft report orally to the principal and superintendent or designee. If requested, the ARTL will present a brief summary of the findings to the school staff. In addition, a date for a Follow-up Visit by the ARTL, another team member, or consultant is established. The ARTL edits the AR Report and sends it to the appropriate VDOE assigned staff for a final editing. The ARTL sends the final copy electronically to the principal, division contact person, the Office of School Improvement (OSI), and team members. 36
    • In some cases, the AR team may request that the VDOE review certain areas of the instructional program to ensure that local practices are in compliance with Board of Education regulations. In such cases, the AR Report includes a list of these areas of concern. If the VDOE identifies a compliance issue as a potential problem area, a staff member provides follow-up assistance to ensure that the school takes the appropriate corrective actions. The Areas for Improvement and Essential Actions in the AR Report form the basis of the three-year SIP that the school is required to develop and implement as a result of the On-Site Visit. All warned schools are required to submit the October 1 Update as directed in Superintendent’s Memo 223, November 2, 2007. Further directions for this update can be found in section 9 of this Academic Review Handbook. Follow-Up Visits: Coordinated/Conducted by the Academic Review Team Leader Following the On-Site Visit, the ARTL may coordinate and conduct Follow-up Visits to facilitate the development and implementation of the SIP and to monitor the school’s progress in completing Essential Actions. The ARTL consults with the principal, central office staff, and the OSI, where appropriate, to plan the Follow-up Visits. In most cases, the ARTL conducts the Follow-up Visits according to days assigned by the OSI. The focus of a particular visit may be to provide technical assistance or to check on the school’s progress in completing Essential Actions. As part of the follow-up process, the ARTL provides the principal with assistance and/or feedback on needed changes to systems, processes, and practices identified as Areas for Improvement or Essential Actions. To facilitate follow-up, the ARTL may request that school staff prepare additional documents or complete specific tasks prior to the next visit. Preparation To prepare for a Follow-up Visit, school staff members complete any tasks that may have been assigned by the AR team during the previous visit. Typically, these tasks directly relate to the implementation of Essential Actions. The school’s status in completing these tasks is documented during subsequent visits and reported in a summary report which is sent electronically to the principal, division contact person, the OSI, and members of the AR Team. Timeframe and Activities The ARTL should notify the division leadership and the school principal of the dates and times of the Follow-up Visits. This should also include the types of activities (interviews, class room observations, data documents, etc.) which will be conducted during the Follow-up Visit. The ARTL may conduct Follow-up Visits according to the days specified in his/her scope of work provided by the OSI. The ARTL consults with the principal, and division personnel to develop a plan for providing assistance to the school. Their analysis of the needs of the school and assistance available from other sources guide decisions regarding the number, type, and frequency of Follow-up Visits. If further technical assistance is needed (i.e. training, additional days, etc.), the ARTL should contact the OSI. While on site, reviewers and other technical assistance providers conduct a variety of activities to facilitate implementation of the school’s Essential Actions, to assess the school’s progress in completing Essential Actions, or to assess the status of the three-year SIP. Activities vary with the identified needs of the school but are likely to include: • facilitating/conducting staff development sessions; 37
    • • observing instruction and providing feedback to teachers; • meeting with the school’s planning team; • reviewing the school’s SIP; and • consulting with division and school staff. Follow-Up Report All Follow-Up Visits require submission of a report to the OSI, school division, and the school. These reports will be sent electronically. Periodically throughout the follow-up process, the ARTL will communicate with the principal, the school division contact person, and the OSI regarding the school’s progress in completing Essential Actions and other assigned tasks. A Final Visit by the ARTL may be conducted with approval from the OSI. 38
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources 36
    • Summary of Responsibilities: Academic Review Team Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resource Review Team Member Pre-Visit During Visit Follow-Up Visit Academic Review  Coordinate/schedule  Conduct Review  Assist principal with Team Leader school-level reviews 1. Serve as a resource and implementation of in assigned leader to review team. Essential Actions. division(s). 2. Participate in exit  Review SIP.  Coordinate schedule  Serve as liaison meeting; review draft with team members. between division and report.  Contact principal to review team. plan visit. 3. Serve as liaison between  Modify data in report, if  Consult with OSI to division and review team. needed. determine role of 4. Consult with team to plan  Prepare official report other TA providers. review activities. and distribute. 5. Conduct principal’s  Consult with OSI staff, interview. as needed. 6. Conduct interview with  Consult with team superintendent or members, as needed. designee, if needed. 7. Conduct review activities; record findings. 8. Debrief throughout visit; compile findings. 9. Enter findings into report. 10. Prepare draft report with team input. 11. Facilitate exit meeting; present report orally. 12. Collect evaluations and all written notes. 37
    • Content Area  Consult with  Conduct review activities;  Consult with Academic Specialists Academic Review record findings. Review Team Leaderr Team Leader/OSI to  Debrief throughout visit; & OSI staff, as needed. arrange for compile findings. technology needs.  Review draft report.  Assist with presentation of report during exit meeting.  Provide technical assistance Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Summary of Responsibilities: Academic Review Team page 2 Review Team Member Before Visit During Visit Follow-Up Visit  Conduct review activities;  Review school record findings. profile data, report  Debrief throughout visit; card, and Initial compile findings.  Consult with team AR Team Members Status Report  Review draft report. leader, as needed.  Coordinate arrival  Assist with presentation of and interview times report during exit meeting. with team leader  Provide technical assistance 38
    • Summary of Responsibilities: Division and School Staff Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Responsible Party Before Visit During Visit Follow-Up Visit  Assign central office  Confer with Academic  Confer with Academic contact person to Review Team Leader; plan Review Team Leader Superintendent warned school. interview times. as needed.  Confer with  Participate/assign designee  Provide support for Academic Review to be team member for Essential Actions. Team Leader (ARTL) review.  Participate in/assign to determine  Provide copy of final report designee to participate participation of to local school board in exit meeting. central office contact chairperson.  Provide copy of follow- person.  Confer with principal up report to local  Consult with ARTL regarding report. Arrange school board regarding Division for approval of updated chairperson. Practices Self- School Improvement Plan by Study/Interview board (VAC 20-131-310)  Participate/assign designee to participate in exit meeting. 39
    •  Confer with  Be available all days of  Be available to assist Central Office Contact superintendent/ARTL review visit. ARTL and team to clarify role as  Provide division-level members, as needed. team member. information, as needed, to  Provide/coordinate  Be available for initial assist reviewers. technical assistance, visit, if requested by  Attend exit meeting. as needed, to support ARTL. Essential Actions.  Provide division-level  Review Follow-Up information, as Reports. needed.  Attend exit meetings during Follow-Up Visits. 40
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Summary of Responsibilities: Division and School Staff Page 2 41
    • Responsible Party Before Visit During Visit Follow-Up Visit  Confer with ARTL to  Confer with ARTL to plan  Coordinate Follow-up Principal plan visit. visit. visits with AR.  Distribute AR  Inform community; prepare  Prepare documents materials to staff. students. and complete tasks, as  Ensure teachers are  Ensure completion of self- assigned by review prepared for visit. studies team, in preparation for  Inform community;  Collect documents for Follow-up visit. prepare review.  Ensure completion of students.  Ensure teachers are self-studies or surveys,  Ensure completion prepared for visit. as assigned. and tabulation of self-  Provide team with tentative  Provide leadership for studies. observation & interview development/revision  Collect documents schedules. of SIP to address for reviewParticipate  Participate in interview. results of the AR; in Principal’s  Assist AR team, as needed. incorporate Essential Interview.Provide  Facilitate any schedule Actions. ARTL with changes.  Monitor implementation observation and  Finalize time/location for of the SIP/Essential interview exit meeting. Actions. schedules.  Participate in exit meeting  Attend exit meetings.  Assist team, as  Share report with staff.  Share Follow-up needed.  Provide leadership for reports with staff.  Facilitate any development or schedule changes. implementation of School  Facilitate orientation Improvement Plan; include with staff. Essential Actions.  Finalize time/location for exit meeting.  Participate in exit meeting.  Share report with staff. 42
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Summary of Responsibilities: Division and School Staff Page 3 Before Visit During Visit Follow-up Visit Responsible Party  Complete self-  Complete self-studies, as  Participate in Teachers & studies, as assigned. assigned. development/revision Planning Team  Provide principal with  Provide principal with of SIP. documents, as documents, as requested.  Participate in requested.  Participate in interviews. implementing Essential  Have instructional  Have instructional materials Actions, including materials available for observations. research-based available for  Complete evaluation form. instructional observations.  Review report. intervention, if needed.  Participate in  Participate in the orientation, as collection of requested. data/evidence 43
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Academic Review Protocol for First Year Warned School This is the protocol for an Academic Review. The review will be conducted by a team which has been selected by the Office of School Improvement (OSI) based on the experience and training needed in the area of warning for the school. The team will include a local division designee in reviewing the school. The eight main areas of review will be: • Curriculum Alignment • School Improvement Planning • Use of Time and Scheduling • Research-based Instructional Intervention • Use of Data for Making Decisions • Organizational Systems and Processes • Professional Development • School Culture The Academic Review Team Leader will: 1. Contact the superintendent to discuss the review, identify the team members, and request the name of the division designee who will be a part of the team; 2. Contact the team members to inform them of the division designee who will be a team member and provide contact information; 3. Collaborate with the principal to set the date for the review; 4. Contact the local division designee and AR team members to review the date and details of the upcoming review; 5. Contact the principal to confirm the date and time of the visit; 6. Request a workroom with computer and internet capability for the use of the team; 7. Request the school culture self-study to be completed by the entire staff and tabulated; 8. Request the instructional practices self-study be completed by the entire staff and tabulated; 9. Request other self-studies depending on the warned status of the school; 10. Request that copies of the following documents be available in the team workroom for the review: a. School improvement plan (SIP) b. Division curriculum guides for all subjects and grade levels c. Textbooks and any alignment materials developed by the division d. Pacing guides and frameworks for all subjects and grade levels e. Sample lesson plans for all classes at each grade level f. Sample quiz and test materials from all classes at each grade level g. Algebra Readiness Diagnostic Test (ARDT) and/or benchmark data for three years if warned in mathematics h. Standards of Learning (SOL) results for three years i. Analysis of the patterns found in the Student Performance By Question (SPBQ) data for SOL tests in warned subject areas; and 11. Lead the review and direct the writing of the final report. 44
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Academic Review Protocol for First Year Warned School The Academic Review Team Leader and the team will: 1. Interview the following personnel: 0 a. Principal and Assistant Principal b. Teachers, by grade level 2. Observe as many classes in the warned subject area(s) as possible, including the special education classes. 3. Write the final report: a. Utilize the correct reporting format. b. Establish a few main goals with suggested objectives and strategies. 4. Review orally with the principal and central office representative, and if requested, school staff: a. The data, including strengths and areas needing improvement. b. The recommended goals, objectives, and strategies. c. A date for a return visit with what the expectations are upon return. 5. Complete the report: 1 a. Make the final edits. 0 b. The Academic Review Team Leader will review and send the final copy to the VDOE assigned staff to be reviewed; then, send it to the principal, division, the Office of School Improvement, and the AR team. 1 6. Follow-up: 0a. Follow-up visits may be conducted by the Academic Review Team Leader and/or the local designee, depending on the school’s needs. The Academic Review Team Leader is responsible for keeping in contact with the school and the local designee to ensure that the Follow-up is completed and effective. b. The Academic Review Team Leader may return to the school according to OSI assigned follow-up. 1c. Before the Follow-up visit, the Academic Review Team Leader needs to review the goals with the principal to establish a focus for the Follow-up. 2d. The Academic Review Team Leader should write a summary of each Follow-up visit as a word document and send it to the principal, the division, the OSI, and the team. 3e. If further technical assistance is needed (training, more days, etc.), the Academic Review Team Leader needs to contact the OSI. 45
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Academic Review Protocol For Mathematics Targeted Review This is the protocol for a Mathematics Targeted Review. The review will be headed by an Academic Review Team Leader. The Review Team will have a member who has mathematics credentials as selected by the Office of School Improvement. The Academic Review Team Leader will work with the division mathematics supervisor/specialist in reviewing the school. If the division does not have a mathematics supervisor/specialist, then a central office designee will participate in the review. The Academic Review Team Leader will: 11. Contact the superintendent to discuss the review; identify the team members, and request the name of the division designee who will be a part of the team; 22. Contact the team members to inform them of the division designee who will be a team member; 33. Collaborate with the principal to set the date for the review; 4. Contact the local division designee and AR team members to review the date and details of the upcoming review; 15. Request a work room with computer and internet capability for the use of the team; 26. Request the school culture self-study to be completed by the entire staff and then tabulated; 37. Request the instructional practices self-study be completed by mathematics teachers, only, and tabulated; 48. Request that copies of the following documents be available in the team workroom for the review: 1a. School Improvement Plan 2b. Division curriculum guide for mathematics 3c. Mathematics textbooks and any alignment materials developed by the division 4d. Pacing guides and frameworks for all mathematics instruction 5e. Sample lesson plans for all mathematics classes at each grade level 6f. Sample quiz and test materials from all mathematics classes at each grade level 7g. ARDT and/or benchmark data for 3 years 8h. Summary of teachers’ credentials and expertise in mathematics 9i. SOL results in mathematics for 3 years j. Analysis of the patterns found in the SPBQ data for mathematics tests; and 9. Lead the review and direct the writing of the final report. 46
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Academic Review Protocol For Mathematics Targeted Review The Academic Review Team Leader and the team will: 11. Interview the following personnel: 0a. Principal 1b. Mathematics teachers, by grade level 12. Observe all mathematics classes, including the special education classes, using the Mathematics Observation Rubric. 3. Write the final report: 1a. Utilize the reporting format to record all data. 2b. Include the appropriate Essential Actions from the Academic Review Handbook. 3c. Establish a few main goals with suggested objectives and strategies. 4. Review orally with the principal and central office representative, and if requested, school staff: 1a. A summary of the data, including strengths and areas needing improvement. 2b. The recommended goals, objectives, and strategies. 3c. A date for a return visit including the Academic Review Team Leader’s expectations upon return. 5. Complete the report: 1a. Make the final edits. 2b. The Academic Review Team Leader will review and send the final copy to the VDOE designated staff for final editing and then send to the principal, division, the Office of School Improvement, and the AR team. 6. Follow-Up: 0a. Follow-up visits may be conducted by the Academic Review Team Leader and/or the local designee, depending on the school’s needs. The Academic Review Team Leader is responsible for keeping in contact with the school and the local designee to ensure that follow-up is completed and effective. 1b. The Academic Review Team Leader can return to the school according to OSI assigned follow-up days. 2c. The team needs to review the goals established in the review with the principal prior to each follow-up visit to establish a focus for the follow-up. 3d. The Academic Review Team Leader should write a summary of each follow-up visit as a word document and send it to the OSI, the principal, the division, and the team. 4e. If further technical assistance is needed (training, more days, etc.), the Academic Review Team Leader needs to contact OSI. 47
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School-Level Academic Review School: On-Site Visit Planning Worksheet Dates: AR Team Schedule Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Team Members Area(s) of Expertise Date: Date: Date: Date: Date: Leader: Day 1 Arrival time: ___________ Lunch: ___________ Departure Time: ____________ (Activities may be completed in any order. Not all activities will be completed each day.) Status* Scheduled Activity AR Team Participating Location Time Member(s) Staff (#)** Positions Introduction/Overview Team planning Conduct interviews. • Principal () • () • () Review self-study results. • Division practices • • Review documents. • • • Observe instruction. (List by content area.) • () • () • () • () Observe operational practices. (List practices observed) • • Debrief with Principal Team debriefing & data entry Team planning *Check when task is completed, or indicate reason if not completed as planned. ** Number of staff is required in parenthesis (). Record daily numbers below. Day 1 No. of interview participants: _____ No. of classes observed: E _____ M _____ H _____ S _____ 48
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School-Level Academic Review School: On-Site Visit Planning Worksheet Dates: Day: Arrival time: Lunch: Departure Time: (Activities may be completed in any order. Not all activities will be completed each day.) Status* Scheduled Activity AR Team Participating Location Time Member(s) Staff (#)** Positions Team planning Conduct interviews. • () • () • () • () • () Review self-study results. • • • Review documents. • • • • • Observe instruction. (List by content area.) • () • () • () • () • () • () Observe operational practices. (List those observed; could be informal.) • • • Debrief Principal. Team debriefing & data entry Team planning * Check when task is completed, or indicate reason if not completed as planned. ** Number of staff is required in parenthesis (). Record daily numbers below. Day_____: No. of interview participants: _____ No. of classes observed: E _____ M _____ H _____ S_____ 49
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School-Level Academic Review School: On-Site Visit Planning Worksheet Dates: Day : Arrival time: Lunch: Departure Time: (Activities may be completed in any order. Not all activities will be completed each day.) Status* Scheduled Activity AR Team Participating Location Time Member(s) Staff (#)** Positions Team planning Conduct interviews. • () • () • () • () Review documents. • • • • Observe instruction. (List by content area.) • () • () • () • () • () Observe operational practices. (List those observed; could be informal.) • • • Team debriefing & data entry Team review of draft ROF Review of draft with Principal. Present ROF (exit meeting). Collect evaluations. Prepare official copy of ROF. * Check when task is completed, or indicate reason if not completed as planned. ** Number of staff participating is required in parentheses ( ). Record numbers for today below. Final Day: No. of interview participants: _____ No. of classes observed: E _____ M _____ H _____ S_____ Totals for visit: To be recorded Total No. of interview participants: _____ Total No. of classes observed: E _____ M _____ H _____ S_____ 50
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Summary of School Staff Interview Questions Note: When interviewing school staff and administration, the areas of review are not discussed in isolation. The questions and answers often overlap covering a broad spectrum. The questions for each area of review are provided below so that the Academic Review team can select those questions which are applicable to each school’s particular situation. If preferred, the individual interview sheets for each area of review follow this chart of questions. School: Division: Review Date: # of Participants in Interviews: Teachers: Administration: School Improvement Team: Central Office: Parents: Area of Review: Questions: Curriculum Alignment 1. Describe the process and resources used to plan daily instruction that is aligned with state standards and the essential knowledge, skills, and understandings. 2. Describe the process for ensuring that lesson plans, daily instruction, and assessments are aligned with state standards and that all essential knowledge, skills, and understandings are addressed. 3. Describe how instruction is differentiated to meet the individual needs of students. How are students grouped for instruction? What data are used? What strategies or practices are used to provide re-teaching and enrichment opportunities for students? 4. What new instructional practices have been implemented as part of the School Improvement Plan, and what professional development opportunities have been or are being provided to support implementation? How is implementation being monitored? 5. Describe the process for monitoring student progress at the individual, class, and school levels? What data are collected and analyzed? Who is responsible for compiling and analyzing the data? Time & Scheduling 1. Describe the process for developing the master schedule. Who is involved? What factors are considered when developing the schedule? 2. How much time is provided (per day or week) for teachers to plan and collaborate on instructional issues? How is this time structured and monitored? Is this time protected? Who participates? 3. How do the schedules of resource and elective classes, pull out programs, and other instructional support services impact the schedule? 4. What practices are in place to ensure that the time allocated for instruction is maximized and free from unnecessary interruptions and disruptions? Do classes start and end at the scheduled times? How are non- instructional activities managed and organized to minimize loss of instructional time? 5. Describe any changes in the schedule that have been implemented as part of the School Improvement Plan. What resources have been provided to support implementation? How are the changes being monitored to determine their effectiveness in improving student performance? 51
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Summary of School Staff Interview Questions Area of Review: Questions: Use of Data 1. Describe the specific procedures used to analyze state test results (SOL, VAAP) for individual students, subgroups of students, and the school. Who is involved? How are the results used? 2. What sources of data are used to develop a profile of the school related to student performance? How are these data used to identify strengths and needs and to make instructional and planning decisions? 3. What data are collected and analyzed related to the implementation of the School Improvement Plan? How frequently are data collected and analyzed? Who is involved? How are the results used? 4. How is the progress of individual students monitored over time and reported to students and parents? How are these data used? 5. What supports are provided to ensure that all instructional and administrative staff members have the knowledge and skills necessary to design and/or use the results of assessments to make instructional and planning decisions? Professional Development 1. Describe the school’s plan for professional development. How is it incorporated into the school’s improvement plan? What types of activities are incorporated into the plan? How are these activities selected and designed? 2. What resources are provided to support implementation of the school’s professional development plan? 3. Describe the expectations of teachers in this school related to professional growth and development. How are professional development goals for individual teachers determined? What resources are provided to support teachers in meeting their professional development goals? 4. Describe the process for monitoring teacher implementation of new practices that are learned through participation in professional development activities. What opportunities do teachers have to practice and obtain feedback as they integrate newly learned skills into daily instruction? 5. Describe the process for monitoring implementation of new practices and determining the effectiveness of these practices in raising student achievement? What data/evidence are collected and analyzed? Who is responsible for data collection and reporting? 52
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Summary of School Staff Interview Questions Area of Review: Questions: School Improvement 1. What is the process for developing and revising the school’s Improvement Plan? Who is involved? What sources Planning of data are used to identify strengths and needs and to develop goals and objectives? What are the goals of the plan? 2. Describe the rationale for selecting the format and components of the plan. Does the plan incorporate all activities related to the school’s improvement initiatives (Title I, CSR, Reading First, etc.)? How do you ensure that the plan addresses all of the requirements of the SOA and includes all nine components of Section 310.G. 3. Describe your role in implementing the plan. What process is used to monitor implementation of the strategies and action steps? What data are collected and analyzed? How often is the plan reviewed and updated? How is the status of the plan communicated to stakeholders? 4. Describe how student performance data are used to determine the effectiveness of school improvement initiatives in raising student achievement. What other data are collected and analyzed? How often? Who is involved? 5. What impact have the school’s improvement initiatives had on student performance? What strategies have been found to be most effective? How has the plan been adjusted when strategies are not effective? Research-based 1. Describe the instructional and learning needs (individual, subgroup, school) that the instructional intervention is Instructional intended to address. What data were analyzed to identify these needs? How will the effectiveness of the intervention Intervention be determined? 2. Describe the process used to select the instructional intervention to ensure that it meets the Board of Education’s criteria. What data/evidence do you have that the intervention meets the Board’s criteria? 3. Describe the plan for implementing the intervention. What is the approximate date of implementation? What resources have been provided? What professional development is planned/has been conducted? Who will facilitate implementation and provide technical assistance? 4. Describe how instructional practices have changed since the intervention was implemented. What specific practices and protocols are teachers expected to employ when implementing the intervention? 5. What impact has the research-based instructional intervention had on student performance? What strategies have been found to be most effective? How has the intervention been adjusted when strategies are not effective? 53
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Summary of School Staff Interview Questions Area of Review: Questions: Organizational Systems & Processes 1. How do the school’s beliefs, vision, and mission impact the development of goals for school improvement and the establishment of policies and procedures? 2. Describe how the decision-making process works in this school. Which decisions are made by administrators, teachers, and support staff? How are teams used to make decisions? How is input from other stakeholders (students, parents, community) obtained and incorporated into the process? 3. To what degree are the procedures and activities to be implemented clearly and specifically defined? Are timelines for implementation established? How are individuals or groups assigned responsibility for specific activities? How are these expectations and responsibilities communicated to staff, students, and parents? 4. Describe the practices that are in place to ensure that activities are completed according to established procedures and timelines. What data are collected and analyzed? 5. Describe the practices that are in place to monitor and adjust established policies and procedures to ensure alignment with the school’s mission and goals and to promote continued school improvement. School Culture 1. What is the school’s mission? Describe the process for developing and renewing the school’s vision, beliefs, and mission statement. How is input from stakeholders obtained? How are the needs and expectations of the community reflected in the school’s mission and goals for improvement? 2. Describe the practices that are in place to ensure that a safe, orderly learning environment is maintained. How are expectations for student achievement and behavior communicated to students and parents? To what degree is the Student Code of Conduct enforced consistently and equitably? What opportunities are provided to students to enhance their social development? 3. What strategies and practices are in place to inform and involve the community in the development and support of the school’s educational program? What opportunities are provided to parents to assist them in raising their children’s academic performance? Describe the academic enrichment and instructional support services that are available to students. 4. Describe the various decision-making and leadership teams that exist in the school. What is the composition of the team? How are students involved in decision-making? What opportunities do students have to make choices, learn responsibility, and practice leadership? 5. How are school-wide decisions related to improvement initiatives? What factors are considered? What data are used? To what extent are initiatives based on research-based, field-validated strategies and practices? 54
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School Staff Interviews: School Name: School Curriculum Alignment Team Members: Date: Participants include: ______ School Administrators ______Teachers ______ Staff ______ Planning Team Total No. __________________ Others (_____________________________) 1. Describe the process and resources used to plan daily instruction that is aligned with state standards and the essential knowledge, skills, and understandings. 2. Describe the process for ensuring that lesson plans, daily instruction, and assessments are aligned with state standards and that all essential knowledge, skills, and understandings are addressed. 3. Describe how instruction is differentiated to meet the individual needs of students. How are students grouped for instruction? What data are used? What strategies or practices are used to provide students reteaching and enrichment opportunities? 4. What new instructional practices have been implemented as part of the School Improvement Plan, and what professional development opportunities have been or are being provided to support implementation? How is implementation being monitored? 5. Describe the process for monitoring student progress at the individual, class, and school levels? What data are collected and analyzed? Who is responsible for compiling and analyzing the data? (Use the back of this sheet to record additional information, such as feedback or suggestions from staff related to the school’s improvement initiatives.) 55
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School Staff Interview: School Name: Time & Scheduling Date: Team Members: Participants include: ______ School Administrators ______Teachers ______ Staff ______ Planning Team Total No. __________________ Others (_____________________________) 1. Describe the process for developing the master schedule. Who is involved? What factors are considered when developing the schedule? 2. How much time is provided (per day or week) for teachers to plan and collaborate on instructional issues? How is this time structured and monitored? Is this time protected? Who participates? 3. How do the schedules of resource and elective classes, pull out programs, and other instructional support services impact the schedule? 4. What practices are in place to ensure that the time allocated for instruction is maximized and free from unnecessary interruptions and disruptions? Do classes start and end at the scheduled times? How are noninstructional activities managed and organized to minimize loss of instructional time? 5. Describe any changes in the schedule that have been implemented as part of the School Improvement Plan. What resources have been provided to support implementation? How are the changes being monitored to determine their effectiveness in improving student performance? (Use the back of this sheet to record additional information, such as feedback or suggestions from staff related to the school’s improvement initiatives.) 56
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School Staff Interview: Use of Data School Name: Date: Team Members: Participants include: ______ School Administrators ______Teachers ______ Staff ______ Planning Team Total No. __________________ Others (_____________________________) 1. Describe the specific procedures used to analyze state test results (SOL, VAAP) for individual students, subgroups of students, and the school. Who is involved? How are the results used? 2. What sources of data are used to develop a profile of the school related to student performance? How are these data used to identify strengths and needs and to make instructional and planning decisions? 3. What data are collected and analyzed related to the implementation of the School Improvement Plan? How frequently are data collected and analyzed? Who is involved? How are the results used? 4. How is the progress of individual students monitored over time and reported to students and parents? How are these data used? 5. What supports are provided to ensure that all instructional and administrative staff members have the knowledge and skills necessary to design and/or use the results of assessments to make instructional and planning decisions? (Use the back of this sheet to record additional information, such as feedback or suggestions from staff related to the school’s improvement initiatives.) 57
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School Staff Interview: School Name; Professional Development Date: Team Members: Participants include: ______ School Administrators ______Teachers ______ Staff ______ Planning Team Total No. __________________ Others (_____________________________) 1. Describe the school’s plan for professional development. How is it incorporated into the school’s improvement plan? What types of activities are incorporated into the plan? How are these activities selected and designed? 2. What resources are provided to support implementation of the school’s professional development plan? 3. Describe the expectations of teachers in this school related to professional growth and development. How are professional development goals for individual teachers determined? What resources are provided to support teachers in meeting their professional development goals? 4. Describe the process for monitoring teacher implementation of new practices that are learned through participation in professional development activities. What opportunities do teachers have to practice and obtain feedback as they integrate newly learned skills into daily instruction? 5. Describe the process for monitoring implementation of new practices and determining the effectiveness of these practices in raising student achievement? What data/evidence are collected and analyzed? Who is responsible for data collection and reporting? (Use the back of this sheet to record additional information, such as feedback or suggestions from staff related to the school’s improvement initiatives.) 58
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School Staff Interview: School Name: School Improvement Planning Date: Team Members: Participants include: ______ School Administrators ______Teachers ______ Staff ______ Planning Team Total No. __________________ Others (_____________________________) 1. What is the process for developing and revising the School Improvement Plan? Who is involved? What sources of data are used to identify strengths and needs and to develop goals and objectives? What are the goals of the plan? 2. Describe the rationale for selecting the format and components of the plan. Does the plan incorporate all activities related to the school’s improvement initiatives (Title I, CSR, Reading First, etc.)? How do you ensure that the plan addresses all of the requirements of the SOA and includes all nine components of Section 310.G. 3. Describe your role in implementing the plan. What process is used to monitor implementation of the strategies and action steps? What data are collected and analyzed? How often is the plan reviewed and updated? How is the status of the plan communicated to stakeholders? 4. Describe how student performance data are used to determine the effectiveness of school improvement initiatives in raising student achievement. What other data are collected and analyzed? How often? Who is involved? 5. What impact have the school’s improvement initiatives had on student performance? What strategies have been found to be most effective? How has the plan been adjusted when strategies are not effective? (Use the back of this sheet to record additional information, such as feedback or suggestions from staff related to the school’s improvement initiatives.) 59
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School Staff Interview: School Name: Research Based Instructional Intervention Date: Team Members: Participants include: ______ School Administrators ______Teachers ______ Staff ______ Planning Team Total No. __________________ Others (_____________________________) Name of Intervention: _______________________ Adopted for: ____ English and/or ____ Mathematics 1. Describe the instructional and learning needs (individual, subgroup, school) that the instructional intervention is intended to address. What data were analyzed to identify these needs? How will the effectiveness of the intervention be determined? 2. Describe the process used to select the instructional intervention to ensure that it meets the Board of Education’s criteria. What data/evidence do you have that the intervention meets the Board’s criteria? 3. Describe the plan for implementing the intervention. What is the approximate date of implementation? What resources have been provided? What professional development is planned/has been conducted? Who will facilitate implementation and provide technical assistance? 4. Describe how instructional practices have changed since the intervention was implemented. What specific practices are teachers expected to employ when implementing the intervention? What protocols are teachers expected to follow? 5. What impact has the research-based instructional intervention had on student performance? What strategies have been found to be most effective? How has the intervention been adjusted when strategies are not effective? (Use the back of this sheet to record additional information, such as feedback or suggestions from staff related to the school’s improvement initiatives.) 60
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School Staff Interview: School Name: Organizational Systems & Processes Date: Team Members: Participants include: ______ School Administrators ______Teachers ______ Staff ______ Planning Team Total No. __________________ Others (_____________________________) 1. How do the school’s beliefs, vision, and mission impact the development of goals for school improvement and the establishment of policies and procedures? 2. Describe how the decision-making process works in this school. Which decisions are made by administrators, teachers, and support staff? How are teams used to make decisions? How is input from other stakeholders (students, parents, community) obtained and incorporated into the process? 3. To what degree are the procedures and activities to be implemented clearly and specifically defined? Are timelines for implementation established? How are individuals or groups assigned responsibility for specific activities? How are these expectations and responsibilities communicated to staff, students, and parents? 4. Describe the practices that are in place to ensure that activities are completed according to established procedures and timelines. What data are collected and analyzed? 5. Describe the practices that are in place to monitor and adjust established policies and procedures to ensure alignment with the school’s mission and goals and to promote continued school improvement. (Use the back of this sheet to record additional information, such as feedback or suggestions from staff related to the school’s improvement initiatives.) 61
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School Staff Interview: School Name: School Culture Date: Team Members: Participants include: ______ School Administrators ______Teachers ______ Staff ______ Planning Team Total No. __________________ Others (_____________________________) 1. What is the school’s mission? Describe the process for developing and renewing the school’s vision, beliefs, and mission statement. How is input from stakeholders obtained? How are the needs and expectations of the community reflected in the school’s mission and goals for improvement? 2. Describe the practices that are in place to ensure that a safe, orderly learning environment is maintained. How are expectations for student achievement and behavior communicated to students and parents? To what degree is the Student Code of Conduct enforced consistently and equitably? What opportunities are provided to students to enhance their social development? 3. What strategies and practices are in place to inform and involve the community in the development and support of the school’s educational program? What opportunities are provided to parents to assist them in raising their children’s academic performance? Describe the academic enrichment and instructional support services that are available to students. 4. Describe the various decision-making and leadership teams that exist in the school. What is the composition of the team? How are students involved in decision-making? What opportunities do students have to make choices, learn responsibility, and practice leadership? 5. How are school-wide decisions related to improvement initiatives? What factors are considered? What data are used? To what extent are initiatives based on research-based, field-validated strategies and practices? (Use the back of this sheet to record additional information, such as feedback or suggestions from staff related to the school’s improvement initiative 62
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School-level Academic Review School Classroom Observation Log Date(s) Team Member: ________________________________________________ Suggested Timeframes: Initial Visit: 10-15 minutes On-Site Visit: At least 20 minutes; entire period, where feasible Follow-Up Visits: Varies, depending on purpose Final Visit: 10-15 minutes Status* Date Period Projected Room Content Grade/ Course Actual Time Timeframe # Area Begin End *Check when task is completed, or indicate reason if not completed as planned. Notes or Comments: Section 3 Appendix 63
    • Academic Review Team Resources School-Level Academic Review School Name Classroom Observation: General Date(s) of Visit Team Member Observation Lesson Description: Enter data. # _____ # _____ # _____ # _____ Learning objective: Related state learning standard: Used VDOE/local curriculum resources Considered learning strengths and needs of students Lesson Delivery: Use Y (Yes), S (Somewhat), or N (No), or enter data, as noted. Learning objective (Record what was taught) Instructional strategies observed or evidenced (List) Tasks assigned to students (List) Resources and materials used (List) Presented content in a meaningful context Focused lesson on the learning objective Allowed students to make choices Engaged students in learning with peers Ask students to reflect on their learning Required students to process information at higher levels 64
    • # _____ # _____ # _____ # _____ Use of Instructional Time: Use Y (Yes), S (Somewhat), or N (No), or enter data, as noted. Maintained an academic focus Allocated time for re- teaching/enrichment Managed classroom routines efficiently Made maximum use of instructional time Monitoring Student Progress: Use Y (Yes), S (Somewhat), or N (No), or enter data, as noted. Monitored students’ understanding of the learning objective Provided direct, meaningful feedback Adjusted lesson based on student cues Embedded assessment into instruction Used a variety of methods and formats to measure student progress (List) Included assessment items similar in content and format to state test items Summary: High, Moderate, Low Expectations of students Level of student engagement Alignment with state learning standards Notes or Comments: 65
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School-Level Academic Review School Name Classroom Observation Content Area: English Date(s) of Visit Team Member Lesson Description: Use Y (Yes), S Observation (Somewhat), or N (No), or enter data, as noted. # _____ # _____ # _____ # _____ Learning objective: Related state learning standard: Tasks assigned to students: Resources and materials used: Assessment method and format: Student Activities: Use abbreviations or key words to indicate activities evidenced. Read/wrote for authentic purposes; connected to self; others, other texts Concept mapping; KWL; discussion; brainstorming; anticipation guides; preview vocabulary Read: silent, rehearsal/oral; guided; partners; choral; echo; repeated; reader’s theater Read: fiction; nonfiction; poetry; drama; periodical; electronic, functional Wrote: narrative; descriptive; informational; poetic; explanatory; journalistic, analytical Writing purpose: entertain; inform; persuade 66
    • Lesson Description: Use Y (Yes), S Observation (Somewhat), or N (No), or enter data, as noted. # _____ # _____ # _____ # _____ Resources: Web; dictionary; reference books; periodicals; trade books; anthologies; poetry; handbooks; games; non/fiction; word processors Instructional Practices Evidenced: Use Y (Yes), S (Somewhat), or N (No). Focused lesson on objective/SOL essential knowledge and skills Chose text that invited reading, discussion, and extension of knowledge Chose inviting and age appropriate topic Used questioning techniques to facilitated learning Instructional Practices Evidenced: Use Y (Yes), S (Somewhat), or N (No). Encouraged students to analyze and explore differing interpretations Challenged students to think deeply Created a variety of opportunities for sharing Modeled reading/writing; Demonstrated by thinking aloud Provided guided practice Listened to discussions; asked students to justify opinions; Conferred with students Included assessment items similar in format/content to state test items Notes: 67
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School-Level Academic Review School Name Classroom Observation Content Area: Mathematics Date(s) of Visit Team Member Observation Lesson Description: Enter data. # _____ # _____ # _____ # _____ Learning objective: Related state learning standard: Tasks assigned to students: Resources and materials used: Assessment method and format: Student Activities: Use abbreviations or key words to indicate activities evidenced. Open-ended questions; real-life scenarios; group problem-solving Concept mapping; KWL; demonstrations Reason/make conjectures. (Elaborate; hypothesize; analyze; evaluate) Communicated through graphic organizers; journals, presentations Listened/reacted to others’ thinking and solutions (Pose questions; clarify/justify answers; elaborate during discussions) Represented concepts using words, pictures, models, graphic organizers Used manipulatives; measuring tools; physical materials; technological tools Build new knowledge through authentic problems, real-life scenarios, & applications Presented content in meaningful context; activated prior knowledge Chose problems that invite exploration 68
    • Used questioning techniques to facilitate learning Observation Observation Observation Observation Lesson Description: Enter data. # _____ # _____ # _____ # _____ Encouraged students to explore multiple problem-solving strategies/ solutions Challenged students to think deeply and to make personal connections Instructional Practices Evidenced: Use Y (Yes), S (Somewhat), or N (No). Created a variety of opportunities for problem-solving and sharing Modeled problem-solving Demonstrated by thinking aloud. Modeled accurate content, language Modeled disposition for solving challenging mathematical problems Included assessment items similar in format/content to state test items Notes: 69
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources School-Level Academic Review School Name Classroom Observation: Science Date(s) of Visit: Team Member 70
    • Observation Lesson Summary: Enter data. # _____ # _____ # _____ # _____ Learning objective: Instructional Practices Evidenced: Use Y (Yes), S (Somewhat), or N (No). Related state learning standard Modeled problem solving (#): Demonstrated by thinking aloud Tasks assigned to students: Listened to discussions, provided feedback; asked students to justify Resources and materials used: responses Included assessment items similar in format/content to stateformat: Assessment method and test items Student Activities: Use abbreviations or key words to indicate activities evidenced. Open-ended questions; real-life scenarios; group problem solving; investigations Concept mapping, KWL, modeling Reason/make conjectures. (Elaborate; hypothesize; analyze; evaluate) Communicate using graphic organizers, journals, presentations Posing questions; clarifying issues; justifying solutions Inquiry-based activities. (Confirmation-verification; structured, guided, open inquiry) Manipulatives, measuring tools; technology Authentic problems; applications Notes: Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Instructional Practices Evidenced: Use Y (Yes), S (Somewhat), or N (No). Observation Observation Observation Observation #_____ # _____ # _____ # _____ Focus lesson on objective/SOL essential knowledge and skills Lesson Summary: Enter data. Used questioning techniques to facilitate learning and to develop problem-solving skills Modeled accurate knowledge/ language 71 Modeled disposition for exploring scientific phenomena
    • Notes: Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources SCHOOL-LEVEL ACADEMIC REVIEW School Code: ____--_______ Form 3-H: Classroom Observation, HISTORY/SOCIAL SCIENCE Team Member: ___________________________________________________ Lesson Description: Enter Data # ____ # ____ # ____ # ____ Learning Objective: Related state learning standard: Resources and materials used: Assessment method and format: Student Activities: Use abbreviations or key words to indicate activities evidenced. Open-ended questions; problem solving    Concept mapping; charts; simulations    Cause and effect through analyzing; role-    playing; graphic organizers Primary source documents such as books;    journals; pictures Variety of representations such as maps;    pictures; tables; graphs Compare and contrast through classroom    discussion; written response; presentation Written response; reports; debates    Build new knowledge through written    response; timelines; reports Instructional Practices Evidenced: Use Y (Yes), S (Somewhat), or N (No). Focused lesson on objective/SOL essential    knowledge and skills Activated prior knowledge    Presented examples that facilitate 72
    • comprehension of history/ss concepts Used questioning techniques to facilitate    learning Challenged students to make connections    between past & present Created a variety of opportunities for    exploring history/ss concepts Modeled accurate content knowledge and    vocabulary Listened to discussions; provided direct    feedback Asked students to justify responses    Focused assessment (s) on objective/SOL    essential knowledge and skills Assessment included items similar in    format/content to state test items Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources MREA Mathematics Report and Essential Actions for Middle School Mathematics SCHOOL DIVISION: _____________________________________________________ SCHOOL NAME: ________________________________________________________ 1. Indicate the degree to which the curriculum is aligned, including written, taught, and tested. To date, what is the status of the division’s efforts to monitor the alignment of the curriculum? 2. Indicate the degree to which mathematics instructional time is used effectively. To date, what is the status of the division’s efforts to ensure that scheduling procedures positively impact the use of instructional time? 3. Indicate the degree to which data have been used to adjust instruction and provide remediation, including but not limited to, Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments, formative assessments (benchmarks), and other relevant data. 73
    • To date, what is the status of the division’s efforts to ensure that all staff members are using data effectively? 74
    • Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources 4. Indicate the degree to which all available Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) materials and resources are being used effectively, such as blueprints, EPAT, Algebra Readiness Diagnostic Test (ARDT), and mathematics observation form. To date, What are the division’s efforts to maximize use of these resources by teachers? RECOMMENDED ESSENTIAL ACTIONS: Person Completing Form:___________________________________________________ Date Completed: _________________________________________________________ Please provide a copy of this form to: • Regional Academic Review Team Leader • School Principal • Division Representative 75
    • Observation Rubric for Mathematics Lesson Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources SAMPLE PAGE SAMPLE PAGE Quality Exceeds Meets Does Not Not Observed Expectations Expectations Meet Expectations In this Lesson Content Knowledge: The extent to which the teacher demonstrates Directions: Observer is to list specific evidence for each indicator observed for one of the following: Exceeds command of subject Expectations; Meets Expectations; or Does Not Meet Expectations. If the indicator is not observed in the matter. lesson, the observer should check the last column. Indicator 1: Evidence: Evidence: The teacher began Evidence: Connects mathematics the lesson by reviewing in lesson to prior yesterday’s topic and asked how mathematics and/or it could be applied to the current interdisciplinary price of a tank of gas and miles applications. per gallon. Indicator 2: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Some but not all of Uses accurate and the appropriate math correct mathematical terminology was used; for terminology. example, “common denominator” as well as “bottom of the fraction” were used. Indicator 3 Evidence: The teacher Evidence: Evidence: Demonstrates an in- answered a student question that depth knowledge and went beyond the scope of the understanding of the SOL. content. 73 Observation Rubric for Mathematics Lesson Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources
    • Quality Exceeds Meets Does Not Not Observed Expectations Expectations Meet Expectations In this Lesson Content Knowledge: The extent to which the teacher demonstrates Directions: Observer is to list specific evidence for each indicator observed for one of the following: Exceeds command of subject Expectations; Meets Expectations; or Does Not Meet Expectations. If the indicator is not observed in the matter. lesson, the observer should check the last column. Indicator 1: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Connects mathematics in lesson to prior mathematics and/or interdisciplinary applications. Indicator 2: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Uses accurate and correct mathematical terminology. Indicator 3 Evidence Evidence: Evidence: Demonstrates an in- depth knowledge and understanding of the content. 77
    • Observation Rubric for Mathematics Lesson Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources Quality Exceeds Meets Does Not Not Observed Expectations Expectations Meet Expectations In this Lesson Instructional Delivery: Directions: Observer is to list specific evidence for each indicator observed for one of the following: Exceeds Expectations; Meets Expectations; or Does Not Meet Expectations. If the indicator is not observed in the The extent to lesson, the observer should check the last column. which the teacher delivers effective instruction. Indicator 1: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Selects challenging tasks that focus on important mathematics concepts. Indicator 2: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Demonstrates time management skills to enhance instruction. Indicator 3: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Organizes lesson and materials well. 75 Observation Rubric for Mathematics Lesson Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources
    • Quality Exceeds Meets Does Not Not Observed Expectations Expectations Meet Expectations In this Lesson Instructional Delivery: Directions: Observer is to list specific evidence for each indicator observed for one of the following: Exceeds The extent to Expectations; Meets Expectations; or Does Not Meet Expectations. If the indicator is not observed in the which the lesson, the observer should check the last column. teacher delivers effective instruction. Indicator 4: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Demonstrates an instructional delivery that is characterized by active student involvement. Indicator 5: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Varies levels of questions from recall to comprehension/ synthesis/ analysis/ prediction. Indicator 6: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Allows adequate wait time/think time for students to answer. Observation Rubric for Mathematics Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources 76
    • Quality Exceeds Meets Does Not Not Observed Expectations Expectations Meet Expectations In the Lesson Instructional Delivery: The extent to which Directions: Observer is to list specific evidence for each indicator observed for one of the following: Exceeds the teacher delivers Expectations; Meets Expectations; or Does Not Meet Expectations. If the indicator is not observed in that effective instruction. lesson, the observer should check the box Not Observed in This Lesson. Indicator 7: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Encourages students to challenge and justify alternate solutions, when appropriate. Indicator 8: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Selects an appropriate instructional strategy for the content such as: learning centers; grouping; pairing; student presentations; group problem- solving, et al. Indicator 9: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Uses appropriate tools such as technology, manipulatives, measuring instruments, where appropriate. Observation Rubric for Mathematics Lesson Section 3 Appendix 77
    • Academic Review Team Resources Quality Exceeds Meets Does Not Not Observed Expectations Expectations Meet Expectations In this Lesson Instructional Delivery: Directions: Observer is to list specific evidence for each indicator observed for one of the following: Exceeds The extent to which the Expectations; Meets Expectations; or Does Not Meet Expectations. If the indicator is not observed in teacher delivers that lesson, the observer should check the box Not Observed in This Lesson. instruction effectively. Indicator 10: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Makes provisions for differentiation of instruction. Indicator 11: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Presents concepts using a variety of representations such as models, pictures, graphic organizers, manipulatives, etc. Observation Rubric for Mathematics Lesson Section 3 Appendix Academic Review Team Resources 78
    • Quality Exceeds Meets Does Not Not Observed Expectations Expectations Meet Expectations In this Lesson Student Assessment: The extent to which the Directions: Observer is to list specific evidence for each indicator observed for one of the following: Exceeds teacher employs formative Expectations; Meets Expectations; or Does Not Meet Expectations. If the indicator is not observed assessment techniques to in that lesson, the observer should check the box Not Observed in This Lesson. determine student strengths & weaknesses. Indicator 1: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Uses a variety of assessment techniques such as: student interviews; paper and pencil; exit slips; dialogue; questioning; journaling; and presentations. Indicator 2: Evidence: Evidence: Evidence: Uses assessment results to inform instruction (monitor & adjust). 79
    • Section 4 School Support Coach for Second and Third Year Warned Schools 80
    • Modifications to the Academic Review Process Process In October 2005, the Board of Education modified the AR process to provide technical assistance through a system of school support. The Department of Education will assign the school to a level of intervention based on an analysis of the school’s most current accountability data, the current School Improvement Plan, and other relevant data. The School Support Coach will provide technical assistance that meets the unique needs of that school throughout the year. Modifications to the AR process may also apply to schools receiving technical assistance and ongoing support through other VDOE initiatives, such as the Algebra Readiness Project and the Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools (PASS). The Academic Review process will be modified according to the type of technical assistance provided to these schools through such initiatives. These modifications will be reviewed annually. The VDOE will continue to report annually to the Board of Education on the findings of the School-Level Academic Reviews and on the effectiveness of the process. The Superintendent of Public Instruction may approve alternatives to the modified review process. School Support Coach (SS Coach) The AR process for schools warned for the second or third year is the SS Coach. Schools that have had an Academic Review but are subsequently warned in another year (whether in the same subject or a different subject) will receive technical assistance from the SS Coach. The SS Coach will focus on the School Improvement Plan of the school. This plan should direct the improvement efforts of the school staff and administration and should contain the recommended Essential Actions from the previous year’s AR review. Protocol for SS Coach A school will receive the first SS Coach visit after the Office of School Improvement (OSI) reviews all test scores and makes the determination that the school continues to be Accredited with Warning. The SS Coach will be an educator who has been selected by the Office of School Improvement (OSI) based on the experience and training needed in the area of warning for the school. The SS Coach will work with the School Improvement Committee or Leadership Team of the school in developing, updating, and applying the school’s improvement plan in order to raise student achievement. If technical assistance is needed by content specialists or other specific educational resources/personnel, the SS Coach will make those requests to the OSI. The SS Coach may review school data, visit classrooms, interview teachers, students, central office staff, and parents in order to ascertain the improvement efforts of the school. The SS Coach will stay in close contact with the building administration and central office contact. The SS Coach will make regular visits to the school and attend the School Improvement Committee or Leadership Team meetings as possible. Regular reports will be submitted to the OSI throughout the year to update the school’s improvement efforts. These reports will be shared with the school and the division and will be kept on file in the Office of School Improvement. SS Coaches and school administration will join in regular Webinars presented by the OSI, and school personnel will be encouraged to attend other staff development opportunities as they are made available by OSI. All second and third year Accredited with Warning schools are required to submit an October 1 Update report to the OSI. Further details about this report can be found in Section 9 of this Handbook. 81
    • Section 4 Appendix School Support Resources 82
    • Section 4 Appendix School Support Team Resource Resource Tools for SS Coach - Principal Interview Questions SIP Plan Content 1. How has the Academic Review Report of Findings been integrated with the SIP? 2. Identify each finding and address its integration with the SIP, the strategies implemented, and the monitoring of those strategies. 3. Have any adjustments been incorporated into the SIP? What precipitated the adjustment? 4. Have you identified the critical leadership for redesigning the SIP? Plan Implementation 1. Describe the role of faculty, parents, and the community in implementing the SIP. 2. Have you identified the critical leadership for implementation of the SIP, and have you empowered those persons to lead? 3. Describe the level of divisional support for implementation of the SIP. 4. What changes have resulted at the division as a result of their support? 5. Describe how the strategies are carried out and how they are monitored. Use of Time and Scheduling 1. What effect does the master schedule have on student achievement, and how is that information addressed in the SIP? 2. Is the use of time within the school day addressed? 3. Is collaborative planning time provided, and does the SIP support that endeavor? 4. Does the SIP address the use of after-school time and in-school time for remediation? Monitoring and Results 1. How are you monitoring student achievement throughout the year? 2. How is formative assessment data being used? 3. How has the use of instructional time been protected and monitored? Assessment and Remediation 1. Describe the assessment process – both formative and summative. 2. Describe the timeline for benchmark assessment: When testing done? When do teachers get the results? Are the results shared with parents? 3. Describe how assessment affects instruction and remediation. 4. Describe the intervention or remediation procedures offered to students who need help. Professional Development 1. What professional development activities have been offered to your faculty/staff? 2. How was the professional development activity selected? 3. How are you monitoring the implementation of results? 4. How has student achievement changed as a result of professional development? 5. Link each professional development opportunity to specific results. 83
    • Section 4 Appendix School Support Team Resources Leadership 1. Describe the school and division programs established to support beginning teachers. 2. How do you assess a beginning teacher’s continuing needs? 3. What support is given through the mentoring program? 4. Describe how mentoring and professional growth activities have been planned around evaluation results. 5. Describe the changes that have resulted in a climate that is conducive for all learners and a culture that promotes student achievement. 6. What teaming has been established to assist in student achievement? Stakeholders 1. Are stakeholders involved in the initial writing and subsequent revising of the SIP? 2. How are you informing all stakeholders of progress related to the SIP? Resource Allocations 1. What fiscal resources have been reallocated to assist with implementation of the SIP? 2. Delineate each funding source, the amount, and the activity/service. 3. What new resources are being considered for use, and what existing resources are being considered for realignment? 84
    • Section 4 Appendix School Support Team Resources School Improvement Process Questions School: _________________________ Division: __________________________ SS Coach: ________________________ Date: ____________________________ Participants Interviewed: _____ School Administrators _____ Teachers _____ School Improvement/Leadership Team _____ Parents _____Other 1. Describe the school improvement process used in this school. • How do the school’s beliefs, vision, and mission impact the development of goals for school improvement? SP 1.1 Using the school’s beliefs, vision, and mission to set goals, establish systems, and develop procedures • How is input from other stakeholders (students, parents, community) obtained and incorporated into the process? SP 1.3 Involving stakeholders in developing systems and processes that address identified needs and the school’s improvement goals school’s improvement goals • Is there a clear understanding of the process and are the decisions communicated to the stakeholders? SP 2.3 Addressing issues that may hinder the accomplishment of tasks SP 2.5 Designing processes that are cost effective with regard to the use of human, physical, and financial resources resources • What processes were used that led to consensus regarding school improvement? 2. How is the School Improvement (Leadership) Team selected and organized? • How are teams used to make decisions? SP 2.4 Involving staff in the development of processes and in making decisions related to implementation • What is the format of the meeting? o Expectations o Agendas o Minutes o Frequency of meetings 85
    • SP 2.2 Designing and defining processes so that desired tasks are accomplished according to expectations • Are timelines established for the completion of goals? SP 3.4 Establishing timelines for completing specific activities Ensuring that activities are completed according to established timelines and SP 3.5 procedures • Are responsibilities clear for each member? SP 3.3 Communicating expectations and responsibilities of individuals and groups in implementing procedures and activities • Do the team members have term limits to ensure greater participation by the stakeholders? SP 3.1 Providing opportunities for those affected by organizational changes to have input into the development of expectations and procedures related to the changes 3. Describe the process for development of the school improvement plan. SP 3.2 Specifying procedures to be implemented and activities to be completed as part of the established system/process SIP 1.1 Basing the three-year School Improvement Plan (SIP) on the results of previous Academic Reviews, as required by the Standards of Accreditation (SOA) SIP 1.2 Developing the three-year SIP with the assistance of parents and teachers, as required by the SOA • What was the rationale for selecting the components of the plan? SIP 1.4 Establishing clear goals that relate to student achievement SIP 1.5 Establishing yearly, measurable objectives or benchmarks that are linked to goals Describing the strategies to be implemented and the specific action steps to be SIP 1.6 taken to meet each objective Including a system of monitoring student progress at regular, logical (not random) SIP 1.8 intervals SIP 1.9 Selecting achievement indicators that are appropriate to goals and objectives SIP 1.10 Identifying sources of evidence that are appropriate to strategies/action steps Identifying person(s) responsible for implementing strategies/action steps and SIP 1.11 collecting data/evidence 86
    • SP 2.1 Establishing systems and/or processes that focus on identified needs • Are all of the nine components of the Standards of Accreditation included? (See Section 3.10.G.). Including all nine components required by Section 8VAC20-131-310.G of the SOA SIP 1.13 (Refer to TAP Document in AR User’s Handbook or SOA for list of components.) SP 2.6 Allocating sufficient resources to accomplish tasks • Does the plan incorporate all activities related to the school’s improvement initiatives (Title I, Reading First, etc)? SIP 2.3 Documenting implementation of strategies/action steps 4. Discuss the data that was selected to develop the School Improvement Plan. SIP 1.3 Using baseline data/measures relevant to areas for improvement to identify goals for school improvement planning SP 1.4 Providing decision-makers with the information needed to solve problems and make effective instructional decisions SP 1.5 Using accurate and complete information to make decisions related to improvement initiatives SP 1.2 Analyzing data to identify strengths and needs at the individual and school levels SIP 1.7 Including data collection activities at regular, logical (not random) intervals throughout plan, as part of strategies/action steps 5. How is the School Improvement Plan monitored? SP 2.7 Assessing the degree to which processes are implemented and tasks are completed as intended • What is the frequency of monitoring? SIP 2.1 Focusing implementation on improved student achievement SIP 2.2 Implementing strategies and action steps in the manner described in SIP • Are there timelines for implementation? Establishing timelines over a three-year period and linking shorter timeframes to SIP 1.12 specific action steps/strategies • Are documents submitted to verify completion of activities? SIP 2.5 Monitoring the efforts of staff in carrying out their responsibilities • What kind of feedback is a result of the monitoring? 87
    • Modifying less successful strategies and adding new strategies, as needed, to SIP 3.6 promote continued improvement 6. What is the process for revising the School Improvement Plan from year to year to promote continuous school improvement? SIP 3.1 Establishing a system for monitoring and adjusting the SIP Evaluating implementation of procedures based on their alignment with identified SP 3.6 goals and the degree to which they advance the goals Meeting established timelines for completing strategies/action steps and collecting SIP 2.6 data/evidence SIP 3.5 Modifying goals and/or objectives based upon the analyses of date/evidence SIP 3.7 Reaching established student achievement benchmarks and/or objectives • Who is involved in the revision process? SP 2.8 Assigning staff members to monitor implementation of processes • What is the frequency of the revision? SP 1.6 Monitoring and adjusting systems and processes to promote continued improvement • How are revisions communicated to all stakeholders? SIP 3.8 Communicating the status of implementation and the results to stakeholders Systematically monitoring student achievement at regular intervals throughout the SIP 3.3 year to determine effectiveness of improvement initiatives • Are the revisions based on the most current data analysis? Collecting and compiling data/evidence of the degree to which strategies and SIP 2.4 action steps are implemented as described in the SIP SIP 2.7 Establishing procedures for macro-to-micro analysis of data Analyzing data/evidence to determine the degree to which strategies/actions steps SIP 3.2 are implemented as intended SIP 3.4 Using data to determine the impact of improvement initiatives on student learning Section 4 Appendix School Support Team Resources 88
    • COMMONWEALTH OF VIRGINIA DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION P.O. BOX 2120 RICHMOND, VIRGINIA 23218-2120 SUPTS. MEMO NO. 202 October 7, 2005 INFORMATIONAL TO: Division Superintendents FROM: Jo Lynne DeMary Superintendent of Public Instruction SUBJECT: Modifications to the School-Level Academic Review Process Approved by the Board of Education On September 21, 2005, the Board of Education approved modifications to the school-level academic review process guidelines. The purpose of this memorandum is to provide information about those modifications (see Attachment A). These modifications introduce a new element, the school support team, to the continuous academic review process. This team will provide targeted technical assistance to those schools that were warned in the previous year. The Department of Education (DOE) will assign the school to a level of intervention based on an analysis of the school’s most current accountability data, the current school improvement plan, and any other relevant data. The school support team will provide technical assistance that meets the unique needs of that school throughout the year. For those schools not warned in 2004-05 but accredited with warning in 2005-06, the DOE will assign the school to one of three academic review tiers. Once the tier status has been designated, an academic review team will conduct an on-site review and assist the school in identifying areas of need to be reflected in the three-year school improvement plan. Please note in Attachment A that the criteria for tier assignments have changed since last year. The school-level academic review process is a continuous process that is designed to monitor the implementation of the school improvement plan. Throughout the school’s continued status in 89
    • warning, the DOE will provide technical assistance to support the school’s improvement efforts. Please direct any questions regarding these modifications to Mrs. Kathleen M. Smith, director, Office of School Improvement, at (804) 225-2865 or Kathleen.Smith@doe.virginia.gov. JLD/KMS/pl Attachment http://www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/suptsmemos/2005/inf202a.pdf 90
    • Section 5 Conditionally Accredited Schools 91
    • Conditionally Accredited Schools Chapter 6 Background Information Schools that are Accredited with Warning for three consecutive years and may be assigned the rating of Accreditation Denied in the fourth year of warning will be eligible to apply for Conditional Accreditation from the Board of Education in lieu of a rating of Accreditation Conditional Denied. • 8 VAC 20-131-300.C. states that a school shall be rated Accreditation Denied based Accreditation on its academic performance during academic years ending in 2006 and beyond if it fails to meet the requirements to be rated Fully Accredited for the preceding three consecutive years or for three consecutive years anytime thereafter. • As outlined in 8 VAC 20-131-315, as an alternative to the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) required of schools rated Accreditation Denied, a local school board may choose to reconstitute the school and apply to the Board of Education for a rating of Conditionally Accredited. The application shall outline specific responses that address all areas of deficiency that resulted in the Accreditation Denied status. As defined by the Standards of Accreditation, “reconstitution” is a process that may be used to initiate a range of accountability actions to improve pupil performance, curriculum, and instruction to address deficiencies that caused a school to be rated Accreditation Denied. Actions may include, but not be limited to, restructuring a school’s governance, instructional program, staff or student population. Reconstitution is necessary in order to apply for and receive a Conditional Accreditation rating from the Board of Education. Process for Obtaining Conditional Accreditation The process for obtaining a rating of Conditionally Accredited is three-fold. First, the local school board applies for an accreditation rating of Conditionally Accredited. The rating may be granted for a period not to exceed three years, and only if the school is making progress toward a rating of Fully Accredited. Next, the superintendent for the division or a designee must appear before the Board of Education to make the request for Conditional Accreditation and present evidence that such reconstitution is designed to improve student achievement. Components of the request include: • Primary reconstitution request; • Additional reconstitution request; • Alternative Governance Committee members and overview; • Standards of Learning (SOL) Assessment Pass Rates for two years; • Recommendations for implementation; • Due dates for Monitoring Reports; and • Name of assigned PASS or Academic Review Team Coordinator. The following guidance is given for writing the letter requesting the Conditionally Accredited rating: 1. Paragraph 1: Cite or reference the code and indicate that the (named school board) is seeking a conditional rating based on reconstitution. 92
    • a. Provide the aspects of the definition of reconstitution that apply to this request. b. Explain “why” this request is being made and how will the reconstitution choice improve student performance and significantly contribute to the school achieving Full Accreditation. 2. Paragraph 2: Describe the school’s current demographics, including but not limited to, free and reduced lunch population, size of population, grade levels served, staff composition. 3. Paragraph 3: Provide scores and background on the scores. Indicate that improvement was made. Cite last year’s grade-by-grade improvement compared to this year. Focus on the warned/need for improvement area(s). Include copies of Adequate Yearly Progress and Standards of Learning scores. 4. Paragraph 4-5: If applicable, discuss the changes in staff over the past year(s) and in the upcoming year. Be specific. Provide the experience and background of the new staff members and what they bring to the “table.” Discuss change in student population, if applicable. 5. Paragraph 6-7: a. Discuss the alternative governance team process and structure that will be used. Clearly discuss the decision-making process. b. Provide the primary role of the committee. c. Discuss the make-up of the committee, rationale for the identified committee members, and their roles. d. Outline what the committee will review each month. Include the time and duration of the meetings. e. Discuss the decision-making process. Why is this shared governance? To whom will the committee report? 6. Closing Paragraph: Close with a strong argument that the committee is an option that will provide focus on the areas warned/identified under the Standards of Accreditation and No Child Left Behind. a. Include a reference to any attachments. b. Attachments should be appropriately one page per topic. c. When possible, use talking points to be concise. 7. Final Preparations: Be very familiar with the contents of the request packet in preparation for the Board of Education meeting. a. Be prepared to accept “conditions for approval.” Examples: i. Use of Algebra Readiness Diagnostic Test (ARDT) test for grade 6 and 7, if warned in mathematics ii. Technical assistance from Virginia Department Of Education (VDOE ) in the restructuring model iii. VDOE-assigned auditor for the school Finally, the Board of Education either accepts or denies the request. Division superintendents are informed of the decision by letter. If the request is approved, the school will use the School Improvement Plan (SIP) to develop a Corrective Action Plan (CAP) which will serve as the school’s operating plan for improvement. Parents are encouraged to participate in this process. Therefore, the school principal will send a letter to parents regarding the school’s rating of Conditionally Accredited and requesting their input in the development of the CAP. In addition, a parent meeting will be held to provide parents with the opportunity to give direct input regarding the 93
    • CAP. After the CAP is developed, the school principal will seek approval of the plan from the local school board. Additionally, all stakeholders should be made aware of the CAP. The Conditionally Accredited rating may be granted for a period not to exceed three years, and only if the school is making progress toward a rating of Fully Accredited. The school reverts to a status of Accreditation Denied if it fails to meet the requirements to be rated Fully Accredited by the end of the three-year term, or if it fails to have its annual application for Conditionally Accredited rating renewed. Alternative Governance Committee The majority of schools receiving Conditional Accreditation create an Alternative Governance Committee to serve as a formal mechanism to guide instructional decisions based on data including, but not limited to, formative assessment data, classroom observations, and review of lesson plans. Committee members include an outside expert in the area(s) of warning, district curriculum leader or instructional specialist (content specialist), the school’s principal, teachers, and an outside monitor or facilitator. As a member of the committee, the principal is not the sole instructional decision-maker. All of the members of the Alternative Governance Committee have a variety of responsibilities such as: • monitoring and revising the corrective action plan; • providing outside expertise and knowledge in the content area of warning and/or in research-based instructional practices that foster improved student achievement; • aligning district resources with the needs of the school, including additional help and support from the central office; • sharing the governance in the instructional area(s) of warning through a formal decision-making process; and • submitting monthly meeting minutes to the division superintendent. Auditors of Conditionally Accredited Schools Each Conditionally Accredited school is assigned an auditor to oversee the alternative governance process. The auditor will attend the Alternative Governance Committee meetings a minimum of once per month to discuss implementation of the CAP, analysis of assessment data, and status of staff development strategies. The division superintendent will forward an electronic copy of the Alternative Governance Committee meeting minutes to the Division- Level Support Coordinator in the Office of School Improvement by the fifth day of the following month. On a monthly basis, the conditional auditor will review monthly reports with the principal and the central office contact person. Monitoring Procedures Each auditor assigned to Conditionally Accredited schools will complete a monthly report regarding the implementation of action steps. The report will be shared orally with the school principal, central office contact person, and committee members. All reports will be submitted electronically to the Division-Level Support Coordinator in the Office of School Improvement on or before the last day of the month. After approval of the report by the Alternative Governance Committee, auditors may send the monthly report electronically to the principal and central office contact person. 94
    • Figure 1 Flowchart for the Conditional Accreditation Process To remain in compliance with the SOA follow the following steps in sequential order by the timeline indicated. School Improvement Plan (SIP) Request for Conditional Accreditation • Serves as your October 1 Status Report Approval from State Board (date TBD) Develop Corrective Action Plan (CAP) • Use the School Improvement Plan (SIP) to develop the Corrective Action Plan (CAP); • Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is the only plan the school needs – it is the school’s operating plan for improvement. 30 Days Letter to parents (date TBD) • Informing of Conditional Accreditation; • Asking for input in the Corrective Action Plan (CAP); • Date, time, & place for the parents to give input. Hold parent meeting Revise Corrective Action Plan (CAP) Approval from Local School Board 95
    • Forward a copy of the approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) to VDOE-OSI Flowchart for the Conditional Accreditation Report • Digital copy e-mailed to Yvonne A. Holloman (yvonne.holloman@doe.virginia.gov) Monthly(804-786-9763) or mail Committee with signatures. • Fax Governance Oversight cover page minutes or principal’s monthly report to the superintendent • Due the last day of the month Superintendent sends final report/minutes by the fifth day of each month to: • Auditor • Division Contact Auditor to complete Monthly Report and send all monthly principal reports/minutes to Yvonne Holloman (yvonne.holloman@doe.virginia.gov) 96
    • Page ____ of _____ Virginia Department of Education Office of School Improvement PASS Coach/ Conditional Auditor Monthly Report of Technical Assistance 2009-10 School Name: PASS Coach/Auditor: School Division: Date: The PASS/Auditor Monthly Report of Technical Assistance is due by the 10th day of each month. The following components are included: 1) Monthly Reporting Form 2) School Visit Agenda 3) Governance Oversight Committee Meeting Minutes (Conditionally Accredited Schools only) 4) School Improvement Plan Required SOA Components Review Form (Warned and Conditional Schools only) 5) School Improvement Plan Required NCLB Components Review Form (Schools that are in Title I School Improvement only) This signature indicates that the PASS Coach/Conditional Auditor has informed the principal of the above named school regarding the contents of this document. Written copies of this report will be provided to the principal consistent with the direction of each division superintendent. 97
    • Signature of PASS Coach/Conditional Audit Page ____ of _____ Monthly Reporting Form Technical Assistance 2009-10 School Name: PASS Coach/Conditional Auditor: School Division: Date: The four (4) Department of Education Goals are: 1. Improving School Culture and Climate 2. Improving Curriculum, Assessment and Instructional Planning 3. Improving Classroom Instruction (Written, Taught and Tested) 4. Building Leadership of the Principal (Based on a review of the School Improvement Plan and Essential Actions from the Targeted Review) Action Steps for Current Month, Year: Not No. Action Step Accomplished Accomplished 98
    • Page ____ of ____ Monthly Reporting Form Technical Assistance 2009-10 School Name: PASS Coach/Conditional Auditor: School Division: Date: The four (4) Department of Education Goals are: 1. Improving School Culture and Climate 2. Improving Curriculum, Assessment and Instructional Planning 3. Improving Classroom Instruction (Written, Taught and Tested) 4. Building Leadership of the Principal (Based on a review of the School Improvement Plan and Essential Actions from the Targeted Review) Action Steps for Next Month, Year: Not No. Action Step Accomplished Accomplished 99
    • Use this page for additional listings, as needed. It is not necessary to include it if blank. Page ____ of ____ Monthly Reporting Form Technical Assistance 2009-10 SCHOOL VISIT AGENDA School Name: PASS Coach/Conditional Auditor: School Division: Date: 100
    • Page ____ of ____ Page ____ of ____ Monthly Reporting Form Technical Assistance 2009-10 SCHOOL VISIT AGENDA School Name: PASS Coach/Conditional Auditor: School Division: Date: 101
    • Section 6 Essential Actions 102
    • Developing Essential Actions In developing Essential Actions for school improvement planning, the Academic Review (AR) team considers the school’s areas of strength as well as the areas identified for improvement. Each action may address one or several areas for improvement. The review team may select actions from these lists that are relevant to the school’s needs. Each Essential Action identified by the team must directly correlate with at least one indicator. If an action cannot be tied to an indicator, it should not be included in the report. To assist school staff in incorporating the Essential Actions into the three-year School Improvement Plan (SIP), the review team assigns projected start and completion dates to each Essential Action. These dates may be modified later throughout the Follow-up stage of the AR process. Reviewers should limit the number of Essential Actions keeping in mind that other tasks can be assigned during the Follow-up Visits to address less critical needs. No more than five to seven (5-7) Essential Actions should be recommended to allow the school to focus the improvement efforts of the principal and staff. Assigning Essential Actions to schools involved in the AR process represents a part of the prescriptive plan required by the Virginia Board of Education. The Essential Actions provided in this handbook were written to address the areas of review: • Curriculum Alignment • The Use of Time and School Scheduling Practices • The Use of Data for Making Instructional and Planning Decisions • Professional Development • School Improvement Planning • Research-Based Instructional Intervention • Organizational Systems and Processes • School Culture The Essential Actions listed are designed for use by review teams to address concerns and needs gleaned from specific areas of review. Several of the Essential Actions may be listed a number of times, that is, under more than one area of review. This approach should afford more expedient access and eliminate the teams having to search for desired Essential Actions. 103
    • Essential Actions For Use in Academic Reviews Essential Actions – Curriculum Alignment Written Curriculum CA 1 - Analyze lesson plans and assessments to ensure congruence among the written curriculum, the taught curriculum, and assessed curriculum. CA 2 - Consolidate curriculum documents, designing one resource having pacing timelines, textbook correlations, and possible supplemental resources. CA 3 - Continually assess pacing of the curriculum and adjust as needed to ensure that essential knowledge, skills and content are addressed. CA 4 - Determine alignment of supplemental resources with Standards of Learning (SOL) essential knowledge and skills. CA 5- Determine alignment of textbooks with SOL essential knowledge and skills. CA 6 – Develop a pacing guide that mirrors The Standards of Learning Assessment Blueprints. CA 7 - Develop and implement a process to ensure that remediation strategies are in place to facilitate adherence to the pacing guide. CA 8 – Establish and implement a system for monitoring instructional practices to ensure maximum utilization of classroom time, and provide written feedback to teachers in the areas of curriculum alignment, student engagement, differentiation of instruction, and appropriate assessments. CA 9 - Expand pacing guides to include aligned units of instruction with specific teaching activities. CA 10 - Include projected timelines in pacing guides, and provide teachers with research- based supplemental resources aligned with SOL essential knowledge and skills. CA 11 - Obtain supplemental resources aligned with SOL essential knowledge and skills. CA 12 - Provide teachers with time and skills needed to align curriculum across grade levels, paying close attention to strands and to essential knowledge and skills. CA 13 – Revise locally developed curriculum materials to align with SOL. 104
    • Essential Actions –Curriculum Alignment Taught Curriculum CA 14 - Analyze lesson plans to determine pacing of instruction in the curriculum. CA 15 - Compare pacing guide timelines with pacing evidenced by lesson. CA 16 - Develop lesson plan formats that showcase teaching of objectives that are aligned with written curriculum in accordance with pacing guides. CA 17 - Ensure teacher use of curriculum resources. CA 18 – Incorporate a variety of research-based instructional strategies. CA 19 - Increase student involvement in classroom activities to ensure that all students are actively engaged in the learning process. CA 20 - Provide professional development opportunities in the areas of cognitive levels of thinking. CA 21 - Provide professional development opportunities in the areas of instructional planning. CA 22 - Provide professional development opportunities in the areas of instructional resources and materials correlated to the curriculum. CA 23 – Provide differentiated instruction based on student needs. CA 24 – Use data to identify and provide remediation/intervention strategies for students who are unsuccessful. Essential Actions – Curriculum Alignment Assessed Curriculum CA 25- Analyze available student performance data to determine students’ skill/content strengths and weaknesses. CA 26 - Analyze teacher-made assessments to ensure correlation with SOL content and skills. 105
    • CA 27 - Provide teachers with professional development on developing high quality assessments. CA 28 - Use assessments aligned to essential knowledge and skills. CA 29 - Use assessments formatted in a manner consistent with SOL assessments. CA 30 - Use student performance data to identify curriculum strengths and those curriculum areas needing improvement. Essential Actions – Time and Scheduling Practices Instructional Time TS 1 – Analyze the use of classroom instructional time to determine prevalent instructional practices. TS 2 – Develop a school-wide classroom management system focused on improving student behavior. TS 3 – Focus teachers on collaborating to resolve instructional issues. TS 4 – Incorporate a variety of teaching methods into classroom instruction. TS 5 – Provide common planning time for teachers of same grade levels and/or content areas. TS 6 – Provide professional development opportunities in classroom management strategies. TS 7 – Provide professional development opportunities in the use of research-based instructional strategies. TS 8 – Provide remediation/intervention activities for students who are not successful learning specific skills as soon as these deficiencies are noticed. TS 9 – Provide teachers with materials and manipulatives to implement concrete, engaging, hands-on, learning activities. Essential Actions – Time and Scheduling Practices 106
    • School Scheduling Practices TS 10 - Analyze actual instructional time used during the school day, and determine where additional time might be reallocated from time devoted to non-instructional issues and/or activities. TS 11 - Provide common planning time for teachers of same grade levels or content areas. TS 12 - Research and implement alternative scheduling practices to maximize instructional time. TS 13 - Revise the master schedule to accurately reflect beginning and ending times for classes. TS 14 - Revise the master schedule to reflect the requirements of the Standards of Accreditation (compliance issue). Essential Actions –Using Data for Making Instructional & Planning Decisions Instruction D 1 - Disaggregate data by reporting category and identify patterns needing attention. D 2 - Disaggregate data by student subgroups and identify patterns or groups needing attention. D 3 - Provide training for teachers on the analysis and use of data to modify the curriculum materials provided. D 4 - Provide training for teachers on the analysis and use of data to select instructional strategies. D 5 - Provide training for teachers on the analysis and use of data to develop remediation/intervention activities. D 6 - Provide training for teachers on the analysis and use of data to plan instructional objectives. D 7 - Provide training for teachers on the analysis and use of data to determine students’ strengths and weaknesses. D 8 - Provide training for teachers on the analysis and use of data to select instructional materials. D 9 - Use student-performance-by-question (SPBQ) data to identify patterns and/or students needing attention. 107
    • Essential Actions –Using Data for Making Instructional & Planning Decisions School Improvement Planning D 10 - Determine the percent or number of strategies implemented according to specified timelines, and use the data to adjust the plan. D 11 - Identify data that will be collected as evidence of plan implementation and establish timelines for the process. D 12 - Identify student performance data that will be used to identify effective strategy implementation and establish timelines for the process. Essential Actions –Professional Development Professional Development PD 1 – Collaborate with division-level personnel to identify professional development opportunities focused on specific disciplines/subject areas. PD 2 - Develop a long-term plan for professional development that includes training, practice, feedback, monitoring, and implementation of learned skills focused on area(s) of need. PD 3 – Ensure teacher participation in content area professional development provided by the school district. PD 4 – Identify a process whereby individual teachers can share results of professional development with staff. PD 5 - Incorporate peer coaching, modeling, and problem-solving as systematic follow-up to professional development. PD 6 – Plan and provide professional development activities related to differentiated instruction and develop a plan for systematic monitoring of the implementation. PD 7 – Plan and provide professional development on use of data in planning instruction and include monitoring, feedback, and follow-up. PD 8 – Provide a data-driven, school-based, professional development program focused on research-based instructional practices (consider all subgroups). 108
    • PD 9 – Provide professional development opportunities for newly implemented instructional intervention to include training, monitoring, feedback, collaboration and follow-up. PD 10 – Provide professional development opportunities in classroom management strategies and develop a plan for systematic monitoring of the implementation. PD 11 – Provide professional development opportunities in research-based instructional strategies and develop a plan for systematic monitoring of the implementation. PD 12 – Provide professional development to all instructional staff on using pacing guides, curriculum framework, and data to develop lesson plans and develop a plan for systematic monitoring of the implementation. PD 13 – Provide training for teachers on planning instruction to engage the special needs students more in active learning opportunities and develop a plan for systematic monitoring of the implementation. PD 14 - Use data to determine professional development needs of staff. PD 15 - Use data to evaluate effectiveness of professional development. Essential Actions – School Improvement Planning School Improvement Planning SIP 1 - Assign a central office staff member to collaborate with school personnel in revising the School Improvement Plan. SIP 2 - Determine the percent or number of strategies implemented according to specified timelines, and use the data to adjust the School Improvement Plan. SIP 3- Develop a plan which provides teachers, parents, and other community stakeholders opportunities to provide input for the School Improvement Plan. SIP 4 - Develop more specific action steps for each year of the School Improvement Plan and monitor the timeframe for implementation. SIP 5 - Ensure that the School Improvement Plan clearly reflects how student achievement will be monitored at regular intervals throughout the year. The School Improvement Plan should provide for data disaggregation by subgroups to identify student performance data that will be used for effective strategy implementation along specific timelines. SIP 6 - Evaluate staff development efforts specified in the School Improvement Plan to ensure that they will result in increased student achievement. 109
    • SIP 7 - Identify data that will be collected as evidence of plan implementation and establish timelines for the process. SIP 8 - Identify student performance data that will be used to identify effective strategy implementation and establish timelines for the process. SIP 9 – Include detailed evidence of progress toward achieving the goals and strategies of the School Improvement Plan. SIP 10 – Make school improvement planning an integral part of monthly faculty/grade- level /content-area meetings. SIP 11 – Periodically evaluate the degree to which the School Improvement Plan is implemented. SIP 12 – Periodically evaluate the degree to which the School Improvement Plan is positively affecting student achievement. SIP 13 – Review the School Improvement Plan with staff members and stakeholders. SIP 14 – Revise the School Improvement Plan to address findings of the AR Team, seek approval of the plan from the local school board, and submit the plan to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) staff. Essential Actions – Research-Based Instructional Intervention Research-Based Instructional Intervention RBI 1 - Collect and analyze data related to implementation of the instructional intervention to determine if the model components are being implemented as intended. RBI 2 - Develop a classroom observation instrument to collect data on implementation of key aspects and protocols of the intervention. RBI 3 - Develop a plan for monitoring/adjusting the intervention, as needed and as allowable by developers, based upon analysis of data. RBI 4 - Develop and distribute a written document describing the key aspects and protocols of the instructional intervention used in English and/or mathematics. RBI 5 - Ensure that data is properly collected and analyzed to determine effectiveness of the instructional intervention. RBI 6 - Ensure that members of the administrative staff are knowledgeable about all aspects of the instructional intervention and its implementation. RBI 7- Ensure that the instructional intervention meets Board of Education criteria. 110
    • RBI 8 - Include in the School Improvement Plan data resulting from the implementation of the instructional intervention. RBI 9 - Investigate and research instructional interventions that meet students’ instructional needs in English and/or mathematics. RBI 10 - Provide in-depth staff development for all staff members involved with the instructional intervention. RBI 11 - Provide professional development opportunities in the areas of understanding and implementing the instructional intervention in use in English and/or mathematics. RBI 12 - Provide staff members with regular student progress reports resulting from implementation of the instructional intervention. RBI 13 - Review data to determine appropriateness of instructional intervention for students’ instructional needs. RBI 14 - Secure necessary resources for successful implementation of the instructional intervention RBI 15- Select and implement an instructional intervention that meets identified needs in English and/or mathematics. Essential Actions – Systems and Processes Systems and Processes SP 1 - Appoint staff members to monitor the implementation of systems and processes and maintain accurate records. SP 2 - Communicate to all instructional staff expectations related to established systems and processes. SP 3 - Design and implement an organizational flowchart that defines the point of contact and the process for addressing issues and disseminating information for each area. SP 4 - Develop a system for monitoring instruction that includes: documenting instructional practices used; collecting and reporting baseline data; providing feedback and support to teachers. SP 5 - Develop an efficient method for collecting and recording data at the classroom level. 111
    • SP 6 - Develop and implement a process to provide teachers the opportunity to work collaboratively to share student data with staff across the curriculum. SP 7 - Develop procedures and instruments for tracking individual student progress toward mastery of SOL content and skills on a regular basis and from grade to grade. SP 8 - Ensure that school personnel are aware of available division-level resources for school improvement. SP 9 - Establish a structure for regular grade-level/department meetings that includes agenda/minutes format, focusing meetings on resolving instructional issues, and providing feedback on potential solutions. SP 10 - Establish a system of communicating with students, staff, parents, and other community stakeholders on a routine basis, i.e. a parent/community newsletter. SP 11 - Have staff conduct an assessment of factors that may have a negative effect on student achievement, (i.e. student attendance, staff attendance, staff and student morale). SP 12 - Have teachers collaborate to write remediation plans for students. SP 13 - Make the School Improvement Plan readily available to staff and other stakeholders and ensure that the plan is reviewed by appropriate personnel. SP 14 - Seek a partnership with an accredited school with similar demographics to identify resources and successful strategies. SP 15 - Seek input from staff, students, community members, and other stakeholders in developing and implementing processes as well as in making implementation decisions. SP 16 - Systematically evaluate the degree to which improvement strategies are positively affecting student achievement. Essential Actions – School Culture School Culture 112
    • SC 1 - Conduct a formal assessment of school culture including input from all stakeholders. SC 2- Develop a plan for routinely sharing important information with the school community. SC 3- Develop a school-wide classroom management system focused on improving student behavior. SC 4- Develop and communicate a vision and mission statement for the school based upon a common set of beliefs of the school community. SC 5- Develop policies and procedures to minimize disruptions, optimize instructional time, and improve student time on task. SC 6- Identify barriers to class attendance and develop strategies to address them. SC 7- Include special education and elective teachers on grade-level and/or content area teams. SC 8- Investigate and implement a research-based, school-wide behavioral intervention model. SC 9 - Provide more opportunities for students to make choices in their learning experiences and to practice leadership skills. SC 10 - Provide workshops for parents to enhance student preparation for learning and increase parent involvement in the instructional program. SC 11 – Promote positive relationships among all stakeholders to promote positive peer relationships, shared ownership, collaboration among staff, and enhanced student-teacher relationships. SC 12 – Seek teacher input/involvement in staff development planning, school improvement planning, and other areas related to the overall operation of the school. 113
    • Section 7 School Self-Study Resources School Self-Study Resources Background Information At various points throughout the Academic Review (AR) process, school and/or division staff members are asked to complete self-studies. Prior to the Initial Visit, the school principal and the division superintendent receive an informative letter containing Web links to the various self-studies, along with instructions for completing the documents and for compiling the results online. 114
    • School staff members complete two self-studies in preparation for the Initial Visit: the Instructional Practices Self-Study and the School Improvement Update. These need to be completed and, if needed, tabulated, for the Academic Review Team Leader (ARTL) before the Initial Visit. The superintendent, or an assigned designee, completes the Division Practices Self-Study. This document and any other self-studies requested by the ARTL are to be made available for the On-Site Visit. Following the On-Site Visit, the AR team may request that staff members complete other self-studies prior to the next visit. It is the ARTL’s responsibility to ensure that school staff members have access to the needed self-study documents and are knowledgeable about completion of the documents and compilation of the results. The chart below lists the self-study instruments that are used throughout the AR process and indicates when each self-study is required or recommended. This information is a guide for reviewers. Selecting Self-Studies for Staff to Complete Complete prior to which Required or visit? Results need to Instrument Who completes it? Recommended be compiled? Instructional Practices All teachers of warned Required Initial Visit Yes Self-Study areas Division Practices Self- Central office staff, as Required Initial Visit No Study assigned School Improvement School staff, as assigned Required Initial Visit No Update by the principal Research-Based Schools previously On-Site Instructional Intervention Recommended warned in English or No Review Self-Study mathematics On-Site School staff, parents, and/ School Culture Self-Study Recommended Review or Yes or students Follow-Up On-Site Instructional Leadership Recommended Review or School staff Yes Self-Study Follow-Up Final School Self-Study Recommended Final Visit School staff No 115
    • School Self-Study Resources Division Practices Self-Study and Interview Form Division: _________________________________ DIVISION STAFF: For each area of review, use the first two columns to list (in bulleted form) the essential tasks that are completed at the division and the school levels. Return the completed document to the Academic Review Team Leader (ARTL). Consult with the ARTL to establish a due date and to determine if an interview will be scheduled. PERSON COMPLETING FORM: ___________________________________Position: _________________________ Phone: ___________ INTERVIEW: Reviewers Present: _____________________________ ________________________________ Participants Included: ____ Superintendent ____ School Administrators ____ Central Office Staff ____ Others (__________________) TOTAL NO. STAFF: _______ Division-Level Tasks School-Level Tasks (FOR REVIEWER’S USE ONLY) CURRICULUM ALIGNMENT (Written, Taught, Assessed) 116
    • Division-Level Tasks School-Level Tasks (FOR REVIEWER’S USE ONLY) USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL TIME AND SCHOOL SCHEDULING PRACTICES USE OF DATA FOR MAKING INSTRUCTIONAL AND PLANNING DECISIONS 117
    • Division-Level Tasks School-Level Tasks (FOR REVIEWER’S USE ONLY) PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT (Organizational Development, Personal Professional Growth) SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PLANNING (Plan Content, Implementation, Results) 118
    • Division-Level Tasks School-Level Tasks (FOR REVIEWER’S USE ONLY) RESEARCH-BASED INSTRUCTION INTERVENTION (Planning, Implementation, Results) 119
    • School Self-Study Resources School Improvement Update Self-Study Date of Visit: ___________________________ School Name: ___________________________ School Division: _________________________ INSTRUCTIONS Who Completes the Self-Study? The principal should complete one copy of the self-study. The School Improvement Planning team should work collaboratively to also complete a copy. In addition, a team of teachers representing each content area that has ever been reviewed and is included in the School Improvement Plan should work collaboratively to complete the self-study. Please ensure that the self-study documents are completed prior to the On-Site Visit by the AR team and are made available to the team upon their arrival. Directions: Refer to the reports and School Improvement Plans resulting from the On-Site reviews conducted in previous years. In the first column, note the suggestions for School Improvement Planning made by the AR team. Complete the next four columns describing the strategies or new practices that have been implemented to address the cited indicators. Then, considering the changes that have taken place in the school, rate your perception of the school’s current level of development/implementation of each strategy. Use the following scale as a guide. 4 – Exemplary level of development and implementation. Our school has implemented research-based practices that address the Essential Action. Staff members were provided training to prepare for implementation and receive on-going feedback and assistance to support continued implementation. Data/evidence of implementation are collected and analyzed on a regular basis. Needed modifications are identified, implemented, and monitored in a timely, efficient manner. 120
    • 3 – Fully functioning and operational level of implementation. Our school has implemented research-based practices that address the Essential Action(s). Staff members received training prior to implementation. Some follow-up training and assistance have been planned. Data/evidence of implementation have indicated the need for modifications, and these have been implemented. 2 – Limited development and/or partial implementation. Our school has implemented some new practices that address the Essential Action(s). Staff members received limited training prior to implementation. Data/evidence of implementation is collected and analyzed, but not on a planned schedule. The data/evidence currently indicate the need to modify the practices and/or to provide additional training. 1 – Low level of development and implementation. Our school has planned for or just recently implemented new practices related to the Essential Action(s). Data/evidence of implementation have not yet been collected and analyzed. 0 – Not yet developed or implemented. Our school has not yet planned for or implemented new practices related to the Essential Action(s). School Self-Study Resources CONTENT AREA(S) OF FOCUS: ___ English ___ Mathematics ___ History ___ Science Staff members involved in Self-study: ___ Principal ___ School Improvement Planning Team ___ Others: ___________________________________ Academic Review Report: Evidence of Evidence of Impact of Level of Development Strategies/New Practices & Location in Suggestion, Recommendation, or Implementation Practice on Student or Implementation Date(s) of Implementation SIP Essential Action Collected; Location Achievement 0–4 121
    • Academic Review Report: Evidence of Evidence of Impact of Level of Development Strategies/New Practices & Location in Suggestion, Recommendation, or Implementation Practice on Student or Implementation Date(s) of Implementation SIP Essential Action Collected; Location Achievement 0–4 122
    • SCHOOL-LEVEL ACADEMIC REVIEW School Code _______ -- ___________ Form 2-IP: Instructional Practices Self-Study General Instructions: When this self-study is REQUIRED: The Instructional Practices Self-Study is a required component of the AR Initial Visit. It is to be completed by school staff prior to the Initial Visit, and the results are to be made available to the Academic Review Team Leader upon his or her arrival at the school. The self- study is completed individually by each teacher assigned to a class/course in each of the content areas in which the school is currently warned, including instructional staff providing support services such as special education, Title I, or English language learners. When this self-study is OPTIONAL: Reviewers may also ask school staff to complete this self-study in preparation for other AR visits, such as the On-Site Review or a Follow-Up Visit. If so, the Academic Review Team Leader will inform the principal of the content areas that will be targeted and the projected date for the next visit. This task will be included in the list of “Tasks to be Completed by Staff” in the designated report. Instructions for the Principal: 1) Consult with the Academic Review Team Leader prior to the AR team’s visit to determine how the data will be collected. Data may be collected and compiled by content area, school-wide, or in any other manner that is appropriate for the school. (For the Initial Visit, data are typically collected school-wide, with each teacher completing one self-study representing practices employed in all assigned courses.) 2) Assign a staff member to be the “data collector.” This person will collect the self-studies and compile the results. Put this person’s name in the space provided on the first page of the self-study. 3) Determine the due date for teachers to complete the self-study. Allow time for the results to be tabulated prior to the AR team’s visit. Indicate the due date in the space provided. 4) Provide a copy of the self-study document to each teacher assigned to the targeted content area(s). If data are to be collected by specific content areas, teachers should complete a separate self-study document for each content area to which they are assigned. Instructions for Data Collectors: 1) Collect self-studies from teachers. If more than 15 respondents participated, sort the documents into groups of up to 15 each. Or, if data are to be compiled by specific teacher “groups”, sort the documents accordingly. Assign a Group # to each group. Then assign a Respondent # (1-15) to each self-study. Record these numbers in the spaces provided at the top of each self-study. 2) Use the Instructional Practices Self-Study form (Form 2-IP/R) to compile results and calculate the average rating for each section of the self-study. This form has been provided as a Word document (to manually calculate results) and as an Excel spreadsheet (to automatically calculate results). The forms can be used for up to 15 respondents. Use one “Group Sheet” for each of the identified Groups. 3) For each respondent, record the total points earned for each section of the self-study in the appropriate space. The points are found at the end of each section on the respondents’ self-study documents. 4) Find the Total Points earned for each area by adding the points of all respondents in the Group. Divide this total by the No. of Respondents in the Group. Then divide by the No. of Items to find the Average Rating for each area. Record the results on the form. 5) If data were collected and compiled for more than one Group of respondents, use the Total School Sheet to compile the results of all Groups and find the Total School Average Rating. (The Excel file will automatically import the data entered on each “Group” worksheet into the “Total School” worksheet and calculate the Total School Average Rating.) 6) Have teachers’ responses and the school-wide results available to the AR team upon their arrival. 7) Provide the team with your name and room number, in case reviewers need to contact you to answer questions. 122
    • SCHOOL-LEVEL ACADEMIC REVIEW School Code _______ -- ___________ Form 2-IP: Instructional Practices Self-Study [For Office Use Only: GROUP #____; Respondent #:____] Teachers’ Instructions: 1) Respond to each item based on your personal experiences in this school and the instructional practices you employ in the targeted class(es) you are assigned. Use the following scale: 4 = Almost Always/Every Day 2 = Often (1-2x/monthly) 3 = Frequently (1-2x/weekly) 1 = Rarely (2-3x/yeaARCy) 0 = Never 2) Find the total points for each section. 3) Complete and return to _____________________ (Data Collector) by ________ (Due Date). Targeted Content Areas: Educational Setting(s): ___ English ___ General Education ___ Mathematics ___ Special Education ___ History ___ Title I ___ Science ___ Provider of Remedial/Tutoring Services ___ Other: _____________ ___ Selected Grade Levels: ______________ CURRICULUM ALIGNMENT 1) I have and use the DOE Curriculum Framework(s) and Test Blueprint(s) to plan instruction. 2) I have and use locally developed curriculum and mapping/pacing guides to plan instruction. 3) I regularly use assessment data to identify students’ learning strengths and needs and to track individual students’ progress. 4) I develop daily lessons plans that include specific learning objectives and address the essential knowledge and skills of state learning standards. 5) I collaborate with other teachers to develop lessons and design/select classroom-based assessments. 6) The learning resources and materials provided by the division/school are sufficient to ensure student attainment of essential knowledge and skills. 7) I introduce new learning in the context of prior knowledge and real-life situations. 8) I differentiate instruction to meet the unique needs and interests of students. 9) The instructional strategies I employ are research-based and proven effective to raise student achievement. 10) I incorporate a variety of assessment methods and formats to measure student progress. 11) I provide students opportunities to reflect on their learning. 12) The assessments provided by the division/school are aligned with local curriculum and pacing guides. 13) Assessments include items that reflect the format and content of state test items. 14) I receive feedback about the alignment of instruction with state learning standards. 15) All of my students have access to the available learning resources and support programs and services. 123
    • SCHOOL-LEVEL ACADEMIC REVIEW School Code _______ -- ___________ Form 2-IP: Instructional Practices Self-Study Total Points for Curriculum Alignment: USE OF TIME 16) I begin and end the lesson at the established start and end times. 17) The academic focus in my classroom is protected from interruptions by non-instructional activities. 18) I manage daily routines to minimize disruptions and off-task student behaviors. 19) I use the local pacing/mapping guides to determine how to allocate instructional time for long- term planning. 20) I adjust the pacing of instruction based on student cues. 21) I allocate class time to provide students opportunities for re-teaching and enrichment. 22) I attend team meetings (grade level; department; leadership) on a regular basis. 23) The teams on which I serve meet regularly, have established schedules and agendas, and maintain records/minutes of meetings. Total Points for Use of Time: PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT 24) I have a professional growth plan that incorporates goals and activities that support school and division improvement initiatives and addresses areas identified for individual growth. 25) I participate in a variety of professional development activities including conferences, school- based programs, peer coaching, peer study groups, and other offerings. 26) The professional development activities I attend support the school’s and the division’s improvement initiatives and/or my goals for personal professional growth. 27) Professional development activities connect directly to my work with students in the classroom. 28) I have opportunities to practice and experiment with new skills learned through professional development activities. 29) I am provided support and feedback as I implement new instructional practices. Total Points for Professional Development: USE OF DATA FOR MAKING INSTRUCTIONAL DECISIONS 30) I have been trained to analyze and use a variety of data (assessment, attendance, discipline.). 31) I analyze data at the individual, class, grade/content area, and whole school levels. 32) I collaborate with other teachers to analyze data. 33) I use data to establish learning objectives, select activities, design assessments, and to adjust the pacing of instruction. 34) I use data to plan re-teaching/remediation, intervention, and enrichment opportunities for individual students and groups of students. Total Points for Use of Data: 124
    • SCHOOL CULTURE 35) I am involved in the process of developing and renewing the school’s mission statement and goals for improving student achievement. 36) I am given leadership opportunities that support implementation of the school’s improvement plan. 37) I am endorsed to teach all of the classes to which I am currently assigned. 38) I obtain students’ input into the development of performance criteria and behavioral expectations. 39) I assign students responsibility for classroom routines and management tasks. 40) I provide students opportunities to make choices about the activities and assignments they complete. 41) I provide parents with information and resources to help them assist their children in improving achievement. 42) I communicate regularly with parents and students regarding students’ progress & accomplishments. 43) I involve students and parents in solving problems. 44) I use community resources and volunteers to support students’ academic achievement and social development. Total for School Culture: 125
    • School Self-Study Resources Instructional Practices Self-Study Compilation of Results NOTE: An Excel spreadsheet (“xls”), which can be used to calculate results automatically, is provided on the AR Web-page. Using this worksheet, data can be compiled for up to 15 respondents. If more than 15 respondents completed the self-study, divide the respondents into groups of up to 15 each. Use as many additional sheets as necessary. Then use the “School-Wide Results” table to compile all results for the school. GROUP #_____ Data compiled for the following group(s): (Check all that apply.) ___ English ___ General Education ___ Mathematics ___ Special Education ___ History ___ Title I ___ Science ___ Providers of Remedial/Tutoring Services ___ Others: _______________ ___ Selected Grade Level(s): _________ 126
    • School Self-Study Resources Divide the Total Points by the No. of Respondents. Then divide by the No. of Items to get the Average Rating (should be between 0-4) for each area. Total, by Area, for Each Respondent Tot No. Area al No. of of Avg. R R R R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 R1 Rspndnts Items Rating R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 Pts. 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 EXAMPLE 15 20 16 18 12 14 16 20 19 13 163 10 5 3.3 Curriculum Alignment Use of Time Professional Development Use of Data School Culture 127
    • School Self-Study Resources SCHOOL-WIDE RESULTS Use this sheet to compile data collected for up to four groups of respondents. Modify table, as needed, to accommodate additional groups. Divide the Total Points by the No. of Respondents. Then divide by the No. of Items to get the Average Rating (should be between 0-4) for each area. GROUP 1 GROUP 2 GROUP 3 GROUP 4 Total Total No. No. of Avg. Area of Items No. of No. of No. of No. of Pts. Rating Points Points Points Points Rspndnts Rspdnts Rspdnts Rspdnts Rspdnts EXAMPLE 163 10 235 15 398 25 5 3.2 Curriculum Alignment Use of Time Professional Development Use of Data School Culture 128
    • School Self-Study Resources Instructional Leadership Self-Study School Name: ___________________. School Division: ___________________. Person completing survey: ____ School Administrator ___ Teacher___ Support Staff ____ Parent ____ Student ____ Other ________________________________ Use the following scale to indicate how frequently each leadership practice is evidenced in this school. Include explanations in the Comments section, if applicable. 4 = Almost Always 3 = Often 2 = Sometimes 1 = Rarely 0 = Never PRACTICE Rating Comments 1. Promoting and maintaining a safe and secure school environment for students and staff. 2. Maintaining and disseminating a current student handbook of policies and procedures that includes the division’s Student Code of Conduct and other matters of interest to parents and students. 3. Enforcing the Student Code of Conduct. 4. Establishing and maintaining a current handbook of personnel policies and procedures. 5. Promoting and maintaining an environment that supports open lines of communication between all levels (administration to administration; administration to teaching staff, and others as applicable.) 6. Promoting and maintaining an environment conducive to shared ownership. 7. Protecting instructional time from unnecessary interruptions and disruptions. 8. Keeping teachers’ clerical responsibilities to a minimum. 9. Minimizing the amount of time students are out of class for non- instructional reasons. 10. Analyzing school test scores by subgroups and using this information to adjust instructional practices. 11. Providing appropriate prevention, intervention, and remediation opportunities to promote student achievement. 12. Monitoring and evaluating the quality of instruction and providing timely feedback focused on the effectiveness of instructional methods and strategies. 13. Involving staff in using data to identify and select professional development activities. 14. Providing professional development and instructional support that are designed to improve instruction and are focused on the school’s improvement initiatives. 129
    • PRACTICE Rating Comments 15. Ensuring that staff members participate in professional development activities. 16. Allocating human and financial resources to support the school’s improvement initiatives. 130
    • School Self-Study Resources Instructional Leadership Self-Study, Tally Sheet STEP I: Use this form to tally responses for each item, by rating assigned. Record the **No. of responses for each rating. Find and record the **Total No. of Respondents for each item. Use these data in Step II to calculate the results. 4 3 2 1 0 **Total Almost Always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Item No. of No. No.* No. No. Tally Tally Tally No.** Tally Tally Rspndnts ** * ** ** Ex.  7  9  4  5  3 28 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 131
    • 4 3 2 1 0 **Total Almost Always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Item No. of No. No.* No. No. Tally Tally Tally No.** Tally Tally Rspndnts ** * ** ** Ex.  7  9  4  5  3 28 16. 132
    • School Self-Study Resources Instructional Leadership Self-Study, RESULTS STEP II: Compile the results by recording the No.** of responses in the first column under each rating (from Step I, Tally Sheet). Multiply that number by the value of the rating and record these points in the second column. Add each of these point values (N x Rating*) to get the *Total Points for each item. Divide the *Total Points by the **Total No. of Respondents (from Step I) to get the Average Rating for each item (should be between 0-4). See Example. NOTE: An Excel spreadsheet (“xls”), which can be used to calculate results automatically, is provided on the AR web page. 4 3 2 1 0 Almost Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never **Total *Total Avg. Item Always No. of Rating Pts. Rspndnts No.* Nx No.* Nx Nx No.** N x 2* No.** N x 1* No.** * 4* * 3* 0* Ex. 68/28 7 28 9 27 4 8 5 5 3 0 68 28 = 2.4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 133
    • School Self-Study Resources School Culture Self-Study School Name: ______________________ This self-study is NOT a required component of the AR process. It does NOT need to be completed prior to the Initial Visit or the On-Site Review Visit, UNLESS requested by the Academic Review Team Leader. If so, please follow the instructions provided below. NOTE: Principals have the option of using the self-study to obtain additional information relevant to school improvement planning. Principal’s Instructions 1) Determine a due date for the staff to complete the self-study. Allow time for the results to be tabulated prior to the AR team’s visit. Indicate the due date in the space provided on the first page of the self-study document. 2) Copy and distribute the self-study document to staff members and parents, students, and others according to reviewers’ instructions. 3) Tally and calculate the results: a. Step I: Use the Tally Sheet (Form 2-SC/TS) to tally the school-wide results. Use these data to calculate the average rating for each item in Step II. b. Step II: Use the Results form (Form 2-SC/R) to calculate the results. This form has been provided as a Word document (for manual calculation) and as an Excel spreadsheet (for automatic calculation). Use either form. 4) Find and record the Average Rating for each item. 5) Have staff responses and the school-wide results available to the AR team upon their arrival. NOTE: Do not distribute the School Culture Self-study, Results by Category document to staff members. 134
    • School Self-Study Resources School Culture Self-Study School Name: ______________________ Directions: The purpose of this survey is to collect information concerning perceptions of the school. Please indicate the extent to which each statement characterizes your school. A space is provided for each response. Your responses will be strictly confidential and reported in aggregate form. School_______________________________ Date Due to Principal: ____________ Responses: Person Completing Form: 4 = Almost Always Occurs ___ Administrator 3 = Frequently Occurs ___ Parent 2 = Sometimes Occurs 1 = Rarely Occurs 0 = Never Occurs 1. Teachers are enthusiastic about helping all students. 2. Classroom instruction is student centered. 3. The community expects high academic achievement. 4. The principal involves students, parents and staff with meaningful roles in decision making processes that foster a sense of responsibility and ownership. 5. School staff attempts to be in touch with the feelings of the students. 6. Teachers encourage active student learning. 7. Parents are encouraged to be involved in their child’s education. 8. A strong emphasis is placed on collaboration and shared decision-making. 9. The principal takes an active leadership role in directing instruction. 10. The principal is accessible to discuss instructional concerns. 11. Students receive support from school staff when they have problems. 12. Teachers utilize a variety of instructional strategies in their classrooms. 13. Beyond regularly scheduled parent conferences and report cards, teachers communicate with parents about their child’s progress. 14. School staff takes an active role in improving services to students. 15. Teachers employ a variety of techniques to accommodate different learning styles. 16. Students in need of remediation are provided these opportunities during the school day. 17. New teachers are mentored and made to feel a part of the school community. 18. Students are treated with dignity and respect. 19. Teaching strategies that encourage students to be thoughtful are emphasized. 20. Teachers help and support each other. 135
    • 21. Professional staff acknowledges and addresses conflict. 22. A positive feeling permeates the school. 23. School staff are respected and appreciated by the school community. 24. When something is broken, repairs are made quickly. 25. The school building is maintained in a neat, clean and orderly fashion. 26. Teachers regularly monitor student progress. 27. Students are expected to be well-behaved. 28. Professional growth is important to teachers. 29. Teachers are involved in the instructional decision making process. 20. Parents feel comfortable expressing concerns to professional staff. 31. All students are expected to succeed. 32. Student input is sought in developing rules and regulations. 33. Consequences for inappropriate student behavior are handled in a timely and consistent manner. 34. The school facilitates sound decision making at the classroom level by helping teachers obtain needed information in a timely fashion. 35. Students new to the school receive assistance in adjusting to the school community. 36. School staff communicates “good news” to parents about their children. 37. Parents support the school program(s) by preparing their children for learning. 38. School administrative staff is available to students and parents to answer questions and provide resources. 39. Teachers support all students, not just those students in their classes. 40. Teachers are provided with a formal role in school-wide decision-making. 41. Parents are actively involved with their child’s education. 42. Students are courteous and abide by school rules. 43. Leadership functions are shared by school staff. 44. There is a common vision and clearly identified goals and priorities. School Self-Study Resources School Culture Self-Study, Tally Sheet STEP I: Use this form to tally responses for each item, by rating assigned. Record the **No. of responses for each rating. Find and record the **Total No. of Respondents for each item. Use these data in Step II to calculate the results. 136
    • 4 3 2 1 0 **Total Almost Always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Item No. of No.* No.* No.* Tally Tally No.** Tally No.** Tally Tally Rspndnts * * * Ex.  7  9  4  5  3 28 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 137
    • 4 3 2 1 0 **Total Almost Always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Item No. of No.* No.* No.* Tally Tally No.** Tally No.** Tally Tally Rspndnts * * * Ex.  7  9  4  5  3 28 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 138
    • 4 3 2 1 0 **Total Almost Always Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never Item No. of No.* No.* No.* Tally Tally No.** Tally No.** Tally Tally Rspndnts * * * Ex.  7  9  4  5  3 28 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. School Self-Study Resources 139
    • School Culture Self-Study, Results by Item STEP II: Compile the results by recording the No.** of responses in the first column under each rating (from Step I, Tally Sheet). Multiply that number by the value of the rating and record these points in the second column. Add each of these point values (N x Rating*) to get the *Total Points for each item. Divide the *Total Points by the **Total No. of Respondents (from Step I) to get the Average Rating for each item (should be between 0-4). See Example. NOTE: An Excel spreadsheet (“xls”), which can be used to calculate results automatically, is provided on the Academic Review Web-page. 4 3 2 1 0 Almost Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never **Total *Total Avg. Item Always No. of Pts. Rating No.* Nx No.* Nx Rspndnts No.** N x 2* No.** N x 1* No.** N x 0* * 4* * 3* Ex. 68/28 = 7 28 9 27 4 8 5 5 3 0 68 28 2.4 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 140
    • 4 3 2 1 0 Almost Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never **Total *Total Avg. Item Always No. of Pts. Rating No.* Nx No.* Nx Rspndnts No.** N x 2* No.** N x 1* No.** N x 0* * 4* * 3* Ex. 68/28 = 7 28 9 27 4 8 5 5 3 0 68 28 2.4 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 141
    • 4 3 2 1 0 Almost Frequently Sometimes Rarely Never **Total *Total Avg. Item Always No. of Pts. Rating No.* Nx No.* Nx Rspndnts No.** N x 2* No.** N x 1* No.** N x 0* * 4* * 3* Ex. 68/28 = 7 28 9 27 4 8 5 5 3 0 68 28 2.4 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 142
    • School Self-Study Resources School Culture Self-Study, RESULTS by Category Use this form to record school-wide results of the School Culture Self-Study. DO NOT DISTRIBUTE THIS DOCUMENT TO STAFF MEMBERS. A. School staff reflects the belief that all children can learn. 1. Teachers are enthusiastic about helping all students. 5. School staff attempts to be in touch with the feelings of the students. 11. Students receive support from school staff when they have problems. 14. School staff takes an active role in improving services to students. 18. Students are treated with dignity and respect. 27. Students are expected to be well-behaved. 31. All students are expected to succeed. 32. Student input is sought in developing rules and regulations. 35. Students new to the school receive assistance in adjusting to the school community. 42. Students are courteous and abide by school rules. B. Instructional practices support the belief that all children can and will learn. 2. Classroom instruction is student centered. 6. Teachers encourage active student learning. 12. Teachers utilize a variety of instructional strategies in their classrooms. Teachers employ a variety of instructional techniques to accommodate different learning 15. styles. 16. Students in need of remediation are provided these opportunities during the school day. 19. Teaching strategies that encourage students to be thoughtful are emphasized 20. Teachers help and support each other. 26. Teachers regularly monitor student progress. 39. Teachers support all students, not just those students in their classes. 143
    • C. The school involves parents and the community in the educational program. 3. The community expects high academic achievement. 7. Parents are encouraged to be involved in their child’s education. Beyond regularly scheduled parent conferences and report cards, teachers communicate 13. with parents about their child’s progress. 30. Parents feel comfortable expressing concerns to professional staff. 36. School staff communicates “good news” to parents about their children. 37. Parents support the school program by preparing their children for learning. School administrative staff is available to students and parents to answer questions and 38. provide resources. 41. Parents are actively involved with their child’s education. D. Professional staff engages in collaborative leadership. The principal involves students, parents and staff with meaningful roles in decision making 4. processes that foster a sense of responsibility and ownership. 8. A strong emphasis is placed on collaboration and shared decision-making. 9. The principal takes an active leadership role in directing instruction. 10. The principal is accessible to discuss instructional concerns. 17. New teachers are mentored and made to feel a part of the school community. 21. Professional staff acknowledges and addresses conflict. 22. A positive feeling permeates the school. 23. School staff are respected and appreciated by the school community. 24. When something is broken, repairs are made quickly. 25. The school building is maintained in a neat, clean and orderly fashion. 28. Professional growth is important to teachers. 29. Teachers are involved in the instructional decision making process. Consequences for inappropriate student behavior are handled in a timely and consistent 33. manner. The school facilitates sound decision making at the classroom level by helping teachers 34. obtain needed information in a timely fashion. 40. Teachers are provided with a formal role in school-wide decision-making. 43. Leadership functions are shared by school staff. 44. There is a common vision and clearly identified goals and priorities. School Self-Study Resources 144
    • Final School Self-Study Date: _________________________ School Name: _________________________ Area of Focus: ____E____M____H____S Purpose: The purpose of this self-study is to obtain input from school staff regarding implementation of the school’s Essential Actions and the changes that have taken place in the school since the AR On-Site Review Visit. Review team member(s) will review this information during the school’s Final Visit. Please complete the survey and return it to the principal by ________________________. Person completing form (Check all that apply.): ___ Principal; Assistant Principal ___ Teacher (Content/Grade Level: ____________________________) ___ Member of School’s Planning Team ___ Teacher (Sp Ed; Title I Eng; Title I Math) ___ Teacher (Business, Elective, Fine Arts, PE) ___ Other (___________________________) Part I 1. Describe three significant changes you have made in your professional practice, or new practices you have implemented, that supported implementation of the Essential Actions included in the Academic Review Report of Findings. Then describe the supports (professional development, coaching, materials, resources, and other supports) that have been provided to assist you in implementing each practice and the impact of each practice on student performance. (Add rows or an additional sheet if more space is needed.) Changed or New Practice Supports for Implementation Impact on Student Performance 145
    • 1. Briefly describe your role in collecting and analyzing data/evidence related to the implementation and/or evaluation of these practices. 2. Briefly describe your role in collecting and analyzing student performance data. 3. Briefly describe your personal involvement in the development or revision of the school’s three-year School Improvement Plan. 4. What suggestions do you have for refining or enhancing the newly implemented and changed practices to better meet the needs of students and staff? 5. What do you see as the school’s greatest strength(s) at this time? 6. In which area(s) would you like to see the school continue to improve? 7. Other comments regarding the school’s improvement efforts: 146
    • School Self-Study Resources Research-based Instructional Intervention Self-Study Date: ________________ School Name: ________________________ School Division: ____________________________ Complete one self-study document for each intervention adopted. Part I: RBI Implementation Status Section 8 VAC 20-131-310.B of the SOA states that any school rated Accredited with Warning in English or mathematics is expected to adopt a researched-based instructional intervention (RBI) that has a proven track record of success at raising student achievement. 1. Has the school adopted a research-based instructional intervention (RBI)? (If no, use the space below to describe the status of the school in adopting Yes No an RBI.) 2. Please provide the requested information regarding the RBI and the facilitator assigned to assist with implementation, if applicable. Please contact the facilitator to ensure he/she will be available on the dates of the review should the review team have questions about the RBI. Instructional Area: English Mathematics Both Adopted intervention : Facilitator Was this person contacted? (Y/ : N) Phone : E-mail: 3. Is the RBI on the list of methods (Attachment A of Superintendents’ Memo No. 52, 4/5/02) or list of interventions approved by the Board of Education? Yes No If no, does the RBI selected meet the four criteria outlined in Superintendent’s. Memo No. 8, January 10, 2003? Yes No 4. Has this intervention been implemented? Yes No Indicate approximate or anticipated date of implementation: 5. Does the school have a plan for monitoring implementation of the RBI to ensure it is implemented as designed? Yes No 147
    • What data/evidence are (or will be) collected? Describe the process or plan for analyzing these data/evidence? 5. Does the school have a plan for monitoring effectiveness of the RBI in meeting the school’s student achievement goals? Yes No What data/evidence are (or will be) collected? Describe the process or plan for analyzing these data/evidence. 6. Does the School Improvement Plan address the implementation and evaluation of the RBI? Yes No 7. Is the intervention supported through professional development? Yes No What professional development activities are planned for the upcoming school year? 8. Is adequate instructional time devoted to effective implementation of the RBI? Yes No How much time per day? OR How much time per week? 9. Have materials essential for effective implementation of the RBI been provided or ordered? Yes No 10. Has space essential for effective implementation of the RBI been provided or designated? Yes No 148
    • Additional Comments: Part II: Research-based Instructional Intervention/Stratégies (RBI) Description Complete the following chart describing the research-based instructional intervention/strategy. The column on the left lists instructional intervention/strategy elements. Type your description or response in the column on the right. RBI Elements Description/Response Name of research-based instructional intervention/strategy: Area of focus and what the research- based instructional intervention/strategy is intended to do: Targeted Grade Level(s): Key elements of research-based instructional intervention/strategy: Materials needed: Types and frequency of staff development provided by research-based instructional intervention/strategy developers: Specific classroom physical space/arrangement requirements: Description of built-in student achievement component (frequency, data distribution, data use): Description of any modification(s) made to the research-based instructional intervention/strategy to better meet the needs of students: Description of staff coordination efforts (as required by research-based instructional intervention/strategy): 149
    • Other relevant information: Section 8 School Improvement Planning 150
    • School Improvement Planning Background Information A focused planning process based on student achievement and program data is very important for improving student achievement. 8 VAC 20 131-310.F-H. A three-year School Improvement Plan (SIP) must be developed and implemented, based on the results of an Academic Review (AR) of each school that is rated Accredited with Warning, upon receipt of notification of the awarding of this rating and receipt of the results of the AR. The plan: 1. Shall be developed with the assistance of parents and teachers and made available to the public; 2. Must include the components outlined in subsection B of this section; and 3. Must be approved by the division superintendent and the local school board and be designed to assist the school in meeting the student achievement standard to be Fully Accredited as outlined in 8 VAC 20-131-300. The Improvement Plan shall include the following: 1. A description of how the school will meet the requirements to be Fully Accredited for each of the years covered by the plan; 2. Specific measures for achieving and documenting student academic improvement; 3. A description of the amount of time in the school day devoted to instruction in the core academic areas; 4. Instructional practices designed to remediate students who have not been successful on Standards of Learning (SOL) tests; 5. Intervention strategies designed to prevent further declines in student performance; 6. Staff development needed; 7. Strategies to involve and assist parents in raising their child’s academic performance; 8. The need for flexibility or waivers to state or local regulations to meet the objectives of the plan; and 9. A description of the manner in which local, state, and federal funds are used to support the implementation of the components of this plan. The SIP and related annual reports submitted to the Board shall provide documentation of the continuous efforts of the school to achieve the requirements to become rated Fully Accredited. The Board shall adopt and approve all policies and formats for the submission of annual reports under this section. The reports shall be due no later than October 1 of the school year. Process School improvement research literature indicates that planning should be a collaborative effort. To ensure strong implementation of the plan, all the stakeholders should feel ownership. Ownership will be gained through collaborative analysis of data, selection of goals and objectives, and design of strategies. 151
    • Studies of high-performing schools have found that consistent and thorough collection, analysis, and use of student achievement data are critical to improving student achievement. All sources of data should be used to identify possible strengths and weaknesses in the school program that may be affecting student achievement As developed by Edie Holcomb in her text, Asking the Right Questions, these five questions can guide the improvement process of a school: 1. Where are we now? 2. Where do we want to go? 3. How will we get there? 4. How will we know we are there? 5. How can we keep it going? The school improvement process is a never-ending cycle. These questions naturally lead from one to the last and begin again with each new school year. Two SIP templates are provided on the Virginia Department of Education Web site. When completed appropriately, each template meets the requirements of the Standards of Accreditation (SOA). Schools may use other templates as long as they meet these requirements. All SIPs should utilize the cover sheet provided with the required signatures. The SOA require a three-year SIP for any school which has not earned full accreditation. This plan must be revised each year and should reflect the recommendations of the AR report or School Support Team (SST) report. Even if the school should receive Full Accreditation, it must continue to submit a revised SIP for two years following its first year of warning. This may be submitted each year with the required October 1 Update. 152
    • Format #1 Three Year School Improvement Plan (8 VAC 20-131-310.F; 8 VAC 20-131-310 G) For Year 2007 to Year 2007 School Name School Number       Division       Division Number       Grade Levels Served PKto PK School Telephone       Principal Signature Superintendent Signature Date Approved by Local School Board/Superintendent       School Accountability Profile SOA Fully Accredited OR Warned Content Number of Consecutive List Research based Area(s) for This Year Years Warned Instructional Intervention English       1. English:       Math       Science       2. Math:       History       NCLB Sanctions (For Title I Schools Only) . Made AYP OR In Improvement (select one): Year 1 2 3 4 5 For High School Only Made AYP? (Yes/No) Graduation Rate Met? (Yes/No) Attendance Rate Met? (Yes/No)                   Average number of Minutes in School Day devoted to instruction in Four Core Academic Areas (8 VAC 20-131-310.G.3)      Language Arts Science       Mathematics       Social Studies         Plan developed with assistance from: (8 VAC 20-131-301.F.1) (Check all that apply.) Teachers Community Members Building Administrators Students Central Office Administrators Others (specify)       Parents Attach a List of Participants 153
    • School Improvement Plan School Goal Summary (Number of Goals and Objectives Determined by Local Division/School) School Name       (Print Additional Pages for More Goals, Objectives, and/or Strategies As Needed) Goal 1 Statement:       Objectives: A.       B.       C.       1. Describe the rational for selecting these objectives which support this goal. (Name the existing circumstances/data to support your selection of objectives.)       2. Data used in selecting these objectives: (Check all that apply.) Student achievement data Perceptual data Demographic data Single incident data Program analysis data Multi-year trend data 3. Where do we want to be? (Summarize with specific reference to sub-groups.)       4. How will we get there with the strategies selected? Note: Each strategy is described in detail on the following pages of the plan. (Outline overall strategies.)       5. How will we know we are there? (What data will help determine the level of success?)       6. How can we keep it going? (To be answered at the end of the year to begin planning process cycle.)       154
    • Strategies for Meeting School Objective A School Name       Select the quarter applicable to this strategy: 1st 2nd 3rd 4th (Print Additional Pages for More Goals, Objectives, and/or Strategies As Needed) Objective A Statement:       Strategy 1. (Describe the strategy/action.)       1. Where are we, relative to this strategy? (Existing circumstances.)       2. Where do we want to go, relative to this strategy? (Desired circumstances.)       3. How will we know we are there? (What data will help determine the level of success?)       4. How can we keep it going? (To be answered at the end of the year to begin the planning process cycle.)       155
    • End of Quarter Report For Strategy 1 School Name       (Print Additional Pages for More Goals, Objectives, and/or Strategies As Needed) 1. Division Responsibility 2. School Responsibility Met? 3. Financial Resources Met? (Y or N) (Amount/Source) (Y or N)                               4. If professional development is required, follow-up will be provided by:       5. Final Outcome: Met? (Y or N) (How will we know this strategy has been effective?)             6. What have we learned?       7. What will we change?       156
    • Format 2 DIRECTIONS FOR COMPLETING THREE-YEAR SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PLANS Your three-year School Improvement Plan is due to the Office of School Improvement at the Department of Education after the completion of your Academic Review and before October 1 of the next academic year. The division superintendent and the local school board must approve your plan. (See 8 VAC 20-131-310.F.-H.) For guidance in developing your School Improvement Plan, visit the OSI web page http://www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/SchoolImprovement/ Scroll down to “School Improvement Planning.” Using the Three-year School Improvement Plan Format You may use the template for the School Improvement Plan (SIP) at the OSI website. You must use the cover sheet and include the Standards Of Accreditation/No Child Left Behind checklist found at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/SchoolImprovement/SOAandNCLB- SIPrequirements.docl Scroll to “School Improvement Planning Resources for School Support Team members.” When using this template, duplicate the second page and complete one of these pages for each goal in your plan. Fill in all appropriate cells in the table, adding additional rows to accommodate additional information. Leave the OCTOBER 1 STATUS column of the table blank. This will be submitted on or before October 1 next school year. Complete the cover page and the checklist. Submitting the Three-year School Improvement Plan After approval by the division superintendent and local school board, submit the plan, the completed coversheet, and the completed checklist to Mary Whitley, Office of School Improvement, in the Department of Education. The plan may be transmitted electronically to mary.whitley@doe.virginia.gov. When sending plans by e-mail, put “School Improvement Plan” on the subject line. A signed cover page (original or copy) must be mailed to Mary Whitley or faxed to the OSI office at 804-786-9763. You may use your own locally developed format or any other format for developing the three-year school improvement plan, but the requirements listed above for the cover sheet, checklist, and submission must be followed. 157
    • THREE-YEAR SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PLAN (8 VAC 20-131-310.F; 8 VAC 20-131-310.G) School Improvement Plan for the Period ________________________ School Name: _____________________________________________ Targeted Academic Area(s): School Number: ___________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Division: _________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Grade Levels Served: _______________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Amount of Time in School Day Devoted to Instruction in the Four Core ________________________________________________________ Academic Areas: __________________________________________ (8 VAC 20-131-310.G.3) Plan Developed with Assistance from (check all that apply): Description of Data Reviewed Supporting Need for Improvement (8 VAC 20-131-310.F.1.) in Each Warned Area:  Teachers  Building Administrators  Central Office Administrators  Parents  Community Members  Students  Other (specify): ____________________________________ Waiver(s) Needed and Request(s) Attached (check one): Date Approved by Local School Board/Superintendent: ____________ (8 VAC 20-131-310.G.8.) (8 VAC 20-131-310.F.3.)  Yes  No _________________________________________________________ Superintendent Signature _________________________________________________________ Principal Signature 158
    • Three-Year School Improvement Plan A Description of How the School will Meet the Provisional Accreditation Benchmarks, or the Requirements to be Fully Accredited, for Each of the Years Covered by the Plan (8 VAC 20-131-310.G.1) Goal Statement: Objective: Specific measures of student achievement that will be taken throughout the school year(s) and used to monitor academic improvement over time (8 VAC 20 – 131-310.G.2): Types of Assessments Frequency of Measures and Data Evidence/Data to be Collected Collection ADD ROWS AS NEEDED TO ACCOMMODATE NUMBER OF ASSESSMENT TOOLS These activity Projected Person(s) Financial Other Resources Evidence of Strategies and/or codes are Time Frame Responsible Resources Needed Implementation of Action Steps required by the Needed the Strategy SOA. Consult 8 (Estimate amount VAC 20-131-310 and cite sources) for further clarification. Place an x by any that apply Strategy: G.4 G.5 G.6 G.7 159
    • Strategies and/or These activity Projected Person(s) Financial Other Resources Evidence of Action Steps codes are Time Frame Responsible Resources Needed Implementation of the required by the Needed Strategy SOA. Consult 8 (Estimate amount VAC 20-131-310 and cite sources) for further clarification. Place an x by any that apply Action Step #1: G.4 G.5 G.6 G.7 October 1 Status Use data to indicate the degree to which the action step was successful in raising student achievement. Action Step #2: G.4 G.5 G.6 G.7 October 1 Status Use data to indicate the degree to which the action step was successful in raising student achievement. 160
    • Strategies and/or These activity Projected Person(s) Financial Other Resources Evidence of Action Steps codes are Time Frame Responsible Resources Needed Implementation required by the Needed of the Strategy SOA. Consult 8 (Estimate amount VAC 20-131-310 and cite sources) for further clarification. Place an x by any that apply Strategy: G.4 G.5 G.6 G.7 Action Step #1: G.4 G.5 G.6 G.7 October 1 Status Use data to indicate the degree to which the action step was successful in raising student achievement. Action Step #2: G.4 G.5 G.6 G.7 161
    • Strategies and/or These activity Projected Person(s) Financial Other Resources Evidence of Action Steps codes are Time Frame Responsible Resources Needed Implementation required by the Needed of the Strategy SOA. Consult 8 (Estimate amount VAC 20-131-310 and cite sources) for further clarification. Place an x by any that apply. October 1 Status Use data to indicate the degree to which the action step was successful in raising student achievement Strategy: G.4 G.5 G.6 G.7 Action Step #1: G.4 G.5 G.6 G.7 October 1 Status Use data to indicate the degree to which the action step was successful in raising student achievement 162
    • Strategies and/or These activity Projected Person(s) Financial Other Resources Evidence of Action Steps codes are Time Frame Responsible Resources Needed Implementation required by the Needed of the Strategy SOA. Consult 8 (Estimate amount VAC 20-131-310 and cite sources) for further clarification. Place an x by any that apply Action Step #2: G.4 G.5 G.6 G.7 October 1 Status Use data to indicate the degree to which the action step was successful in raising student achievement 163
    • Section 9 October 1 Update Report 164
    • COMPLETION AND SUBMISSION OF ANNUAL REPORTS DESCRIBING STATUS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THREE-YEAR SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PLANS FOR SCHOOLS RATED ACCREDITED WITH WARNING By October 1 of each school year, principals of schools that are Accredited with Warning must report to the Office of School Improvement (OSI) at the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) the status of implementation of their three-year School Improvement Plan (SIP) and progress toward meeting the goals of the plan. The annual October 1 report should reflect progress in implementing only those strategies targeted for implementation prior to October 1 of the current school year. Principals should also report on the status of strategies scheduled for implementation after this date that have been implemented ahead of schedule. If principals used the three-year SIP format approved by the Board of Education available on the OSI web page, OR if they used a locally-developed format that has a status reporting column, they only need to complete the October 1 row of that plan format and attach the annual report cover sheet. If principals used a locally-developed format for submitting their three-year SIP and if that format has no means for reporting status of implementation, they will use the attached form for reporting implementation status. This form is also available as a Word document read-only file at http://www.pen.k12.va.us/VDOE/Forms/. Principals should complete the cover sheet and the remainder of the form adding rows to the table as needed. If principals have made revisions to their original three-year SIP, they should indicate those revisions on the cover sheet and send the revised plan along with the annual report. It is preferred that annual reports and revised plans be transmitted electronically to: osi.reports@doe.virginia.gov. If annual October 1 reports are sent by e-mail, put “Annual Report” on the subject line. Plans may also be mailed to the OSI at the VDOE. In either case, a signed cover page must be mailed to OSI or faxed to 804-786-9763. Questions may be directed to Mary B. Whitley, 804-225-3122 or Mary.Whitley@doe.virginia.gov. 165
    • Superintendent's Memo #186-09 COMMONWEALTH of VIRGINIA Department of Education July 17, 2009 TO: Division Superintendents FROM: Patricia I. Wright, Superintendent of Public Instruction SUBJECT: Annual Reports on Status of Three-Year School Improvement Plan Implementation for Schools Rated Accredited with Warning for the 2006-2007, 2007-2008 & 2008-2009 School Years The purpose of this memorandum is to provide further clarification of the school improvement plan implementation reporting requirements for schools rated Accredited with Warning during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, and 2008-2009 school years. Section 8 VAC 20-131-310.H of the Regulations Establishing Standards for Accrediting Public Schools in Virginia states: "The school improvement plan and related annual reports submitted to the Board [of Education] shall provide documentation of the continuous efforts of the school to achieve the requirements to become Fully Accredited. The Board shall adopt and approve all policies and formats for the submission of annual reports under this section. The reports shall be due no later than October 1 of the school year." Accordingly, schools rated Accredited with Warning during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, or 2008-2009 school years are required to submit status reports by the October 1 date. The directions and suggested format for submitting the October 1 status report may be accessed at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/ SchoolImprovement/octstatus.doc. The annual report on the status of implementation of the three-year school improvement plan with the signed cover sheet may be mailed to Mary B. Whitley, academic review specialist, Virginia Department of Education, Office of School Improvement, P.O. Box 166
    • 2120, Richmond, VA 23218-2120. The report can be sent electronically to OSI.Reports@doe.virginia.gov with the signed cover page faxed to Mrs. Whitley at (804)786-9763. If you have questions, please contact Mrs. Whitley, at (804) 225-3122 or Mary.Whitley@doe.virginia.gov. PIW / KMS / MBW / pl 167
    • ANNUAL REPORT SAMPLE STATUS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THREE-YEAR SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PLAN (8 VAC 20-131-310.H.) DUE OCTOBER 1 Office of School Improvement School Name: __________________________________________________ Annual Report for the Year ________________________ Targeted Academic Area(s): School Number: __________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Division: __________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ Grade Levels Served: __________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ Revised Three-Year School Improvement Plan Attached? Superintendent Signature  Yes _____________________________________________________  No Principal Signature __________________________________________________ Date 168
    • STATUS OF IMPLEMENTATION THREE-YEAR SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PLAN Goal Statement: ______________________________________________________________ Strategies Developed to Meet Evidence of Progress Status/Progress Made; Use Explanation for Strategies Not Goal Data to Document Increased Implemented According to Projected Student Achievement Time Frame Copy pages as needed for all goals and strategies. 169
    • Section 10 Schools Denied Accreditation 170
    • Accreditation Denied Background Information 8 VAC 20 131-315 Any school rated Accreditation Denied in accordance with 8 VAC 20-131-300 shall be subject to actions prescribed by the Board of Education and shall provide parents of enrolled students and other interested parties with the following: 1. Written notice of the school’s accreditation rating within 30 calendar days of the notification of the rating from the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE); 2. A copy of the school division’s proposed Corrective Action Plan (CAP), including a timeline for implementation, to improve the school’s accreditation rating; and 3. An opportunity to comment on the division’s proposed CAP. Such public comment shall be received and considered by the school division prior to finalizing the school’s CAP and a Board of Education Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the local school board. B. Any school rated Accreditation Denied in accordance with 8 VAC 20-131-300 shall be subject to actions prescribed by the Board of Education and affirmed through a MOU between the Board of Education and the local school board. The local school board shall submit a CAP to the Board of Education for its consideration in prescribing actions in the MOU within 45 days of the notification of the rating. The MOU shall be entered into no later than November 1 of the academic year in which the rating is awarded. The local board shall submit status reports detailing implementation of actions prescribed by the MOU to the Board of Education. The status reports shall be signed by the school principal, division superintendent, and the chair of the local school board. The school principal, division superintendent, and the chair of the local school board may be required to appear before the Board of Education to present status reports. The MOU may also include but not be limited to the following requirements for the school: 1. Undergoing an educational service delivery and management review. The Board of Education shall prescribe the content of such review and approve the reviewing authority retained by the school division. 2. Employing a turnaround specialist credentialed by the state to address those conditions at the school that may impede educational progress and effectiveness and academic success. C. As an alternative to the MOU outlined in subsection B of this section, a local school board may choose to reconstitute a school rated Accreditation Denied and apply to the Board of Education for a rating of Conditionally Accredited. The application shall outline specific responses that address all areas of deficiency that resulted in the Accreditation Denied rating and may include any of the provisions of subsection B of this section. If a local school board chooses to reconstitute a school, it may annually apply for a rating of Conditionally Accredited as provided for in 8 VAC 20-131- 300 C 5. The Conditionally 171
    • Accredited rating may be granted for a period not to exceed three years if the school is making progress toward a rating of Fully Accredited in accordance with the terms of the Board of Education’s approval of the reconstitution application. The school will revert to a status of Accreditation Denied if it fails to meet the requirements to be rated Fully Accredited by the end of the three-year term or if it fails to have its annual application for such rating renewed. D. The local school board may choose to close a school rated Accreditation Denied or to combine such school with a higher performing school in the division. E. A local school board that has any school with the status of Accreditation Denied shall annually report each school’s progress toward meeting the requirements to be rated Fully Accredited to the Board of Education. The local board shall submit such report in a manner prescribed by the Board of Education no later than October 1 of each year. Such reports on each school’s progress shall be included in the Board of Education’s annual report on the condition and needs of public education to the Governor and the General Assembly submitted on November 15 of each year. 172 Chapter 8
    • Figure 1 Flow Chart of Options for Accreditation Denied Accreditation Denied All Schools Must Do Actions 1, 2, and 3 1. Parent Notification of Rating 2. Written Notice of Rating within 30 Calendar Days 3. Develop Corrective Action Plan Select Option 1 or 2 Option 1 Option 2 Reconstitution Develop MOU within 45 days of Notification of Rating. MOU Must Include: 1 or 2 Apply for Conditional Accreditation and Select 1, 2, or 3 1. Educational Service 2. Employing a Delivery Management Turnaround Specialist Review 173
    • 1. Change 2. Change 3. Change Instructional Governance Student/ Staff Program Population Section 11 Other Reviews and Interventions 174
    • Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools Background Information The Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools (PASS) Initiative is a catalyst for partnerships among schools, school divisions, and the Virginia Department of Education Office of School Improvement to help increase Standards of Learning (SOL) assessment performance in Virginia’s academically at-risk schools. The notion of developing partnerships with identified schools and school divisions is a major tenet of the PASS Initiative PASS received national recognition in 2003 by the Southern Growth Policies Board for Leadership Development and Civic Engagement. PASS targets schools having difficulty reaching Annual Yearly Progress (AYP) and accreditation benchmarks. PASS fosters community development and features specific intervention strategies that have been used effectively in high-poverty rural and urban schools in Virginia. Technical Assistance Coaches, trained by the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) and known to be effective in working with high-poverty schools, provide support to the principal throughout the year. Coaches meet at least twice per month with principals to discuss the implementation of the School Improvement Plan (SIP), analyze assessment data, and plan staff development activities and strategies. Most importantly, coaches assist principals with focusing their energies on instruction throughout the year. Coaches and principals work as a team to maximize instructional time. It is critical that students spend as much time on instruction as possible in order to acquire the knowledge and master the skills required for success on SOL assessments. Using data from the benchmark assessments, coaches assist principals with making modifications to improve instructional delivery and develop remediation programs for students, as needed. Coaches also assist principals with determining the effectiveness of those remediation programs. A remediation and data specialist is assigned to work with teachers to develop remediation plans based on the nine weeks’ and SOL assessments. The data specialist analyzes data to diagnose specific strengths and weaknesses of the students and groups of students. Additional technical assistance from the Office of School Improvement (OSI) is given at least monthly to PASS principals based on individual needs. This assistance includes, but is not limited to, development of Web-based school improvement plans, implementation of effective research based instructional strategies, the use of tools to monitor time-on-task, the use of strategies for ensuring participation of students with disabilities in the general curriculum, and the use of tools to monitor discipline referrals and classroom management. 175
    • Requirements for Coaches 1. Most coaches are retired school administrators or central office personnel who have served in an instructional role. 2. Listed below are the requirements in selecting a PASS Coach to work in a PASS priority school. Among other skills, these individuals must be able to: • Work in low performing schools; • Assist building level principals in focusing on crucial aspects of instruction throughout the year; • Assist with identifying strategies for maximizing use of instructional time; • Assist with implementation and monitoring the school improvement plan; • Analyze assessment data for the purpose of modifying instruction and developing remediation plans; • Assist in planning staff development strategies based on needs identified in the school improvement plan; • provide job embedded professional development for principals consistent with the division’s professional development plan; • Meet at least twice per month with the building level principal; • Complete a monthly PASS report to the Office of School Improvement; and • Attend bi-monthly PASS meetings with the PASS Coordinator. For additional information or questions regarding the PASS Program please contact Michael Hill at the Office of School Improvement at 225-2665 or by e-mail at Michael.Hill@doe.virginia.gov. 176
    • Page ____ of _____ Virginia Department of Education Office of School Improvement PASS Coach/ Conditional Auditor Monthly Report of Technical Assistance 2009-10 School Name: PASS Coach/Auditor: School Division: Date: The PASS/Auditor Monthly Report of Technical Assistance is due by the 10th day of each month. The following components are included: 1) Monthly Reporting Form 2) School Visit Agenda 3) Governance Oversight Committee Meeting Minutes (Conditionally Accredited Schools only) 4) School Improvement Plan Required SOA Components Review Form (Warned and Conditional Schools only) 5) School Improvement Plan Required NCLB Components Review Form (Schools that are in Title I School Improvement only) This signature indicates that the PASS Coach/Conditional Auditor has informed the principal of the above named school regarding the contents of this document. Written copies of this report will be provided to the principal consistent with the direction of each division superintendent. Signature of PASS Coach/Conditional Auditor 177
    • Page ____ of _____ Monthly Reporting Form Technical Assistance 2009-10 School Name: PASS Coach/Conditional Auditor: School Division: Date: The four (4) Department of Education Goals are: 5. Improving School Culture and Climate 6. Improving Curriculum, Assessment and Instructional Planning 7. Improving Classroom Instruction (Written, Taught and Tested) 8. Building Leadership of the Principal (Based on a review of the School Improvement Plan and Essential Actions from the Targeted Review) Action Steps for Month, Year: Not No. Action Step Accomplished Accomplished 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 178
    • 8 Page ____ of ____ Monthly Reporting Form Technical Assistance 2009-10 School Name: PASS Coach/Conditional Auditor: School Division: Date: The four (4) Department of Education Goals are: 5. Improving School Culture and Climate 6. Improving Curriculum, Assessment and Instructional Planning 7. Improving Classroom Instruction (Written, Taught and Tested) 8. Building Leadership of the Principal (Based on a review of the School Improvement Plan and Essential Actions from the Targeted Review) Action Steps for Month, Year: Not No. Action Step Accomplished Accomplished 179
    • Use this page for additional listings, as needed. It is not necessary to include it if blank. Page ____ of ____ Monthly Reporting Form Technical Assistance 2009-10 SCHOOL VISIT AGENDA School Name: PASS Coach/Conditional Auditor: School Division: Date: 180
    • Page ____ of ____ School Improvement Plan Required SOA Components Review Form 2009-10 Completed by the Conditional Auditor or PASS Coach if the school is Accredited with Warning or Conditionally Accredited. School Name: Conditional Auditor/PASS Coach: School Division: Date: Use the following ratings when evaluating the School Improvement Plan (also referred to as the Corrective Action Plan) components required by the SOA: 2 = Not Accomplished 1 = Accomplished The SIP includes the nine requirements of Rating Comments to support rating/Evidence: the SOA (8 VAC 20-131-310.G.8): (012) 1. A description of how the school will meet the requirements to be Fully Accredited, for each of the years covered by the plan; 2. Specific measures for achieving and documenting student academic improvement; *Indicate the type of data reviewed 3. A description of the amount of time in the school day devoted to instruction in the core academic areas: 4. Instructional practices designed to remediate students who have not been successful on SOL tests; 5. Intervention strategies designed to prevent further declines in student performance; 6. Staff development needed; 7. Strategies to involve and assist parents in raising their child’s academic performance; 8. The need for flexibility or waivers to state or local regulations to meet the objectives of the plan; and 9. A description of the manner in which local, state, and federal funds are used to support the implementation of the components of this plan. 181
    • Date Reviewed: Page ____ of ____ School Improvement Plan Required NCLB Components Review Form 2009-10 Completed by the Conditional Auditor or PASS Coach if the school is in Title I School Improvement School Name: Conditional Auditor/PASS Coach: School Division: Date: Use the following ratings when evaluating the NCLB school improvement plan: 2 = Not Accomplished 1 = Accomplished The SIP includes the ten requirements per NCLB Rating Comments to support rating: Title I , § 1116(b)(3) (1-2) 1. Incorporates strategies based on scientifically based research that will strengthen the core academic subjects in the school and address the specific academic issues that caused the school to be identified for school improvement; 2. Adopts policies and practices concerning the school’s core academic subjects that have the greatest likelihood of ensuring that all groups of students specified in section 1111(b)(2)(C)(v) and enrolled in the school will meet the State’s proficiency level of achievement; 3. Allows for the required expenditure of not less than 10 percent of the funds available . . . for the purpose of providing to the school teachers and principal high-quality professional development that (I) directly addresses the academic achievement problem. . (II) meets the requirements for professional development activities under 1119; and (III) is provided in a manner that affords increased opportunity for participating in that professional development; 4. Specifies how the funds. . . will be used to remove the school from school improvement status; 5. Establishes specific annual, measurable objectives for continuous and substantial progress by each group of students; 6. Describes how the school will provide written notice about the identification to parents; 7. Specifies the responsibilities of the school, the local educational agency, and the State educational agency. . . including specifying the technical assistance to be provided by the local educational agency; 8. Includes strategies to promote effective parental involvement in the school; 182
    • 9. Incorporates, as appropriate, activities before school, after school, during the summer, and during an extension of the school year; and 10. Incorporates a teacher mentoring program. 183
    • Section 12 No Child Left Behind 183
    • Virginia Department of Education Implementing the No Child No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) Section 1116(b)(3) Requirements for Schools in Title I School Improvement Information for Academic Review Teams, School Support Teams, NCLB Special Teams, PASS Coaches, and Conditional Auditors Background The Virginia Department of Education maintains records that indicate which schools in the state are in Title I School Improvement under the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Each year’s Title I schools in improvement can be found at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/src/title1.shtml. Schools that are both warned under the Standards of Accreditation (SOA) and in Title I School Improvement must implement the appropriate NCLB, Title I School Improvement sanctions in addition to adhering to requirements for warned schools under the SOA. Likewise, schools that are only warned must only adhere to the SOA requirements. Schools that are only in Title I School Improvement must implement only Title I sanctions. No Child Left Behind, Section 1116(b)(3) sanctions for Title I schools in improvement status are as follow: Year 1: Public School Choice Schools in year 1 School Improvement must offer the public school choice option to parents. Priority placements are offered based on the academic needs of students. Year 2: Public School Choice and Supplemental Educational Services Schools in year 2 School Improvement must continue to offer the public school choice option to parents with priority placements based on the academic needs of students. Year 2 School Improvement schools must also offer supplemental educational services to parents with priority placements based on the socio-economic need of students. Parents must also select the provider of supplemental educational services from the Virginia Department of Education’s list of recommended providers that can be found on the department’s Web site at http://www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/nclb/boe/supsrvcs-list.pdf. Year 3: Corrective Action While still offering public school choice and supplemental educational services, the local school division must select at least one of the following corrective action options for school implementation: • replace school staff relevant to the failure; • institute and implement a new curriculum; • significantly decrease management authority in the school; • appoint outside experts to advise the school; • extend school year or school day; or • restructure internal organization of the school. Year 4: Restructuring or Alternative Governance (Planning) While still offering public school choice and supplemental educational services, the local school division must select at least one of the following options under preparation for restructuring or alternative governance: 184
    • • reopen the school as a public charter school; • replace all or most of the school staff, which may include the principal, who are relevant to the school’s inability to make AYP; • enter into a contract with an entity, such as a private management company, with a demonstrated record of effectiveness, to operate the school as a public school; • (not in Virginia Code) Turn the operation of the school over to the state educational agency if this action is permitted under state law and the state agrees; or • implement any other major restructuring of the school’s governance arrangement that is consistent with the NCLB principles of restructuring. Year 5: Restructuring or Alternative Governance (Implementation) The school division shall implement one of the above restructuring or alternative governance option for the school consistent with state law. Year 6 and beyond schools would continue implementation of the selected year 5 sanction. What Should Reviewers Know About School Improvement Schools? Title I School Improvement sanctions become progressively more serious and complex as schools advance through the improvement stages. Reviewers would benefit from learning more about the three most severe stages of Title I School Improvement. The questions contained in the Power Point presentation below are those that can be asked on-site of school and division leadership teams by the Virginia Department of Education contracted team members or other technical assistance providers employed by the department. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) Corrective Action & Restructuring Virginia Department of Education Office of School Improvement 1 185
    • Year 3: Corrective Action 2 A Conversation About Corrective Action 1. Based on data, which corrective action did the division/school opt to take? Can the school show disaggregated achievement data that helped lead to this decision? 2. What impact will this option(s) have toward assisting the school in achieving AYP? What are the goals and objectives of the selected option? 3. What action steps are being taken to implement the above corrective action? What are the timelines, steps, and persons responsible for effective implementation of the corrective action selected? 3 Years 4 and 5: Restructuring: Planning or Implementing 5 186
    • A Conversation About Implementing Alternative Governance Restructuring Option Taken 1. Based on data, which restructuring option did the division/school opt to take? Can the school show disaggregated achievement data that helped lead to this decision? 2. What impact will this option have toward assisting the school to successfully make AYP? Why this particular option? Can the school show how this option has the potential to remedy the school’s needs? 3. What action steps are being taken to implement the above restructuring/alternative governance option? What are the expected outcomes of each action step? 4. What are the timelines, steps, and persons responsible for effective implementation? 6 A Conversation About Implementing Alternative Governance (Continued) 5. What technical assistance will be provided by the district? How will the assistance be provided? 6. Is the corrective action option from year 3, with continued implementation in year 4, a factor in the restructuring? Was any portion of the corrective action plan working—yielding improved student achievement? What did the data show? (Interviews with the Principal and Selected Staff with Visitation of Classrooms) 7 Contact Brenda Spencer, Associate Director Office of School Improvement Virginia Department of Education Brenda.Spencer@doe.virginia.gov (804) 371-6201 http://www.doe.virginia.gov 8 187
    • What Academic Information Is Important to Know About Schools in Title I School Improvement? All schools receive a report of academic progress based on the attainment of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) measures based on Standards of Learning testing. Title I schools that fail to attain the designated benchmarks for two consecutive years in the same subject area enter School Improvement status. Schools that continue to miss (fail to attain) targets or benchmarks advance through School Improvement. The AYP targets or benchmarks are as follow: 2007-2008 2008-2009 2009-2010 2010-2011 2011-2012 2012-2013 2013-2014 Mathematic Mathematic Mathematic Mathematic Mathematic Mathematic Mathematic s s s s s s s 75 79 83 87 91 95 100 Reading/ Reading/ Reading Reading/ Reading/ Reading/ Reading/ Lang. Arts Lang. Arts Lang. Arts Lang. Arts Lang. Arts Lang. Arts Lang. Arts 77 81 85 89 93 97 100 Following school demographic information in the NCLB Technical Assistance Profile (TAP) that is completed for each Title I school in improvement receiving a review, AYP data is presented in disaggregated format. In addition, the on-site reviewer should indicate or identify evidence that the school is implementing the appropriate NCLB sanction. 188
    • Table 1 Overview of NCLB Review Process for Title I Schools in Improvement (Not Warned under the SOA) Assignment of a Review of Accountability Data Technical Assistance NCLB In addition to the Department of Education reviewing accountability data Coach for all schools Accredited with Warning, the department also reviews assessment data for schools that have advanced through the most severe stages of Title I School Improvement. The schools that are also warned are served under the basic Academic Review process. The schools that are not warned receive a No Child Left Behind (NCLB) review. The Department of Education assigns the school a technical assistance coach (an area specialist such as a special education contractor may be added, if needed) with expertise in NCLB compliance and school improvement planning and with expertise in the subject area where Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) was not met. Technical Assistance to Title I Schools in Improvement (not Type of Technical warned under the SOA) Assistance Center on Innovation and Improvement’s (CII) Online School Improvement Planning Tool Technical assistance and monitoring of the School Improvement Plan (SIP) through the Center on Innovation and Improvement’s Support for School Improvement’s online site is a major form of technical assistance for the particular schools in this category .The Center on Innovation & Improvement (CII) is a national content center that supports regional centers in their work with states to provide districts, schools, and families, with the opportunity, information, and skills to make wise decisions on behalf of students. CII's web-based planning and coaching tool for district and school improvement, along with CII-developed training and materials, is now being used in several states, with support from their regional comprehensive centers. The school improvement planning tool has as its core the ability to measure a school by research-based indicators of success. The assessment tool, a dynamic tool within the online planning tool, first requires the school team to choose the level of development or implementation of the selected indicators and to assign a priority level to each. Indicators that are determined to be appropriate as objectives or targets in the school 189
    • improvement plan are then routed through the online school improvement process, which includes generating and assigning tasks to accomplish the objectives and using a monitoring system to track the school’s progress at attaining the objectives. School team members are recorded in the system and become those to whom the tasks are assigned. School coaches, if assigned, have the ability to make comments to the school team, and the team can respond. Instructional leaders in the central office also have the ability to enter the password-protected sites of their schools. Virginia has been successful in assisting Title I schools in improvement move from traditional paper plans to the CII school improvement planning process. Assignment of an NCLB Coach/Mentor Coaches become an integral part of the school’s planning for improvement process. Coaches are members of the School Improvement Team. with the ability to make coaching comments electronically. School team members can respond back to the coach. The online tool allows for a variety of reports that can help keep the school team on track. the coach is able to review the school progress at anytime. The steps of the CII School Improvement Planning Process that is monitored by the coach are: 1) register the school; 2) provide school (demographic and academic) info; 3) form school team; 4) assess school indicators; 5) create school plan; 6) monitor school plan. Review of NCLB School Improvement Plan Components The NCLB technical assistance also includes a review of school improvement plan requirements as outlined in the No Child Left Behind legislation. The review aims to ensure that the required NCLB planning components are the foundation for or are an integral part of the school’s one improvement plan. Completion of a Data Analysis Quarterly Report The quarterly report focuses the attention of school and central office personnel as well as outside technical assistance providers on the frequent and formal analysis of data as a primary means of addressing the academic deficiencies of the school. The Virginia Department of Education has worked intensively with the Center on Innovation and Improvement, under the leadership of Dr. Sam Redding, to study the school improvement process. The book Restructuring and Substantial School Improvement, edited by Herbert J. Walberg, has been a major resource. 190
    • Reporting Instrument The NCLB Support coach completes an instrument designed to show the correlation between the school’s selected CII planning indicators and the NCLB required school improvement plan components. (on following pages) 191
    • No Child Left Behind School Plan Components Linked to Center on Innovation and Improvement (CII) Rapid Improvement Indicators Review Instrument for NCLB Coaches (E-mail the completed form to Brenda.Spencer@doe.virginia.gov within three days of the final visit.) School__________________________________________ Division_________________________________________ NCLB Coach_____________________________________ Final Review Date_________________________________ Instructions: Schools in Title I School Improvement must address the ten required components of a school improvement plan, as outlined in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Schools team are to inform the NCLB coach of: 1) the CII indicators located in the school’s online tool that address each of the ten NCLB components. 2) the CII indicators that the school considered “fully implemented” and, therefore, were not included in the school’s online plan. (The combination of the two should indicate to the reviewer what the school is doing or has done to address the ten required NCLB school improvement plan components.) The rating of each indicator is to be done by the reviewer during discussions with the school team. 192
    • No Child Left Behind School Plan Components Linked to Center on Innovation and Improvement (CII) Rapid Improvement Indicators Review Instrument for NCLB Coaches (Email the completed form to Brenda.Spencer@doe.virginia.gov within three days of the final visit.) NCLB Component 1. Incorporates strategies based on scientifically based research that will strengthen the core academic subjects in the school and address the specific academic issues that caused the school to be identified for school improvement; CII Rapid School Improvement Selection Indicator (Place x) Teachers individualize instruction based on pre-test results to provide support for IIB04 some students and enhanced learning opportunities for others. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished Teachers reteach based on post-test results. IIB05 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished Units of instruction include specific learning activities aligned to objectives. IIC01 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished Materials for standards-aligned learning activities are well-organized, labeled, and stored IIC03 for convenient use by teachers. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished Instructional Teams use student learning data to assess strengths and weaknesses of IID08 the curriculum and instructional strategies. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished Instructional Teams use student learning data to plan instruction. IID09 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished Instructional Teams use student learning data to identify students in need of IID10 instructional support or enhancement. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers differentiate assignments (individualize instruction) in response to IIIA07 individual student performance on pre-tests and other methods of assessment. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers review the previous lesson. IIIA08 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers clearly state the lesson’s topic, theme, and objectives. IIIA09 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers stimulate interest in the topics. IIIA10 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers use modeling, demonstration, and graphics. IIIA11 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers explain directly and thoroughly. IIIA13 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers maintain eye contact. IIIA14 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIIA15 All teachers speak with expression and use a variety of vocal tones. 193
    • 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers use prompting/cueing. IIIA16 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers reteach when necessary. IIIA17 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers review with drilling/class recitation. IIIA18 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers review with questioning. IIIA19 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers summarize key concepts. IIIA20 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers reteach following questioning. IIIA21 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers encourage students to paraphrase, summarize, and relate. IIIA25 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers encourage students to check their own comprehension. IIIA26 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers verbally praise students. IIIA27 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers travel to all areas in which students are working. IIIA28 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers interact instructionally with students (explaining, checking, giving IIIA31 feedback). 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers interact managerially with students (reinforcing rules, procedures). IIIA32 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers interact socially with students (noticing and attending to an ill student, IIIA33 asking about the weekend, inquiring about the family). 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished Students are engaged and on task. IIIA35 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished When waiting for assistance from the teacher, students are occupied with curriculum‐ IIIC01 related activities provided by the teacher. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished Students raise hands or otherwise signal before speaking. IIIC04 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers use a variety of instructional modes. IIIC05 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers maintain well‐organized student learning materials in the classroom. IIIC06 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers display classroom rules and procedures in the classroom. IIIC08 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers correct students who do not follow classroom rules and procedures. IIIC09 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished All teachers reinforce classroom rules and procedures by positively teaching them. IIIC10 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished NCLB Component 194
    • 2. Adopts policies and practices concerning the school’s core academic subjects that have the greatest likelihood of ensuring that all groups of students specified in section 1111(b)(2)(C)(v) and enrolled in the school will meet the State’s proficiency level of achievement; ID01 A team structure is officially incorporated into the school improvement plan and school governance policy. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished ID02 All teams have written statements of purpose and by-laws for their operation. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished ID03 All teams operate with work plans for the year and specific work products to produce. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished ID04 All teams prepare agendas for their meetings. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished ID05 All teams maintain official minutes of their meetings. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished ID06 The principal maintains a file of the agendas, work products, and minutes of all teams. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished ID07 A Leadership Team consisting of the principal, teachers who lead the Instructional Teams, and other key professional staff meets regularly (twice a month or more for an hour each meeting). 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished ID08 The Leadership Team serves as a conduit of communication to the faculty and staff. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished ID10 The school’s leadership team regularly looks at school performance data and uses that data to make decisions about school improvement and professional development needs. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished ID11 Teachers are organized into grade-level, grade-level cluster, or subject-area Instructional Teams. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished ID13 Instructional Teams meet for blocks of time (4 to 6 hour blocks, once a month; whole days before and after the school year) sufficient to develop and refine units of instruction and review student learning data. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IE05 The principal participates actively with the school’s teams. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IE06 The principal keeps a focus on instructional improvement and student learning outcomes. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IE07 The principal monitors curriculum and classroom instruction regularly. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IE10 The principal celebrates individual, team, and school successes, especially related to student learning outcomes. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IE13 The principal offers frequent opportunities for staff and parents to voice constructive critique of the school’s progress and suggestions for improvement. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIA01 Instructional Teams develop standards-aligned units of instruction for each subject and grade level. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIA02 Units of instruction include standards-based objectives and criteria for mastery. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIB01 Units of instruction include pre-/post-tests to assess student mastery of standards-based objectives. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIB02 Unit pre-tests and post-tests are administered to all students in the grade level and subject covered by the unit of instruction. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIB03 Unit pre-test and post-test results are reviewed by the Instructional Team. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IID02 The school tests each student at least 3 times each year to determine progress toward standards-based objectives. 195
    • 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IID03 Teachers receive timely reports of results from standardized and objectives-based tests. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IID06 Yearly learning goals are set for the school by the Leadership Team, utilizing student learning data. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IID07 The Leadership Team monitors school-level student learning data. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IID11 Instructional Teams review the results of unit pre-/post-tests to make decisions about the curriculum and instructional plans and to "red flag" students in need of intervention (both students in need of tutoring or extra help and students needing enhanced learning opportunities because of early mastery of objectives. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIIA01 All teachers are guided by a document that aligns standards, curriculum, instruction, and assessment. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIIA02 All teachers develop weekly lesson plans based on aligned units of instruction. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIIA05 All teachers maintain a record of each student’s mastery of specific learning objectives. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIIA06 All teachers test frequently using a variety of evaluation methods and maintain a record of the results. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIIA40 All teachers assess student mastery in ways other than those provided by the computer program. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished NCLB Component 3. Allows for the required expenditure of not less than 10 percent of the funds available. . . for the purpose of providing to the school teachers and principal high-quality professional development that (I) directly addresses the academic achievement problem. . (II) meets the requirements for professional development activities under 1119; and (III) is provided in a manner that affords increased opportunity for participating in that professional development; No CII indicator match: What is the school doing to accomplish this requirement? NCLB Component 4. Specifies how the funds. . . will be used to remove the school from school improvement status; IE08 The principal spends at least 50% of his/her time working directly with teachers to improve instruction, including classroom observations. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IE09 The principal challenges, supports and monitors the correction of unsound teaching practices. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IF01 The principal compiles reports from classroom observations, showing aggregate areas of strength and areas that need improvement without revealing the identity of individual teachers. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IF02 The Leadership Team reviews the principal’s summary reports of classroom observations and takes them into account in planning professional development. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IF03 Professional development for teachers includes observations by the principal related to indicators of effective teaching and classroom management. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IF04 Professional development for teachers includes observations by peers related to indicators of effective teaching and classroom management. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IF05 Professional development for teachers includes self-assessment related to indicators of 196
    • effective teaching and classroom management. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IF06 Teachers are required to make individual professional development plans based on classroom observations. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IF07 Professional development of individual teachers includes an emphasis on indicators of effective teaching. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IF08 Professional development for the whole faculty includes assessment of strengths and areas in need of improvement from classroom observations of indicators of effective teaching. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IF10 The principal plans opportunities for teachers to share their strengths with other teachers. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished NCLB Component 5. Establishes specific annual, measurable objectives for continuous and substantial progress by each group of students; IID06 Yearly learning goals are set for the school by the Leadership Team, utilizing student learning data. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished NCLB Component 6. Describes how the school will provide written notice about the identification to parents; No CII indicator match: What is the school doing to accomplish this requirement? NCLB Component 7. Specifies the responsibilities of the school, the local educational agency, and the State educational agency. . . including specifying the technical assistance to be provided by the local educational agency; No CII indicator match: What is the school doing to accomplish this requirement? NCLB Component 8. Includes strategies to promote effective parental involvement in the school; IIIB01 All teachers maintain a file of communication with parents. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIIB02 All teachers regularly assign homework (4 or more days a week). 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIIB03 All teachers check, mark, and return homework. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IIIB06 All teachers systematically report to parents the student’s mastery of specific standards- based objectives. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished NCLB Component 9. Incorporates, as appropriate, activities before school, after school, during the summer, and during an extension of the school year; No CII indicator match: What is the school doing to accomplish this requirement? NCLB Component 10. Incorporates a teacher mentoring program. 197
    • IE08 The principal spends at least 50% of his/her time working directly with teachers to improve instruction, including classroom observations. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IF03 The Leadership Team reviews the principal’s summary reports of classroom observations and takes them into account in planning professional development. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IF04 Professional development for teachers includes observations by the principal related to indicators of effective teaching and classroom management. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished IF10 The principal plans opportunities for teachers to share their strengths with other teachers. 1- Accomplished 2- Partially Accomplished 3- Not Accomplished 198
    • Section 13 Glossary 199
    • Glossary A Academic Consultant (AC): Contracted, experienced educators comprise Academic Review teams. They may be former teachers, administrators, central office personnel, or superintendents. Academic Review Team Leader (ARTL): An Academic Review Team Leader is responsible for scheduling and coordinating Academic Review (AR) visits, creating AR teams, leading AR visits, facilitating technical assistance, and reviewing reports and School Improvement Plans. The ARTL also assists and support principals with the implementation of Essential Actions. Academic Review Team Leaders may be responsible for several schools in several divisions. Academic Review Process (school-level): The comprehensive review process is one by which schools Accredited with Warning receive technical assistance in an effort to improve achievement in one or more content areas. Accredited with Warning: This is the rating assigned to schools that do not meet criteria for effectiveness in specific content areas. The criteria are determined by the Board of Education and are published in the SOA. Annual Measurable Objective (AMO): AMO is the minimum required percentage of students determined to be proficient in the content areas of reading and mathematics. Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP): For a school, school division or the commonwealth to make AYP, it must meet or exceed 29 benchmark participation in statewide testing, achievement in reading and mathematics, and attendance or science (elementary and middle schools) or graduation (high schools). Missing a single benchmark may result in a school or school division not making AYP. Areas of Review: The scope of the Academic Review is limited to the eight following areas: 1. Curriculum alignment 2. Use of time and scheduling 3. Use of data in making instructional decisions 4. Professional development 5. Organizational systems and processes 6. School culture 7. Instructional Method/Model/Program 8. School improvement plan C Content Areas: The four core subject areas for which accreditation ratings are established are: mathematics, history/social sciences, English, and science. D 200
    • Data Collection Summary Sheet: This instrument is provided for teams to record evidence and significant findings related to each indicator. E Essential Actions (EA): These are the tasks assigned as a result of the On-Site Visit, designed to develop and implement strategies for improving academic performance. EAs are always integrated into the revised SIP following the On-Site visit. F Final Cumulative Progress Report: This is the report presented at the Final Visit that summarizes the progress of the Essential Actions throughout the school year as well as the status of the Essential Actions at the end of the school year. Final Visit: The culminating AR visit typically occurs in May. Follow-Up Visit: A series of visits may occur after the On-Site Visit that are devoted to technical assistance activities and the monitoring of implementation of the SIP. I Indicators: The eight Areas of Review examined by AR teams during a review (see Areas of Review). Initial Status Report (ISR): This report delineates the prescription for the On-Site Visit and is presented at the end of the Initial Visit. Initial Visit (IV): The first AR visit is conducted by the Academic Review Team Coordinator. During this visit, the prescription for the On-Site Visit is determined. Instructional Method/Model Program (IMP): IMP has been replaced by the Research-Based Instructional Intervention (RBI). L Local Education Agency (LEA): This term is used in federal education law to describe a local school division. Look Fors: Specific instructional strategies, activities, teacher/student behavior unique and beneficial to each content area are delineated on observation forms. Each observation form includes the specific “look fors” for the respective content. N No Child Left Behind (NCLB): Federal legislation that requires states, school divisions, and schools to demonstrate progress in raising the percentage of students who are proficient in reading and mathematics. One of its purposes is to narrow the achievement gap. O 201
    • On-Site Visit: Visits are conducted by the Academic Review Team Coordinator, team members, technical assistance providers, and perhaps others. During this two- to three-day visit, the team interviews staff, observes classrooms, and reviews documents in order to determine areas of strength, areas for improvement, and establish the Essential Actions that form the basis of the SIP. P PASS: Governor Warner's initiative called Partnership for Achieving Successful Schools was established in July 2002. PASS is a statewide initiative that fosters intense community involvement with schools that are having difficulty reaching targeted levels of academic performance and specific SOL goals. PASS schools receive an academic or leadership coach as the primary intervention. Progress Reports: These reports document the degree to which the school has implemented its Essential Actions according to the established timeline. R Research-Based Instructional Intervention (RBI): An instructional model, based on research that has a proven track record of success at raising student achievement is considered RBI. The Standards of Accreditation require schools Accredited with Warning in English or mathematics to adopt a RBI, and the Board of Education publishes a list of approved instructional methods for consideration by schools. Report of Findings (ROF): A report that documents review team activities and all of the Essential Actions assigned to the school based on the Academic Review team’s findings is presented to the school after the On-Site Visit. S School Profile: A school’s demographic information is imported into the Technical Assistance Profile. (TAP) School Improvement Plan (SIP): A SIP outlines the improvement strategies and steps that a school will use to raise student achievement and a timeline for implementation. This could involve new programs, more student assistance, new curricula, and/or teacher training. Standards of Accreditation (SOA): Regulations Establishing Standards for Accrediting Public Schools in Virginia have been approved by the Board of Education. Standards of Quality (SOQ): The Constitution of Virginia requires the Board of Education to determine and prescribe Standards of Quality for the public schools of Virginia, subject to revision only by the General Assembly. These standards are known as the Standards of Quality (SOQ) and form part of the Code of Virginia. The SOQ are a series of state laws that articulate how Virginia will maintain and fund high quality education. T 202
    • Technical Assistance (TA): Any assistance given to a school to help the staff improve student achievement can be referred to as TA. T/TAC (Training and Technical Assistance Centers): The T/TAC Centers fulfill their mission to improve educational opportunities and contribute to the success of children and youth with disabilities (birth-22 years) by providing quality training and technical assistance in response to local, regional, and state needs. T/TAC services increase the capacity of schools, school personnel, service providers, and families to meet the needs of children and youth. Tiers: These designations are assigned schools Accredited with Warning based on their needs and length of time in warned status. The type of Academic Review that a school receives depends on this designation. A number of factors determine one of three tiers under which each school is categorized, including the Adequate Yearly Progress of the school, the years of warning, the pass rates if lower than fourteen points from that required for accreditation, which subjects were warned (English, mathematics, science, or history), the No Child Left Behind years in improvement, and if it is a Title I or non-Title I school. Title I: This federally funded program designed to provide support and resources for low-income children in schools was established in 1965. 203
    • Section 14 Office of School Improvement Contact Information 204
    • Virginia Department of Education Office of School Improvement Office of School Improvement Staff Dr. Kathleen Smith, Director (804) 786-5819 Kathleen.Smith@doe.virginia.gov Brenda Spencer, Associate Director (804) 371-6201 Brenda.Spencer@doe.virginia.gov Patricia Lankford, Secretary (804) 225-2865 Pat.Lankford@doe.virginia.gov Michael Hill, PASS Coordinator (804) 225-2665 Michael.Hill@doe.virginia.gov Dr. Yvonne Holloman, Division Level Support Coordinator (804) 225-2064 Yvonne.Holloman@doe.virginia.gov Selena McBride, Data Management Specialist (804) 371-4989 Selena.McBride@doe.virginia.gov Annette Monroe-Martin, Education Coordinator (804) 225-3146 Annette.Monroe-Martin@doe.virginia.gov Mary Whitley, Academic Review Specialist (804) 225-3122 Mary.Whitley@doe.virginia.gov Support Staff Marcia Birdsong (804) 786-1062 Marcia.Birdsong@doe.virginia.gov 205
    • Section 15 Helpful Websites 206
    • Helpful Websites Curriculum Alignment IRA: International Reading Association. http://www.reading.org/ NCSS: National Council for the Social Studies. http://ncss.org/ NCTE: National Council of Teachers of English. http://www.ncte.org/ NCTM: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. http://www.nctm.org/ NSTA: National Science Teachers Association. http://nsta.org/ VAST: Virginia Association of Science Teachers. http://vast.org/ VATE: Virginia Association of Teachers of English. http://www.vate.org/ VSRA: Virginia State Reading Association. http://www.vsra.org/ Office of School Improvement Website http://www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/SchoolImprovement/ October 1 Update Format http://www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/Forms/scotstatus_dir04.doc Professional Development ASCD: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. http://www.ascd.org/ NAESP: National Association of Elementary School Principals. http://www.naesp.org NASSP: National Association of Secondary School Principals. http://www.nassp.org NSDC: National Staff Development Council. http://nsdc.org/ T/TAC: Training and Technical Assistance Center. http://ttaconline.org/ School Improvement Planning Center on Innovation and Improvement Support for School Improvement. www.centerii.org Organizational Systems and Processes The Leadership and Learning Center. http://leadandlearn.com Research-based Instructional Interventions The Virginia Department of Education. http://www.doe.virginia.gov School Culture McREL: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning. http://www.mcrel.org/ TLN: Teacher Leaders Network. http://www.teacheARCeader.org/ Use of Data for Making Instructional and Planning Decisions The Balanced Scorecard. http://www.balancedscorecard.org/ The Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. http://www.sedl.org/ What Works in Schools. http://www.whatworksinschools.org/ Use of Time and School Scheduling Practices 207
    • School Improvement Network. http://www.schoolimprovement.com Virginia Department of Education Website http://www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/SchoolImprovement Virginia Department of Education No Child Left Behind Website http://www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/nclb/ Suggested Formats for Three-year School Improvement Plans Format 1 http://www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/Forms/school_improvement1.doc Format 2 http://www.doc.virignia.gov/VDOE/Forms/school_improvement2.doc 208
    • Section 16 Resources and Presentations 209