Topic 15: Datacenter Design and Networking

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Cloud Computing Workshop 2013, ITU

Cloud Computing Workshop 2013, ITU

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  • 1. 15: Datacenter Design and NetworkingZubair Nabizubair.nabi@itu.edu.pkApril 21, 2013Zubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 1 / 27
  • 2. Outline1 Datacenter Topologies2 Transport Protocols3 Network Sharing4 Wrapping UpZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 2 / 27
  • 3. Outline1 Datacenter Topologies2 Transport Protocols3 Network Sharing4 Wrapping UpZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 3 / 27
  • 4. IntroductionDatacenters are traditionally designed in the form of a 2/3-level treeZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 4 / 27
  • 5. IntroductionDatacenters are traditionally designed in the form of a 2/3-level treeSwitching elements become more specialized and faster when we goup the tree structureZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 4 / 27
  • 6. IntroductionDatacenters are traditionally designed in the form of a 2/3-level treeSwitching elements become more specialized and faster when we goup the tree structureA three-level tree has a core switch at the root, aggregation switchesin the middle, and edge switches at the leaves of the treeZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 4 / 27
  • 7. IntroductionDatacenters are traditionally designed in the form of a 2/3-level treeSwitching elements become more specialized and faster when we goup the tree structureA three-level tree has a core switch at the root, aggregation switchesin the middle, and edge switches at the leaves of the treeEdge switches have a large number of 1Gbps ports and a smallnumber of 10Gbps portsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 4 / 27
  • 8. IntroductionDatacenters are traditionally designed in the form of a 2/3-level treeSwitching elements become more specialized and faster when we goup the tree structureA three-level tree has a core switch at the root, aggregation switchesin the middle, and edge switches at the leaves of the treeEdge switches have a large number of 1Gbps ports and a smallnumber of 10Gbps portsThe 1Gbps ports connect end-hosts while 10Gbps ports connect toaggregation switchesZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 4 / 27
  • 9. IntroductionDatacenters are traditionally designed in the form of a 2/3-level treeSwitching elements become more specialized and faster when we goup the tree structureA three-level tree has a core switch at the root, aggregation switchesin the middle, and edge switches at the leaves of the treeEdge switches have a large number of 1Gbps ports and a smallnumber of 10Gbps portsThe 1Gbps ports connect end-hosts while 10Gbps ports connect toaggregation switchesAggregation and core switches have 10Gbps portsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 4 / 27
  • 10. IntroductionDatacenters are traditionally designed in the form of a 2/3-level treeSwitching elements become more specialized and faster when we goup the tree structureA three-level tree has a core switch at the root, aggregation switchesin the middle, and edge switches at the leaves of the treeEdge switches have a large number of 1Gbps ports and a smallnumber of 10Gbps portsThe 1Gbps ports connect end-hosts while 10Gbps ports connect toaggregation switchesAggregation and core switches have 10Gbps portsPartitioning if switches up the tree go downZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 4 / 27
  • 11. Zubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 5 / 27
  • 12. OversubscriptionIdeal value of 1:1 – All hosts may potentially communicate with othersat full bandwidth of their interfaceZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 6 / 27
  • 13. OversubscriptionIdeal value of 1:1 – All hosts may potentially communicate with othersat full bandwidth of their interface5:1 – Only 20% of the bandwidth is available (200Mbps)Zubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 6 / 27
  • 14. OversubscriptionIdeal value of 1:1 – All hosts may potentially communicate with othersat full bandwidth of their interface5:1 – Only 20% of the bandwidth is available (200Mbps)Typical datacenter designs are oversubscribed by a factor of 2.5:1(400Mbps) to 8:1 (125Mbps)Zubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 6 / 27
  • 15. Fat-tree Topologyk-ary fat-tree has k podsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 7 / 27
  • 16. Fat-tree Topologyk-ary fat-tree has k podsEach pod contains two layers of k/2 switchesZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 7 / 27
  • 17. Fat-tree Topologyk-ary fat-tree has k podsEach pod contains two layers of k/2 switchesEach k-port switch in the lower layer is directly connected to k/2 hostsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 7 / 27
  • 18. Fat-tree Topologyk-ary fat-tree has k podsEach pod contains two layers of k/2 switchesEach k-port switch in the lower layer is directly connected to k/2 hostsEach of the remaining k/2 ports is connected to k/2 of the k ports of theaggregation switchesZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 7 / 27
  • 19. Fat-tree Topologyk-ary fat-tree has k podsEach pod contains two layers of k/2 switchesEach k-port switch in the lower layer is directly connected to k/2 hostsEach of the remaining k/2 ports is connected to k/2 of the k ports of theaggregation switches(k/2)2core switchesZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 7 / 27
  • 20. Fat-tree Topologyk-ary fat-tree has k podsEach pod contains two layers of k/2 switchesEach k-port switch in the lower layer is directly connected to k/2 hostsEach of the remaining k/2 ports is connected to k/2 of the k ports of theaggregation switches(k/2)2core switchesEach core switch has one port connected to each of the k podsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 7 / 27
  • 21. Fat-tree Topologyk-ary fat-tree has k podsEach pod contains two layers of k/2 switchesEach k-port switch in the lower layer is directly connected to k/2 hostsEach of the remaining k/2 ports is connected to k/2 of the k ports of theaggregation switches(k/2)2core switchesEach core switch has one port connected to each of the k podsThe ith port of any core switch is connected to pod iZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 7 / 27
  • 22. Fat-tree Topologyk-ary fat-tree has k podsEach pod contains two layers of k/2 switchesEach k-port switch in the lower layer is directly connected to k/2 hostsEach of the remaining k/2 ports is connected to k/2 of the k ports of theaggregation switches(k/2)2core switchesEach core switch has one port connected to each of the k podsThe ith port of any core switch is connected to pod iA k-ary fat-tree supports k3/4 hostsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 7 / 27
  • 23. Zubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 8 / 27
  • 24. DCellUses a recursively defined structure to interconnect serversZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 9 / 27
  • 25. DCellUses a recursively defined structure to interconnect serversEach server connects to different levels of DCells through multiple linksZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 9 / 27
  • 26. DCellUses a recursively defined structure to interconnect serversEach server connects to different levels of DCells through multiple linksHigh-level DCells are built recursively from many low-level onesZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 9 / 27
  • 27. DCellUses a recursively defined structure to interconnect serversEach server connects to different levels of DCells through multiple linksHigh-level DCells are built recursively from many low-level onesFault tolerant as there is no single point of failureZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 9 / 27
  • 28. StructureUses servers with multiple network ports and mini-switches toconstruct its recursive structureZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 10 / 27
  • 29. StructureUses servers with multiple network ports and mini-switches toconstruct its recursive structureDCell0 is the building block to construct larger DCellsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 10 / 27
  • 30. StructureUses servers with multiple network ports and mini-switches toconstruct its recursive structureDCell0 is the building block to construct larger DCellsConsists of n servers and a mini-switchZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 10 / 27
  • 31. StructureUses servers with multiple network ports and mini-switches toconstruct its recursive structureDCell0 is the building block to construct larger DCellsConsists of n servers and a mini-switchHigh-level DCells are built recursively from many low-level onesZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 10 / 27
  • 32. StructureUses servers with multiple network ports and mini-switches toconstruct its recursive structureDCell0 is the building block to construct larger DCellsConsists of n servers and a mini-switchHigh-level DCells are built recursively from many low-level onesDCell1 constructed using n +1 DCell0sZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 10 / 27
  • 33. StructureUses servers with multiple network ports and mini-switches toconstruct its recursive structureDCell0 is the building block to construct larger DCellsConsists of n servers and a mini-switchHigh-level DCells are built recursively from many low-level onesDCell1 constructed using n +1 DCell0sThe same applies to DCellkZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 10 / 27
  • 34. Zubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 11 / 27
  • 35. Outline1 Datacenter Topologies2 Transport Protocols3 Network Sharing4 Wrapping UpZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 12 / 27
  • 36. TCP and UDPTCP: Connection-oriented with reliability, ordering, and congestioncontrolZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 13 / 27
  • 37. TCP and UDPTCP: Connection-oriented with reliability, ordering, and congestioncontrolUDP: Connectionless with no ordering, reliability, or congestion controlZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 13 / 27
  • 38. TCP and Datacenter NetworksCommunication between different nodes is thought of as just opening aTCP connection between themZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 14 / 27
  • 39. TCP and Datacenter NetworksCommunication between different nodes is thought of as just opening aTCP connection between themCommon sockets APIZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 14 / 27
  • 40. TCP and Datacenter NetworksCommunication between different nodes is thought of as just opening aTCP connection between themCommon sockets APIBut TCP was designed for a wide-area networkZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 14 / 27
  • 41. TCP and Datacenter NetworksCommunication between different nodes is thought of as just opening aTCP connection between themCommon sockets APIBut TCP was designed for a wide-area networkClearly, a datacenter is not a wide-area networkZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 14 / 27
  • 42. TCP and Datacenter NetworksCommunication between different nodes is thought of as just opening aTCP connection between themCommon sockets APIBut TCP was designed for a wide-area networkClearly, a datacenter is not a wide-area networkSignificantly different bandwidth-delay product, round-trip time (RTT),and retransmission timeout (RTO)Zubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 14 / 27
  • 43. TCP and Datacenter NetworksCommunication between different nodes is thought of as just opening aTCP connection between themCommon sockets APIBut TCP was designed for a wide-area networkClearly, a datacenter is not a wide-area networkSignificantly different bandwidth-delay product, round-trip time (RTT),and retransmission timeout (RTO)For example, due to the low RTT, the congestion window for each flowis very smallZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 14 / 27
  • 44. TCP and Datacenter NetworksCommunication between different nodes is thought of as just opening aTCP connection between themCommon sockets APIBut TCP was designed for a wide-area networkClearly, a datacenter is not a wide-area networkSignificantly different bandwidth-delay product, round-trip time (RTT),and retransmission timeout (RTO)For example, due to the low RTT, the congestion window for each flowis very smallAs a result, flow recovery through TCP fast retransmit is impossible,leading to poor net throughputZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 14 / 27
  • 45. More problems for TCPIn production data centers, due to the widely-varying mix ofapplications, congestion in the network can last from 10s to 100s ofsecondsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 15 / 27
  • 46. More problems for TCPIn production data centers, due to the widely-varying mix ofapplications, congestion in the network can last from 10s to 100s ofsecondsIn commodity switches the buffer pool is shared by all interfacesZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 15 / 27
  • 47. More problems for TCPIn production data centers, due to the widely-varying mix ofapplications, congestion in the network can last from 10s to 100s ofsecondsIn commodity switches the buffer pool is shared by all interfacesIf long flows hog the memory, queues can build up for the short flowsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 15 / 27
  • 48. More problems for TCPIn production data centers, due to the widely-varying mix ofapplications, congestion in the network can last from 10s to 100s ofsecondsIn commodity switches the buffer pool is shared by all interfacesIf long flows hog the memory, queues can build up for the short flowsMany-to-one communication patterns can lead to TCP throughputcollapse or incastZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 15 / 27
  • 49. More problems for TCPIn production data centers, due to the widely-varying mix ofapplications, congestion in the network can last from 10s to 100s ofsecondsIn commodity switches the buffer pool is shared by all interfacesIf long flows hog the memory, queues can build up for the short flowsMany-to-one communication patterns can lead to TCP throughputcollapse or incastThis can cause overall application throughput to decrease by up to 90%Zubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 15 / 27
  • 50. More problems for TCPIn production data centers, due to the widely-varying mix ofapplications, congestion in the network can last from 10s to 100s ofsecondsIn commodity switches the buffer pool is shared by all interfacesIf long flows hog the memory, queues can build up for the short flowsMany-to-one communication patterns can lead to TCP throughputcollapse or incastThis can cause overall application throughput to decrease by up to 90%In virtualized environments, the time sharing of resources increasesthe latency faced by the VMsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 15 / 27
  • 51. More problems for TCPIn production data centers, due to the widely-varying mix ofapplications, congestion in the network can last from 10s to 100s ofsecondsIn commodity switches the buffer pool is shared by all interfacesIf long flows hog the memory, queues can build up for the short flowsMany-to-one communication patterns can lead to TCP throughputcollapse or incastThis can cause overall application throughput to decrease by up to 90%In virtualized environments, the time sharing of resources increasesthe latency faced by the VMsThis latency can be orders of magnitude higher than the RTT betweenhosts inside a datacenter, leading to slow progress of TCP connectionsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 15 / 27
  • 52. ReactionSome large-scale deployments have abandoned TCP altogetherZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 16 / 27
  • 53. ReactionSome large-scale deployments have abandoned TCP altogetherFor instance, Facebook now uses a custom UDP transportZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 16 / 27
  • 54. ReactionSome large-scale deployments have abandoned TCP altogetherFor instance, Facebook now uses a custom UDP transportIt might be a “kitchen-sink” solution but it is sub-optimal in a datacenterenvironmentZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 16 / 27
  • 55. ReactionSome large-scale deployments have abandoned TCP altogetherFor instance, Facebook now uses a custom UDP transportIt might be a “kitchen-sink” solution but it is sub-optimal in a datacenterenvironmentOver the years, a number of alternatives have been proposedZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 16 / 27
  • 56. Datacenter TCP (DCTCP)Uses Explicit Congestion Notifications (ECN) from switches to performactive queue management-based congestion controlZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 17 / 27
  • 57. Datacenter TCP (DCTCP)Uses Explicit Congestion Notifications (ECN) from switches to performactive queue management-based congestion controlSwitches set the congestion experienced flag in packets whenever thebuffer occupancy exceeds a small thresholdZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 17 / 27
  • 58. Datacenter TCP (DCTCP)Uses Explicit Congestion Notifications (ECN) from switches to performactive queue management-based congestion controlSwitches set the congestion experienced flag in packets whenever thebuffer occupancy exceeds a small thresholdDCTCP uses this information to reduce the size of the window basedon a fraction of the marked packetsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 17 / 27
  • 59. Datacenter TCP (DCTCP)Uses Explicit Congestion Notifications (ECN) from switches to performactive queue management-based congestion controlSwitches set the congestion experienced flag in packets whenever thebuffer occupancy exceeds a small thresholdDCTCP uses this information to reduce the size of the window basedon a fraction of the marked packetsEnables it to react quickly to queue build and avoid buffer pressureZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 17 / 27
  • 60. Multipath TCP (MPTCP)Establishes multiple subflows over different paths between a pair ofend-hostsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 18 / 27
  • 61. Multipath TCP (MPTCP)Establishes multiple subflows over different paths between a pair ofend-hostsThese subflows operate under a single TCP connectionZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 18 / 27
  • 62. Multipath TCP (MPTCP)Establishes multiple subflows over different paths between a pair ofend-hostsThese subflows operate under a single TCP connectionThe fraction of the total congestion window for each flow is determinedby its speedZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 18 / 27
  • 63. Multipath TCP (MPTCP)Establishes multiple subflows over different paths between a pair ofend-hostsThese subflows operate under a single TCP connectionThe fraction of the total congestion window for each flow is determinedby its speedMoves traffic away from the most congested pathsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 18 / 27
  • 64. tcpcryptBackwards compatible enhancement to TCP that aims to efficientlyand transparently provide encrypted communication to applicationsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 19 / 27
  • 65. tcpcryptBackwards compatible enhancement to TCP that aims to efficientlyand transparently provide encrypted communication to applicationsUses a custom key exchange protocol that leverages the TCP optionsfieldZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 19 / 27
  • 66. tcpcryptBackwards compatible enhancement to TCP that aims to efficientlyand transparently provide encrypted communication to applicationsUses a custom key exchange protocol that leverages the TCP optionsfieldLike SSL, to reduce the cost of connection setup for short-lived flows, itenables cryptographic state from one TCP connection to bootstrapsubsequent onesZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 19 / 27
  • 67. tcpcryptBackwards compatible enhancement to TCP that aims to efficientlyand transparently provide encrypted communication to applicationsUses a custom key exchange protocol that leverages the TCP optionsfieldLike SSL, to reduce the cost of connection setup for short-lived flows, itenables cryptographic state from one TCP connection to bootstrapsubsequent onesApplications can also be made aware of the presence of tcpcrypt tonegate redundant encryptionZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 19 / 27
  • 68. Deadline-Driven Delivery (D3)Targets applications with distributed workflow and latency targetsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 20 / 27
  • 69. Deadline-Driven Delivery (D3)Targets applications with distributed workflow and latency targetsSuch applications associate a deadline with each network flow and theflow is only useful if the deadline is metZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 20 / 27
  • 70. Deadline-Driven Delivery (D3)Targets applications with distributed workflow and latency targetsSuch applications associate a deadline with each network flow and theflow is only useful if the deadline is metApplications expose flow deadline and size information which isexploited by end hosts to request rates from routers along the data pathZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 20 / 27
  • 71. Outline1 Datacenter Topologies2 Transport Protocols3 Network Sharing4 Wrapping UpZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 21 / 27
  • 72. IntroductionNetwork resources are shared amongst the tenants, which can lead tocontention and other undesired behaviourZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 22 / 27
  • 73. IntroductionNetwork resources are shared amongst the tenants, which can lead tocontention and other undesired behaviourNetwork performance isolation between tenants can be an importanttool for:Minimizing disruption from legitimate tenants that run network-intensiveworkloadsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 22 / 27
  • 74. IntroductionNetwork resources are shared amongst the tenants, which can lead tocontention and other undesired behaviourNetwork performance isolation between tenants can be an importanttool for:Minimizing disruption from legitimate tenants that run network-intensiveworkloadsProtecting against malicious tenants that launch DoS attacksZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 22 / 27
  • 75. IntroductionNetwork resources are shared amongst the tenants, which can lead tocontention and other undesired behaviourNetwork performance isolation between tenants can be an importanttool for:Minimizing disruption from legitimate tenants that run network-intensiveworkloadsProtecting against malicious tenants that launch DoS attacksThe standard methodology to ensure isolation is to use VLANsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 22 / 27
  • 76. Virtual LANActs like an ordinary LAN but end-hosts do no necessarily have to bephysically connected to the same segmentZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 23 / 27
  • 77. Virtual LANActs like an ordinary LAN but end-hosts do no necessarily have to bephysically connected to the same segmentNodes are grouped together by the VLANZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 23 / 27
  • 78. Virtual LANActs like an ordinary LAN but end-hosts do no necessarily have to bephysically connected to the same segmentNodes are grouped together by the VLANBroadcasts can also be sent within the same VLANZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 23 / 27
  • 79. Virtual LANActs like an ordinary LAN but end-hosts do no necessarily have to bephysically connected to the same segmentNodes are grouped together by the VLANBroadcasts can also be sent within the same VLANVLAN membership information is inserted into Ethernet framesZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 23 / 27
  • 80. Rate-limiting End-hostsIn Xen the network bandwidth available to each domU can be ratelimitedZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 24 / 27
  • 81. Rate-limiting End-hostsIn Xen the network bandwidth available to each domU can be ratelimitedCan be used to implement basic QoSZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 24 / 27
  • 82. Rate-limiting End-hostsIn Xen the network bandwidth available to each domU can be ratelimitedCan be used to implement basic QoSThe virtual interface is simply rate-limitedZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 24 / 27
  • 83. Outline1 Datacenter Topologies2 Transport Protocols3 Network Sharing4 Wrapping UpZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 25 / 27
  • 84. The EndIn reverse order:1 Cloud stacks be used to turn clusters and datacenters into private andpublic cloudsZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 26 / 27
  • 85. The EndIn reverse order:1 Cloud stacks be used to turn clusters and datacenters into private andpublic clouds2 Virtualization of computation, storage, and networking can allow manytenants to co-existZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 26 / 27
  • 86. The EndIn reverse order:1 Cloud stacks be used to turn clusters and datacenters into private andpublic clouds2 Virtualization of computation, storage, and networking can allow manytenants to co-exist3 Most data does not fit the relational model and is more suited forNoSQL storesZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 26 / 27
  • 87. The EndIn reverse order:1 Cloud stacks be used to turn clusters and datacenters into private andpublic clouds2 Virtualization of computation, storage, and networking can allow manytenants to co-exist3 Most data does not fit the relational model and is more suited forNoSQL stores4 Data-intensive, task-parallel frameworks abstract away the details ofdistribution, work allocation, sychronization, concurreny, andcommunication; Perfect match for the cloudZubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 26 / 27
  • 88. The EndIn reverse order:1 Cloud stacks be used to turn clusters and datacenters into private andpublic clouds2 Virtualization of computation, storage, and networking can allow manytenants to co-exist3 Most data does not fit the relational model and is more suited forNoSQL stores4 Data-intensive, task-parallel frameworks abstract away the details ofdistribution, work allocation, sychronization, concurreny, andcommunication; Perfect match for the cloud5 The future is Big Data and Cloud Computing!Zubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 26 / 27
  • 89. References1 Mohammad Al-Fares, Alexander Loukissas, and Amin Vahdat. 2008. Ascalable, commodity data center network architecture. In Proceedingsof the ACM SIGCOMM 2008 conference on Data communication(SIGCOMM ’08). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 63-74.2 Chuanxiong Guo, Haitao Wu, Kun Tan, Lei Shi, Yongguang Zhang, andSongwu Lu. 2008. Dcell: a scalable and fault-tolerant networkstructure for data centers. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM 2008conference on Data communication (SIGCOMM ’08). ACM, New York,NY, USA, 75-86.Zubair Nabi 15: Datacenter Design and Networking April 21, 2013 27 / 27