AOS Lab 11: Virtualization

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  • 1. Lab 11: Virtualization Advanced Operating Systems Zubair Nabi zubair.nabi@itu.edu.pk April 17, 2013
  • 2. Background • Years ago, IBM used to sell expensive and bulky mainframes
  • 3. Background • Years ago, IBM used to sell expensive and bulky mainframes • They ran into a problem: what if organizations wanted to run different operating systems on the same machine at the same time?
  • 4. Background • Years ago, IBM used to sell expensive and bulky mainframes • They ran into a problem: what if organizations wanted to run different operating systems on the same machine at the same time? • For instance, some applications have been developed on one OS and others on different ones
  • 5. Background • Years ago, IBM used to sell expensive and bulky mainframes • They ran into a problem: what if organizations wanted to run different operating systems on the same machine at the same time? • For instance, some applications have been developed on one OS and others on different ones • IBM solved this by adding another level of indirection, called a virtual memory monitor or hypervisor
  • 6. Virtual Memory Monitor • Sits between one or more operating systems and the hardware
  • 7. Virtual Memory Monitor • Sits between one or more operating systems and the hardware • Gives the illusion to each running OS that it has full control over the hardware (A taste of its own medicine?)
  • 8. Virtual Memory Monitor • Sits between one or more operating systems and the hardware • Gives the illusion to each running OS that it has full control over the hardware (A taste of its own medicine?) • Multiplexes the hardware across OSes
  • 9. Virtual Memory Monitor • Sits between one or more operating systems and the hardware • Gives the illusion to each running OS that it has full control over the hardware (A taste of its own medicine?) • Multiplexes the hardware across OSes • In essence, a VMM is an OS for OSes
  • 10. Advantages • Server Consolidation • In many settings, services are run on different machines
  • 11. Advantages • Server Consolidation • In many settings, services are run on different machines • In some cases, these machines also run different OSes
  • 12. Advantages • Server Consolidation • In many settings, services are run on different machines • In some cases, these machines also run different OSes • At the same time, the machines are underutilized
  • 13. Advantages • Server Consolidation • • • • In many settings, services are run on different machines In some cases, these machines also run different OSes At the same time, the machines are underutilized Virtualization leads to consolidation by multiplexing multiple OSes over fewer physical servers
  • 14. Advantages • Server Consolidation • • • • In many settings, services are run on different machines In some cases, these machines also run different OSes At the same time, the machines are underutilized Virtualization leads to consolidation by multiplexing multiple OSes over fewer physical servers • Increased Desktop Functionality • Many users wish to run one operating system
  • 15. Advantages • Server Consolidation • • • • In many settings, services are run on different machines In some cases, these machines also run different OSes At the same time, the machines are underutilized Virtualization leads to consolidation by multiplexing multiple OSes over fewer physical servers • Increased Desktop Functionality • Many users wish to run one operating system • But want to have access to native applications on a different OS platform
  • 16. Advantages (2) • Testing and Debugging • Code is mostly written on one main platform
  • 17. Advantages (2) • Testing and Debugging • Code is mostly written on one main platform • But developers want to debug and test it on many diverse platforms
  • 18. Advantages (2) • Testing and Debugging • Code is mostly written on one main platform • But developers want to debug and test it on many diverse platforms • Virtualization enables this by running mutiple OSes over a single machine
  • 19. Resurgence • Resurgence took place in the 90s
  • 20. Resurgence • Resurgence took place in the 90s • Primarily led by Mendel Rosenblum at Stanford
  • 21. Resurgence • Resurgence took place in the 90s • Primarily led by Mendel Rosenblum at Stanford • Engineered Disco, a VMM for the MIPS processor
  • 22. Resurgence • Resurgence took place in the 90s • Primarily led by Mendel Rosenblum at Stanford • Engineered Disco, a VMM for the MIPS processor • Led to VMWare (Total assets of over $8 billion)
  • 23. Running a VM • Similar to running an application on top of an OS
  • 24. Running a VM • Similar to running an application on top of an OS • Through limited direct execution
  • 25. Running a VM • Similar to running an application on top of an OS • Through limited direct execution • Each time a new OS boots atop the VMM, jump to the address of the first instruction
  • 26. Running a VM • Similar to running an application on top of an OS • Through limited direct execution • Each time a new OS boots atop the VMM, jump to the address of the first instruction • The OS starts executing
  • 27. Multiplexing the CPU • Similar to a process context switch but now a VMM performs a machine switch between different VMs
  • 28. Multiplexing the CPU • Similar to a process context switch but now a VMM performs a machine switch between different VMs 1 The VMM must save the entire state of one OS
  • 29. Multiplexing the CPU • Similar to a process context switch but now a VMM performs a machine switch between different VMs 1 The VMM must save the entire state of one OS • This state includes registers, PC, and any privileged hardware state (not applicable to a context switch)
  • 30. Multiplexing the CPU • Similar to a process context switch but now a VMM performs a machine switch between different VMs 1 The VMM must save the entire state of one OS • This state includes registers, PC, and any privileged hardware state 2 Restore the state of the to-be-run VM (not applicable to a context switch)
  • 31. Multiplexing the CPU • Similar to a process context switch but now a VMM performs a machine switch between different VMs 1 The VMM must save the entire state of one OS • This state includes registers, PC, and any privileged hardware state (not applicable to a context switch) Restore the state of the to-be-run VM 3 Jump to the PC of the to-be-run VM 2
  • 32. Multiplexing the CPU • Similar to a process context switch but now a VMM performs a machine switch between different VMs 1 The VMM must save the entire state of one OS • This state includes registers, PC, and any privileged hardware state (not applicable to a context switch) Restore the state of the to-be-run VM 3 Jump to the PC of the to-be-run VM • The PC may be within the OS kernel or within a process 2
  • 33. Privileged Operations • Things get more interesting when the running OS tries to perform some privileged operation
  • 34. Privileged Operations • Things get more interesting when the running OS tries to perform some privileged operation • For instance, on a system with a software-managed TLB, the OS uses privileged instructions to update the TLB
  • 35. Privileged Operations • Things get more interesting when the running OS tries to perform some privileged operation • For instance, on a system with a software-managed TLB, the OS uses privileged instructions to update the TLB • In a virtualized environment, the OS cannot be allowed to do this
  • 36. Privileged Operations • Things get more interesting when the running OS tries to perform some privileged operation • For instance, on a system with a software-managed TLB, the OS uses privileged instructions to update the TLB • In a virtualized environment, the OS cannot be allowed to do this • If it is allowed to do so, the OS will control the underlying machine rather than the VMM
  • 37. Privileged Operations • Things get more interesting when the running OS tries to perform some privileged operation • For instance, on a system with a software-managed TLB, the OS uses privileged instructions to update the TLB • In a virtualized environment, the OS cannot be allowed to do this • If it is allowed to do so, the OS will control the underlying machine rather than the VMM • The VMM must intercept privileged operations from OSes and retain control of the machine
  • 38. System Calls • The VMM needs to intercept all system calls, such as open(), read(), and fork()
  • 39. System Calls • The VMM needs to intercept all system calls, such as open(), read(), and fork() • On physical hardware a system call is achieved through a special instruction
  • 40. System Calls • The VMM needs to intercept all system calls, such as open(), read(), and fork() • On physical hardware a system call is achieved through a special instruction • trap in case of MIPS and int 0x80 in case of x86
  • 41. System Calls • The VMM needs to intercept all system calls, such as open(), read(), and fork() • On physical hardware a system call is achieved through a special instruction • trap in case of MIPS and int 0x80 in case of x86 • For instance, the open() system call takes three arguments: int open(char *path, int flags, mode_t mode)
  • 42. System Calls • The VMM needs to intercept all system calls, such as open(), read(), and fork() • On physical hardware a system call is achieved through a special instruction • trap in case of MIPS and int 0x80 in case of x86 • For instance, the open() system call takes three arguments: int open(char *path, int flags, mode_t mode) • The system call number for open() is 5
  • 43. Code: open open: push dword mode push dword flags push dword path mov eax, 5 push eax int 80h
  • 44. Normal System Call Flow Process 1. System call: Trap to OS Operating System 2. OS trap handler: Decode trap and execute appropriate syscall route When done: Return from trap 3. Resume execution (@PC after trap)
  • 45. System Call Flow with Virtualization Process 1. System call: Trap to OS Operating System VMM 2. Process trapped: Call OS trap handler (at reduced privilege) 3. OS trap handler: Decode trap and execute syscall When done: issue return-from-trap
  • 46. System Call Flow with Virtualization (2) Process 5. Resume execution (@PC after trap) Operating System VMM 4. OS tried return from trap: Do real return from trap
  • 47. System Call Implications • Increase in number of instructions so slower system calls
  • 48. System Call Implications • Increase in number of instructions so slower system calls • Which mode should the OS run in?
  • 49. System Call Implications • Increase in number of instructions so slower system calls • Which mode should the OS run in? • Cannot run in a privileged mode any longer, because it would have unrestricted access to the hardware!
  • 50. System Call Implications • Increase in number of instructions so slower system calls • Which mode should the OS run in? • Cannot run in a privileged mode any longer, because it would have unrestricted access to the hardware! • In case of MIPS, it would run in the supervisor mode
  • 51. System Call Implications • Increase in number of instructions so slower system calls • Which mode should the OS run in? • Cannot run in a privileged mode any longer, because it would have unrestricted access to the hardware! • In case of MIPS, it would run in the supervisor mode • No access to privileged instructions but more memory
  • 52. System Call Implications • Increase in number of instructions so slower system calls • Which mode should the OS run in? • Cannot run in a privileged mode any longer, because it would have unrestricted access to the hardware! • In case of MIPS, it would run in the supervisor mode • No access to privileged instructions but more memory • In case of x86, the guest OS runs in ring 1 while the VMM runs in ring 0
  • 53. System Call Implications • Increase in number of instructions so slower system calls • Which mode should the OS run in? • Cannot run in a privileged mode any longer, because it would have unrestricted access to the hardware! • In case of MIPS, it would run in the supervisor mode • No access to privileged instructions but more memory • In case of x86, the guest OS runs in ring 1 while the VMM runs in ring 0 • What if the hardware has no extra modes?
  • 54. System Call Implications • Increase in number of instructions so slower system calls • Which mode should the OS run in? • Cannot run in a privileged mode any longer, because it would have unrestricted access to the hardware! • In case of MIPS, it would run in the supervisor mode • No access to privileged instructions but more memory • In case of x86, the guest OS runs in ring 1 while the VMM runs in ring 0 • What if the hardware has no extra modes? • The OS runs in user mode and the VMM uses memory protection (page tables and TLBs) to protect OS data structures
  • 55. Virtual Memory • OSes virtualize physical memory to give each process the illusion of a private address space
  • 56. Virtual Memory • OSes virtualize physical memory to give each process the illusion of a private address space • In case of virtualization, need to add another layer of virtual memory
  • 57. Virtual Memory • OSes virtualize physical memory to give each process the illusion of a private address space • In case of virtualization, need to add another layer of virtual memory • The three-tier hierarchy: virtual memory, physical memory, and machine memory
  • 58. Virtual Memory • OSes virtualize physical memory to give each process the illusion of a private address space • In case of virtualization, need to add another layer of virtual memory • The three-tier hierarchy: virtual memory, physical memory, and machine memory • The OS maps virtual-to-physical addresses via its per-process page tables
  • 59. Virtual Memory • OSes virtualize physical memory to give each process the illusion of a private address space • In case of virtualization, need to add another layer of virtual memory • The three-tier hierarchy: virtual memory, physical memory, and machine memory • The OS maps virtual-to-physical addresses via its per-process page tables • The VMM maps the resulting physical mappings to underlying machine addresses via its per-OS page tables
  • 60. VMM Memory Virtualization
  • 61. Normal TLB Miss Flow Process 1. Load from memory: TLB miss: Trap Operating System 2. OS TLB miss handler: Extract VPN from VA; Do page table lookup; If present and valid: get PFN, update TLB; Return from trap 3. Resume execution (@PC of trapping instruction); Instruction is retried; Results in TLB hit
  • 62. TLB Miss Flow with Virtualization Process 1. Load from memory TLB miss: Trap Operating System VMM 2. VMM TLB miss handler: Call into OS TLB handler (reduced privilege) 3. OS TLB miss handler: Extract VPN from VA; Do page table lookup; If present and valid: get PFN, update TLB
  • 63. TLB Miss Flow with Virtualization (2) Process Operating System 5. Return from trap VMM 4. Trap handler: Unprivileged code trying to update the TLB; OS is trying to install VPN-to-PFN mapping; Update TLB instead with VPN-to-MFN (privileged); Jump back to OS (reducing privilege)
  • 64. TLB Miss Flow with Virtualization (3) Process 7. Resume execution (@PC of instruction); Instruction is retried; Results in TLB hit Operating System VMM 6. Trap handler: Unprivileged code trying to return from a trap; Return from trap
  • 65. Virtual Memory Implications • Similar to system calls, virtualized virtual memory consists of more instructions and is hence slower
  • 66. Virtual Memory Implications • Similar to system calls, virtualized virtual memory consists of more instructions and is hence slower • To deal with this overhead, VMMs implement “software TLB”
  • 67. Virtual Memory Implications • Similar to system calls, virtualized virtual memory consists of more instructions and is hence slower • To deal with this overhead, VMMs implement “software TLB” • Every virtual-to-physical mapping is recorded by the VMM within this data structure
  • 68. Virtual Memory Implications • Similar to system calls, virtualized virtual memory consists of more instructions and is hence slower • To deal with this overhead, VMMs implement “software TLB” • Every virtual-to-physical mapping is recorded by the VMM within this data structure • In case of a TLB miss, the VMM first consults this software TLB
  • 69. Virtual Memory Implications • Similar to system calls, virtualized virtual memory consists of more instructions and is hence slower • To deal with this overhead, VMMs implement “software TLB” • Every virtual-to-physical mapping is recorded by the VMM within this data structure • In case of a TLB miss, the VMM first consults this software TLB • If the translation is found, the VMM simply installs the virtual-to-machine mapping directly into the hardware TLB
  • 70. Information Gap • The OS does not know too much about what the application programs really want
  • 71. Information Gap • The OS does not know too much about what the application programs really want • Must make general “one-size-fits-all” policies
  • 72. Information Gap • The OS does not know too much about what the application programs really want • Must make general “one-size-fits-all” policies • Similarly, the VMM does not know too much about what the OS is doing or wanting
  • 73. Information Gap • The OS does not know too much about what the application programs really want • Must make general “one-size-fits-all” policies • Similarly, the VMM does not know too much about what the OS is doing or wanting • This lack of knowledge, is dubbed as the information gap between the VMM and the OS
  • 74. Information Gap (2) • What if the OS is in a busy loop?
  • 75. Information Gap (2) • What if the OS is in a busy loop? • In case of virtualization, if there is another OS which is doing something useful then the VMM should give it more resources as opposed to the one which is in a busy loop
  • 76. Information Gap (2) • What if the OS is in a busy loop? • In case of virtualization, if there is another OS which is doing something useful then the VMM should give it more resources as opposed to the one which is in a busy loop • Similarly, pages need to be zeroed before being mapped into a process’s address space
  • 77. Information Gap (2) • What if the OS is in a busy loop? • In case of virtualization, if there is another OS which is doing something useful then the VMM should give it more resources as opposed to the one which is in a busy loop • Similarly, pages need to be zeroed before being mapped into a process’s address space • In case of virtualization, this would be redundantly done twice: Once by the VMM and then again by the OS
  • 78. Information Gap (2) • What if the OS is in a busy loop? • In case of virtualization, if there is another OS which is doing something useful then the VMM should give it more resources as opposed to the one which is in a busy loop • Similarly, pages need to be zeroed before being mapped into a process’s address space • In case of virtualization, this would be redundantly done twice: Once by the VMM and then again by the OS • Two solutions exist to this problem:
  • 79. Information Gap (2) • What if the OS is in a busy loop? • In case of virtualization, if there is another OS which is doing something useful then the VMM should give it more resources as opposed to the one which is in a busy loop • Similarly, pages need to be zeroed before being mapped into a process’s address space • In case of virtualization, this would be redundantly done twice: Once by the VMM and then again by the OS • Two solutions exist to this problem: 1 Implicit information: The OS can implicitly try to figure out the behaviour of each OS
  • 80. Information Gap (2) • What if the OS is in a busy loop? • In case of virtualization, if there is another OS which is doing something useful then the VMM should give it more resources as opposed to the one which is in a busy loop • Similarly, pages need to be zeroed before being mapped into a process’s address space • In case of virtualization, this would be redundantly done twice: Once by the VMM and then again by the OS • Two solutions exist to this problem: Implicit information: The OS can implicitly try to figure out the behaviour of each OS 2 Paravirtualization: The guest OSes need to be modified to be made aware of virtualization 1
  • 81. Today’s task • Design paravirtualization hooks for xv6
  • 82. Reading(s) • Section “Virtual Machine Monitors” from “Operating Systems: Three Easy Pieces” by Remzi H. Arpaci-Dusseau and Andrea C. Arpaci-Dusseau. Online: http://pages.cs.wisc.edu/ ~remzi/OSTEP/vmm-intro.pdf