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    Study on regulations on livestock products (pakistan) Study on regulations on livestock products (pakistan) Document Transcript

    • Study onRegulations of LivestockProducts(Dairy and Meat)Feb 21, 2012Muhammad Zubair Ahmed (DVM)Dairy & Rural Development Foundation (DRDF)
    • Table of ContentsExecutive Summary.......................................................................................................................................4International Standards / Regulations on Dairy and Meat Products............................................................5Codex Alimentarius Commission ..............................................................................................................5SPS and TBT Agreements ..........................................................................................................................6Food Certification Systems in the Asia and Pacific Region .......................................................................71. HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) ............................................................................72. ISO standards ................................................................................................................................83. SAFE QUALITY FOOD 2000 (SQF 1000cm and SQF 2000cm) ........................................................84. BRC (British Retail Consortium) ....................................................................................................85. EFSIS (European Food Safety Inspection Services) .......................................................................86. IFS (International Food Standard).................................................................................................87. Global Food Business Network (CIES) and Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI)...........................88. Euro-Retailer Produce Working Group - Good Agricultural Practices (EUREP GAP) ....................9Some other renowned agencies working on Food Standards and Certification......................................91. GLOBALG.A.P.................................................................................................................................92. Star Farm.......................................................................................................................................9Food Laws In Pakistan.................................................................................................................................10The Pakistan Pure Food Laws (PFL) devised in 1963 ..............................................................................10The Pakistan Hotels and Restaurant Act, 1976.......................................................................................10The Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority Act, 1996..........................................................11PSQCA Act 1996 ......................................................................................................................................12Standards / Regulations on Dairy and Meat Products in Punjab................................................................14Overview.................................................................................................................................................14THE PUNJAB FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS ACT, 2011.......................................................................14Section Heading ..................................................................................................................................14Chapter I..............................................................................................................................................14Chapter II.............................................................................................................................................15Chapter III............................................................................................................................................18Chapter IV ...........................................................................................................................................19
    • Chapter V ............................................................................................................................................20Chapter VI ...........................................................................................................................................20Chapter VII ..........................................................................................................................................20THE PUNJAB PURE FOOD RULES, 2007...................................................................................................21THE MILK AND MEAT SAFETY ACT, 2011 ................................................................................................24Chapter 1.............................................................................................................................................24Chapter 2.............................................................................................................................................25Chapter 3.............................................................................................................................................26Chapter 4.............................................................................................................................................26Chapter 5.............................................................................................................................................26Chapter 6.............................................................................................................................................27Public and/or Private Initiatives for Food Safety or Food Quality in Pakistan............................................281. National Institute of Helath (NIH)...................................................................................................282. Consumer Rights Commission of Pakistan (CRCP)..........................................................................284. Milk and Meat Safety Agency (Punjab)..........................................................................................295. Punjab Agriculture & Meat Company.............................................................................................296. Plan Milk Value Chain Project (PMVCP) Vehari ..............................................................................29Halal Products in Punjab.............................................................................................................................30Technical inputs / Analysis of the situation................................................................................................31An Overview of the Food Sector in Pakistan...........................................................................................31Food Safety Systems / Regulations.........................................................................................................31Specific Issues of Developing Countries related to Food safety.............................................................32Summary of Foods Safety related Issues in Pakistan..............................................................................33Sources of Information / Study / References .............................................................................................35People .....................................................................................................................................................35Literature ................................................................................................................................................35Web Sites ................................................................................................................................................36Appendix .....................................................................................................................................................37
    • Executive SummaryIn order to study the effectiveness as well as the shortcomings of the livestock regulations related to thequality and safety control of livestock and dairy products, the current situation of livestock regulations inPakistan as well as other countries shall be surveyed and analyzed. In this study I have tried tosummarize the prevailing International, National and Provincial Food laws and standards on Milk andMeat products. It is important to find out and list down the constraints and factors with on groundrealities that are causing hindrance to the applications of these laws in Pakistan.Consumers are taking unprecedented interest in the way food is produced, processed and marketed,and are increasingly calling for their Governments to accept greater responsibility for food safety andconsumer protection. Effective national food control systems are essential to protect the health andsafety of domestic consumers. This is also very critical for the safety and quality of the foods enteringinternational trade and to ensure that imported foods conform to national requirements. The newglobal environment for food trade places considerable obligations on both importing and exportingcountries to strengthen their food control systems and to implement and enforce risk-based foodcontrol strategies..This is particularly important for developing country like Pakistan as it seeks to achieve improved foodsafety, quality and nutrition, but it requires a high level of political and policy commitment. In Pakistan,effective food control is undermined by the existence of fragmented legislation, multiple jurisdictionsbetween federal and provincial roles, and weaknesses in surveillance, monitoring and enforcement.There is a strong need to develop strategies to strengthen food control systems to protect public health,prevent fraud and deception, avoid food adulteration and facilitate trade. This will only be possible if wehave a food control system that is workable and effective in terms of legislation, infrastructure andenforcement mechanisms.
    • International Standards / Regulations on Dairyand Meat ProductsIncreasingly open trade in food and farm products can potentially benefit both consumers andproducers through greater variety of foods/products or new export income earning opportunities.However, the potentially negative impacts of this trend include the possibility that food-borne diseasesare more easily transmitted among countries even more rapidly - posing health risks to consumers andfinancial risks to food producers/processors who fail to attain rigorous and increasingly globalized foodsafety standards. Increased trade also implies potentially increased costs, as food scares becomeincreasingly global. As a result, globalization of food trade requires the development of a moreintegrated and preventive approach to food safety. As international trade in food and farm productsincreases, it is becoming increasingly difficult to resolve the food safety problems of any one countrywithout collaborative international efforts to develop integrated, preventive strategies.Globally, the incidence of foodborne diseases is increasing and international food trade is disrupted byfrequent disputes over food safety and quality requirements. The Food and Agriculture Organization ofthe United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have a strong interest in promotingnational food control systems that are based upon scientific principles and guidelines, and whichaddress all sectors of the food chain. This is particularly important for developing countries as they seekto achieve improved food safety, quality and nutrition, but will require a high level of political and policycommitment. In most of the developing countries, effective food control is undermined by the existenceof fragmented legislation, multiple jurisdictions, and weaknesses in surveillance, monitoring andenforcement.The other governing body of international food trade is World Trade Organization (WTO). Article 20 ofthe General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) allows governments to act on trade in order toprotect human, animal or plant life or health, provided they do not discriminate or use this as disguisedprotectionism. In addition, there are two specific WTO agreements dealing with food safety and animaland plant health and safety, and with product standards in general. Both try to identify how to meet theneed to apply standards and at the same time avoid protectionism in disguise.Codex Alimentarius CommissionThe Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC) is an intergovernmental body that coordinates foodstandards at the international level. The Codex Alimentarius (Latin for "Book of Food") is a collection ofinternationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines and other recommendations relatingto foods, food production and food safety.Its texts are developed and maintained by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a body that wasestablished in 1963 by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the WorldHealth Organization (WHO). The Commissions main aims are stated as being to protect the health ofconsumers and ensure fair practices in the international food trade. The Codex Alimentarius is
    • recognized by the World Trade Organization as an international reference point for the resolution ofdisputes concerning food safety and consumer protection.Its main objectives are to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair practices in food trade. TheCAC has proved to be most successful in achieving international harmonization in food quality and safetyrequirements. It has formulated international standards for a wide range of food products and specificrequirements covering pesticide residues, food additives, veterinary drug residues, hygiene, foodcontaminants, labeling etc. These Codex recommendations are used by governments to determine andrefine policies and programs under their national food control system. More recently, Codex hasembarked on a series of activities based on risk assessment to address microbiological hazards in foods,an area previously unattended. Codex work has created worldwide awareness of food safety, qualityand consumer protection issues, and has achieved international consensus on how to deal with themscientifically, through a risk-based approach. As a result, there has been a continuous appraisal of theprinciples of food safety and quality at the international level. There is increasing pressure for theadoption of these principles at the national level.SPS and TBT AgreementsThe conclusion of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations in Marrakech led to theestablishment of the WTO on 1 January 1995, and to the coming into force of the Agreement on theApplication of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and the Agreement on Technical Barriers toTrade (TBT). Both these Agreements are relevant in understanding the requirements for food protectionmeasures at the national level, and the rules under which food is traded internationally.The SPS Agreement confirms the right of WTO member countries to apply measures to protect human,animal and plant life and health. The Agreement covers all relevant laws, decrees, regulations; testing,inspection, certification and approval procedures; and packaging and labeling requirements directlyrelated to food safety. Member States are asked to apply only those measures for protection that arebased on scientific principles, only to the extent necessary, and not in a manner which may constitute adisguised restriction on international trade. The Agreement encourages use of international standards,guidelines or recommendations where they exist, and identifies those from Codex (relating to foodadditives, veterinary drugs and pesticide residues, contaminants, methods of analysis and sampling, andcodes and guidelines of hygienic practices), to be consistent with provisions of SPS. Thus, the Codexstandards serve as a benchmark for comparison of national sanitary and phytosanitary measures. Whileit is not compulsory for Member States to apply Codex Standards, it is in their best interests toharmonize their national food standards with those elaborated by Codex.The TBT Agreement requires that technical regulations on traditional quality factors, fraudulentpractices, packaging, labeling etc. imposed by countries will not be more restrictive on importedproducts than they are on products produced domestically. It also encourages use of internationalstandards.
    • Food Certification Systems in the Asia and Pacific Region1. HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point)The HACCP system involves the identification of specific hazards throughout the process involved in theproduction of a food product and focuses on the preventative measures for their control to assure thesafety of the food. HACCP is the ultimate system to assure the safety of the food product and no othersystem could replace HACCP so far. The recent developments of HACCP implementation and subsequentprocess of certification emphasize strongly on validation and verification. Various countries haveprepared their own standards to verify whether or not the HACCP system complies with therequirements as laid down in their standards. Internationally these standards vary substantially incontent resulting in different levels of HACCP systems. Usually the standards include Traceability andProduct recall but, for instance, Risk Assessment is left out.The HACCP seven principlesPrinciple 1: Conduct a hazard analysis. - Plans determine the food safety hazards and identify thepreventive measures the plan can apply to control these hazards. A food safety hazard is any biological,chemical, or physical property that may cause a food to be unsafe for human consumption.Principle 2: Identify critical control points. - A Critical Control Point (CCP) is a point, step, or procedurein a food manufacturing process at which control can be applied and, as a result, a food safety hazardcan be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to an acceptable level.Principle 3: Establish critical limits for each critical control point. - A critical limit is the maximum orminimum value to which a physical, biological, or chemical hazard must be controlled at a critical controlpoint to prevent, eliminate, or reduce to an acceptable level.Principle 4: Establish critical control point monitoring requirements. - Monitoring activities arenecessary to ensure that the process is under control at each critical control point.Principle 5: Establish corrective actions. - These are actions to be taken when monitoring indicates adeviation from an established critical limit. The final rule requires a plants HACCP plan to identify thecorrective actions to be taken if a critical limit is not met. Corrective actions are intended to ensure thatno product injurious to health or otherwise adulterated as a result of the deviation enters commerce.Principle 6: Establish record keeping procedures. - The HACCP regulation requires that all plantsmaintain certain documents, including its hazard analysis and written HACCP plan, and recordsdocumenting the monitoring of critical control points, critical limits, verification activities, and thehandling of processing deviations.Principle 7: Establish procedures for ensuring the HACCP system is working as intended. - Validationensures that the plants do what they were designed to do; that is, they are successful in ensuring theproduction of a safe product. Plants will be required to validate their own HACCP plans. FSIS will notapprove HACCP plans in advance, but will review them for conformance with the final rule
    • 2. ISO standardsThe international standard: ISO 22000 Food Safety Management Systems - Requirements is underdevelopment. This document emphasizes on certification requirements for HACCP and contributes tothe standardization and harmonization of certified HACCP systems worldwide. Another document underpreparation is the ISO/ WD 22519 “Traceability system in the Agriculture Food Chain - General Principlesfor Design and Development”. Though the ISO 9001:2000 standard can be applied for the Food Industry,it is not a common practice to use it as a single system and recommended to be used in conjunction withHACCP implementation, to have a complete Quality Management system. ISO has developed a newstandard; ISO 15161: 2001; Guidelines on the application of ISO 9001:2000 for the food and beverageindustry. This is based on the ISO 9001:2000 guideline and includes HACCP. It is not an auditablestandard but a tool for the Food Industry to implement ISO in conjunction with HACCP.3. SAFE QUALITY FOOD 2000 (SQF 1000cm and SQF 2000cm)SQF 2000 - Safe Quality Food 2000 is a HACCP quality code (system) designed in Australia specifically forbusiness in the Agro food industry. The code is aligned with the Codex Alimentarius CommissionGuidelines for the application of HACCP. SQF focuses both on Food Safety and Quality issues includingGMP, SOP’s and HACCP and is compatible with the ISO 9000 standard. The SQF 1000cm Quality Codewas developed in 1999 in response to the demand for a simple HACCP based approved supplier foodsafety system for primary producers.4. BRC (British Retail Consortium)The British Retail Consortium has developed the Technical Standard, which is a Checklist, for thosecompanies supplying Retailer branded food products. The Standard has been developed to assistRetailers in their fulfillment of legal obligations and protection of the consumer, by providing a commonbasis for the inspection of companies supplying retailer branded food products.5. EFSIS (European Food Safety Inspection Services)EFSIS is a third party independent inspection service organization, providing retailer, manufacturers andcaterers, throughout the world their services. They apply the EFSIS Standard (Checklist) for companiesSupplying Food Products which is not exactly the same as the BRC standard but incorporate all the BRCrequirements.6. IFS (International Food Standard)The IFS has been created by the Federations of German Distributors (after which it was supplementedby French distributors) in order to make possible a systematic and uniform evaluation of Food productsuppliers. The IFS standard is based on the philosophy of the ISO 9001:2000 standard. The IFS standard(also a Checklist) like BRC and EFSIS concerns primarily the setting up of the HACCP system.7. Global Food Business Network (CIES) and Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI)CIES is the independent global food business network. CIES activities are designed for CEOs, Corporatemanagers and main functional directors. Two hundred retailers and 200 suppliers in over 50 countriesare part of the international CIES Network. CIES Programs are made up of international congresses andconferences. They cover themes like strategic management, food safety, and supply chain management.CIES has facilitated the initiative to enhance Food safety, ensure consumer protection, strengthen
    • consumer confidence and set requirements for food safety schemes. As a result the GFSI was launchedin May 2000. A Task Force was established with the key priority, amongst others, to benchmark FoodSafety Standards. As a result four compliant standards have been published; the BRC standard, theDutch HACCP Code, the EFSIS Standard and the International Standard for Auditing Food Suppliers(International Food Standard, IFS).8. Euro-Retailer Produce Working Group - Good Agricultural Practices (EUREP GAP)The objective of the EUREP, which is made up of leading European food-retailers, is to raise standardsfor the production of fresh fruit and vegetables. The prepared document (Checklist) sets out aframework for Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) on farms, which defines essential elements for thedevelopment of best-practice for the global production of horticultural products (e.g. fruits, vegetables,potatoes, salads, cut flowers and nursery stock). Agriculture produce from Asia nowadays is subject toEUREP GAP certification.Some other renowned agencies working on Food Standards and Certification1. GLOBALG.A.PGLOBALG.A.P is a private sector body that sets voluntary standards for the certification of productionprocesses of agricultural (including aquaculture) products around the globe. The GLOBALG.A.P standardis primarily designed to reassure consumers about how food is produced on the farm by minimizingdetrimental environmental impacts of farming operations, reducing the use of chemical inputs andensuring a responsible approach to worker health and safety as well as animal welfare.GLOBALG.A.P serves as a practical manual for Good Agricultural Practice (G.A.P.) anywhere in the world.The basis is an equal partnership of agricultural producers and retailers who wish to establish efficientcertification standards and procedures.2. Star FarmStar Farm, wholly owned subsidiary by Metro Group, established in 2007 and China operation center islocated in Hefei, Anhui province.
    • Food Laws In PakistanPakistan does not have an integrated legal framework but has a set of laws, which deals with variousaspects of food safety. These laws, despite the fact that they were enacted long time ago havetremendous capacity to achieve at least a minimum level of food safety. There exists a large number offood laws in Pakistan, most of them deal with control of production, distribution and supply of food, inaddition to dealing with profiteering and hoarding. There are four laws that specifically oversee foodsafety. (1) The Pure Food Ordinance, 1960 (2) The Cantonment Pure Food Act, 1966 (3) Pakistan Hotelsand Restaurant Act, 1976 (4) The Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority Act, 1996.The Pakistan Pure Food Laws (PFL) devised in 1963 consolidates and amends the lawin relation to the preparation and sale of foods. It forms the basis of the entire existing trade-relatedfood quality and safety legislative framework. Working with an aim of preventing food adulteration andassuring adequate level of purity, it covers around 104 different food items ranging from edible oils andfats, cereals, fruits and vegetables, dairy products etc. It sets the regulations addressing the usage ofpreservatives, antioxidants, colorants, flavorants and other food additives and forbids the production,sales and trade of all such unsafe food items which violate the prescribed rules and are likely to proveharmful for the health. In addition to this, PFL issues a defined set of instructions for the food safetyaspects such as labeling of food packages, preventive measures in storage and transport, and aims ofproviding a platform for laboratory analysis and inspection of food samples.All provinces and some northern areas have adopted this law with certain amendments. Its aim is toensure purity of the food supplied to people via the market; it therefore provides for preventingadulteration. The law prohibits any person to mix, color, stain or powder any food, if the mixing involvesviolation of prescribed rules or is likely to make the food injurious for health. The prescribed rules setstandards for coloring, preservatives, flavoring compounds, antioxidants, stabilizers, anti-caking agents,non-nutritive constituents, and metals. The law also prohibits sale, preparation, manufacture, import orexport for human consumption of food that is unsound, unwholesome or injurious to health, in additionto misbranded food items. The law also sets rules for labeling of pre-packaged food, and precautionarymeasures to be taken during storage, stocking and packing. Four criteria are adopted by the law toensure purity of food: a) it prohibits manufacturing/preparation or processing of food that is likely to beunsafe for human consumption, e.g., any food that can cause food poisoning; b) it prohibits import,export or sale of unsafe food; c) it sets out hygiene standards; and d) it provides for inspection andlaboratory analysis of food samples according to set criteria. Local authorities are designated by thegovernment to be responsible for enforcing the ordinance within their jurisdictions. The law is notuniform in all areas. Even penalties for the same offence vary among provinces. The law says nothingabout awarding compensation or damages to consumers.Another law of similar in its operational approach, the CANTONMENT PURE FOOD ACT OF 1966 appliesfood safety regulations exclusively on the cantonment areasThe Pakistan Hotels and Restaurant Act, 1976 applies to all hotels and restaurants inPakistan and seeks to control and regulate the rates and standard of service(s) by hotels and
    • restaurants. In addition to other provisions, under section 22(2), the sale of food or beverages that arecontaminated, not prepared hygienically or served in utensils that are not hygienic or clean is anoffence. This law does not specifically mention consumers’ right to lodge a complaint. However, thisdoes not prevent any person from addressing a complaint to the controller appointed by the FederalGovernment for enforcement of the act. Consideration of the complaint is a matter of jurisdiction of thecontroller. Moreover, as in other food laws, the act does not provide for compensation to consumers incase of damage.The Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority Act, 1996 is a relevant lawalthough it is not classified as a food law. The act provides for the establishment of the PakistanStandards and Quality Control Authority (PSQCA), which is the body for formulating standards oradopting international standards. It is also responsible for enforcement of standards in the whole ofPakistan, and has the mandate to inspect and test products and services, including food items, for theirquality, specification and characteristics during use, and for import and export purposes.Apart from these basic food safety regulations, there are a number of other law enforcing andregulatory bodies that are working in direct and indirect correlation with the concerned issue.Generally, the government still relies heavily on the Codex Alimentarius standards and guidelinesdeveloped jointly by the FAO and WHO for setting and revising its requirements for labeling,packaging, food additives, pesticides and imported food products. Food standards which are specifiedby the United States Food and Drug Administration (USDA) and Food and Drug Association (FDA)are also used for certain products. Moreover, government agencies such as the CustomsDepartment and Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ), Pakistan Council of Scientific andIndustrial Research (PCSIR), National Institute of Health (NIH), Pakistan Agriculture ResearchCouncil (PARC) and Pakistan Council for Research in Water Resources (PCRWR) are also workingfor the focal point of achieving food safety objectives in their respective premises. In the presenceof so many agencies and available regulations, it is however a harsh reality that the prevailingsituation of food safety and security standards in the country is dark and dismal. In the wake of thisplethora of regulations and regulatory bodies, the presence of such deteriorated structure indicatestowards a fact that the influx of laws and regulations and establishment of regulatory bodies is certainlynot the sole way of combating the safety issue and there exists severe glitches in our lawenforcement and implementation policies at all levels.
    • PSQCA Act 1996CHAPTER – I: PRELIMINARYDefinitions.CHAPTER – II:Constitution of the Authority.Management.Constitution of the Board.Advisory Council.CHAPTER – III:Director GeneralPowers and Functions of the Authority.Authentication of Orders and other instruments of the Authority Prohibition of improper use ofAuthority marks.Prohibition of Improper use of Authority MarkProhibition of use of certain names, etc.Prohibition of registration in certain cases.Power to prohibit for restrict export of certain articlesPower to prohibit manufacture, keeping in stock and sale of certain articles.InspectorsPower to obtain information, etc.Power of Authority to Other bodiesAppeals.Certain matters to be kept confidentialPenality of improper use of authority markPenalty of contravention of Section-13Penality of other contraventionsCognizance of offences by courts.Protection of action taken under this Act.Power to exempt.Power to make rules.Power to make regulations.CHAPTER – IV: ESTABLISHMENTSAppointment of Officers, servants, etc., by the AuthorityAppointment of officers, servants, etc., by the Director General in case of urgency.Members and officers etc. to be public servants.Delegation of powers to the Director General etc.CHAPTER – V: FINANCEFunds.Budget.Audit & Accounts.
    • CHAPTER – VI: MISCELLANEOUSSubmission of yearly reports and returns.Dissolution of the department of Central Testing Laboratories (CTL) and the Pakistan StandardsInstitution (PSI)Removal of difficulties.Repeal.
    • Standards / Regulations on Dairy and MeatProducts in PunjabOverviewThe Government of Pakistan promulgated “The West Pakistan Pure Food Ordinance, 1960, with the Actfor preventing the adulterated and misbranded Articles of Food and Drink as danger to health and asconsumer fraud. In the constitution1973, food includes in the provincial domain. The title West PakistanPure Food Ordinance, 1960 was substituted by The Punjab Pure Food Ordinance, 1960 vide the PunjabLaws (Adaption Order 1974).To achieve the objectives of the Pure Food Ordinance, the Government Public Analyst Laboratories wereestablished that Public Analysts carry out a wide range of analysis, and provide expert advice on theinterpretation of legislation and produce certificates of analysis which are submitted as evidence in legalcases. There are two Public Analyst laboratories one at Lahore and other at Multan. Enforcement ofPure Food Ordinance in the province is by local authorities to the extent of their jurisdiction and have aduty to check the safety of food and to provide adequate protection of the consumer; principally theirofficers / officials exercise the powers delegated under the Ordinance. However, the fast-growingimported food and health care products, the development of new, highly sophisticated food, and devicetechnologies in the late 1990s greatly increased the complexity of the Health Department’s mission. Tomeet the new challenges, the Health Department has developed strong scientific ties with academia andthe private sector and worked closely with other Departments to enhance public health standardswithin the province. Preparation and processing of food products may modify their nutritional valuesand use of food additives may introduce direct or indirect toxicity, but the real hazards to the health arecaused by the food adulteration.THE PUNJAB FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS ACT, 2011This Act was passed by the Punjab Assembly on 23 June 2011; assented to by the Governor of thePunjab on 5 July 2011; and, was published in the Punjab Gazette (Extraordinary), dated 6 July 2011,pages 591-603Section HeadingChapter IPreliminary1. Short title, extent and commencement.; in this section the law itself is explained with itsjurisdiction and the time of its effectiveness when it is notified i.e Sep 20112. Definitions. In this section, legal definitions of various terms is explained in chronological order,(a). “Adulterated food”(b) "Advertisement"(c). "Chairperson"(d) " Consumer"
    • (e) “Director General”(f) “Food”(g) "Food Additive"(h) " Food Authority"(i) "Food Business"(j) "Food Laboratory"(k) " Food Safety Officer”(l) “Godown”(m). “Government”(o) "Ingredient"(p) "Label"(q) " Licence"(r) "Local area";(s) “Misbranded food’’(t) "Notification"(u) "Package"(v) "Premises"(w) "Prescribed"(x) " Public Analyst"(y) “Safe food"(z) "Sale"(za) "Standard"(zb) "Sub-standard"(zc) “Transit”(zd) "Unsafe food"Chapter IIEstablishment of Food Authority3. Establishment of the Food Authority. Here they have explained the ways and means ofestablishment of the authority4. Composition of the Food Authority. This section explains the formation of Food Authority itselfwhich will comprise of, Chairperson, appointed by the Government Members, 14 in total out of whicho 5 secretaries (Food, Health, Finance, Livestock and Dairy Development and LocalGovernment and Community department)o 2 Eminent Scientists / Food Technologistso 3 Representative of the Chambers of Commerce and Industryo 1 Representative from retailers’ organizationso 1Representative from farmers organizations
    • o 1 Representative from consumer organizationso 1 An Eminent citizeno They also talk about Gender balance5. Terms and conditions of Chairperson and members. Appointed for a period of Three years, fortwo terms only6. Removal of Chairperson and members.7. Powers and functions of the Food Authority.(1). The Food Authority shall regulate and monitor the manufacture, processing, distribution,transportation, storage, sale and import of food so as to ensure safe food.(2). without prejudice to the provisions of sub-section (1), the Food Authority may byregulations specify-a. Standards, procedures, processes and guidelines in relation to anyb. aspect of food including food business, food labeling, food additives, andc. specify appropriate enforcement systems;d. Procedure and guidelines for setting up and accreditation of foode. laboratories; andf. Method of sampling, analysis of samples, reporting of results;g. Licensing, prohibition order, recall procedure, improvement notice,h. prosecution etc;i. Service matters of its employees; andj. Any other thing which is necessary or incidental for the discharge of its functions underthis Act.(3). The Food Authority may alsoa. Provide scientific advice and technical support to the Governmentb. in matters of framing the food laws;c. Collect and analyze relevant scientific and technical data relating tod. food matters.e. Establish a system of network of organizations to facilitate foodf. safety and quality control;g. Organize training programmes in food safety and standards;h. Promote general awareness as to food safety and standards; andi. Certify food for export out of the province or the country;j. Perform any other function, if any, assigned8. Proceedings of the Food Authority.9. Scientific panel.(1). The Food Authority shall establish scientific panel, which shall consist of the following:a. Secretary Food, Government of Punjabb. Secretary Health, Government of Punjabc. Representative of Pakistan Standards and Quality Authority or its provincialequivalent.d. Representative of Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research or itsprovincial equivalent.
    • e. Representative of National Institute of Food Science & Technology, Faisalabadf. One Food technologist and scientist from a recognized research institute oracademic institutiong. One qualified Medical Practitionerh. Representatives from the relevant stake holders as prescribedi. The scientific penal may co-opt any other member from the relevant industry.(2). The Scientific Panel may, after due deliberations with the relevant industry and consumerrepresentatives, make recommendations to the Food authority on standards, products,procedures, processes and guidelines in relation to any technical aspect of the food.10. Director General.(1). The government shall appoint a Director General who shall be the Chief Executive Officerand the Secretary of the Food Authority.(2). The Director General, subject to the control of the Food Authority, shall be responsible forefficient implementation of the Act, and the regulations made there under.(3). The Director general shall have the powers of the Food Safety Officer as enumerated undersection 19 of the Act.(4). The Food Authority may, if not satisfied with the performance of the Director General,surrender him to the government.11. Public analysts.(1) The Food Authority may, by notification, appoint public analysts for such areas as it mayassign to them.(2) A public analyst shall possess such qualifications as may be prescribed.(3) The production in a trial of a certificate under the hand of a public analyst shall, until thecontrary is proved, be sufficient proof of the facts contained in the certificate.(4) The Court may, of its own accord or on the request of the accused, cause any food or sampleof food to be sent for analysis to the public analyst.(5) Unless otherwise directed by the Court, the accused, on whose request any food or sampleof food is sent to the public analyst, shall bear its cost.12. Food Safety Officer.–(1) The Food Authority may, by notification, appoint Food Safety Officers for such areas as itmay assign to them.(2) A Food Safety Officer shall possess such qualifications as may be prescribed.(3) Notwithstanding anything in sub-section (2), the Food Authority, in public interest, mayconfer the powers of a Food Safety Officer on a Government servant.13. Powers of Food Safety Officer.(1) A Food Safety Officer may–(a) take sample of any food or any substance, which appears to him to be intended forsale, or has been sold as food;
    • (b) seize any food, apparatus or utensil which appears to the Food Safety Officer to be incontravention of this Act, the rules or the regulations;(c) enter or seal any premises where he believes any food is prepared, preserved,packaged, stored, conveyed, distributed or sold, examine any such food and examine anythingthat he believes is used, or capable of being used for such preparation, preservation, packaging,storing, conveying, distribution or sale;(d) open and examine any package which, he believes, to contain any food;(e) examine any book or documents with respect to any food and make copies of or takeextracts from the book or document;(f) demand the production of the identity card, the business registration certificate,license or any other relevant document from a food operator;(g) mark, seal or otherwise secure, weigh, count or measure any food or appliance; and(h) search and seize any vehicle carrying food.(2) A Food Safety Officer shall prepare a statement describing the food, apparatus, utensil orvehicle seized and shall deliver a copy of the statement to the person from whom it is seized or,if such person is not present, send such copy to him by mail.(3) A person claiming back anything seized under sub-section (1) may, within seven days of theseizure, apply to the Court and the Court may confirm such seizure, wholly or in part, or mayorder that it be restored to the claimant.(4) If the Court confirms the seizure of the food, apparatus or utensil, it shall be forfeited to theFood Authority or the Court may direct that such food, apparatus, utensil may be destroyed atthe cost of the owner or person in whose possession it was found.(5) If an application is not made within seven days under sub-section (3), the food, apparatus orutensil seized, shall be forfeited to the Food Authority.(6) Any person may make an application in writing to the Food Safety Officer asking him topurchase a sample of any food from a food operator and get it analyzed from the public analyst.14. Other employees of the Food Authority.Chapter IIIEnforcement Mechanism15. Licensing of food business.(1) A person shall not use any place for food business except under the prescribed registrationor license.(2) The Food Authority may, in the prescribed manner, exempt a class of food operators fromobtaining compulsory registration or license under this section.16. Improvement notice.1) If a Food Safety Officer has reasons to believe that any food operator has failed to complywith any provisions of this Act, the rules or the regulations, he may serve an improvementnotice upon the food operator–
    • (a) stating the grounds for believing that the food operator has failed to comply withany provisions of the Act or the rules or the regulations;(b) specifying the matters which constitute the food operator’s failure so to comply; and(c) intimating the measures which the food operator should take in order to securecompliance with the relevant provisions of the law.(2) If the food operator fails to comply with the improvement notice within the prescribed time,the Food Authority may cancel or suspended his licence or take such other action as it deemsappropriate.17. Prohibition orders.If any food operator is convicted of an offence under this Act and the Court is satisfied that the healthrisk exists with respect to the food business, the Court, may impose the following prohibitions–(a) a prohibition on the use of a process, treatment, premises or equipment for purposes of thefood business; or(b) a prohibition, with or without specifying period of prohibition, on the food operator toconduct or operate the food business.18. Emergency prohibition orders.19. Notification of food poisoning.20. Food recall procedures.21. Establishment of food laboratories.Chapter IVOffences and Penalties22. Selling food not in compliance of the Law.23. Substandard or misbranded food.24. Unsafe food.25. False advertisement.26. False labeling.27. Failure to comply with the directions.28. Unhygienic or unsanitary conditions.29. Penalty for prescribed offences.30. False information.31. Obstructing the Food Safety Officer.32. Business without licence.33. Warranty.34. Punishment for subsequent offence.35. Compensation in case of injury or death of a consumer.36. Forfeiture of food, etc.
    • 37. Offences by companies.38. Publication in newspapers.Chapter VJurisdiction and Procedure39. Jurisdiction of the Food Authority.40. Jurisdiction of the Court.41. Cognizance of offences.42. Time limit for prosecutions.43. Summary trial.44. Defence available.45. Recovery of fines etc.Chapter VIFinances and Reports46. Food Authority Fund.47. Bank accounts.48. Budget and accounts.49. Audit.50. Annual report.Chapter VIIMiscellaneous51. Delegation of powers.52. Reward by the Food Authority.53. Public servants.54. Immunity.55. Overriding effect.
    • THE PUNJAB PURE FOOD RULES, 2007Under the THE PUNJAB FOOD SAFETY AND STANDARDS ACT, 2011, the rules are set called The PUNJABPURE FOOD RULES, 2007 that explain the standards of each food item. There are a total of 49 Rules outof which following rules deal with the milk and milk products,4. “Food additive” and its labelling etc5. Colouring matter in Food--- and its labelling6. “Preservatives in food, use of preservatives for the purpose of analysis7. “Flavouring compounds and agents in food”8. Antioxidants in food:-9. “Food Conditioners, stabilizers in food”10. Non-nutritive constituents and Artificial sweetening agent in food,11. “Unsound food and food injurious to health / Incidental constituent”1. Poisonous Metal2. Crop contaminants and Naturally Occurring Toxic Substances:-3. Drug Residue:-4. “Oestrogen residues”.5. “INSECTICIDES AND PESTICIDES6. “Microorganisms and their toxins”7. (1) “Irradiation” means any physical procedure involving the intentional exposure offood to ionizing radiation.(2) “Ionizing radiation” means all radiations capable of producing ions directly orindirectly in their passage through matter.(3) “Irradiated food,”12. Standards of nature, substance or quality of foods13. Mode of labelling of pre-packed food14. Requirements as to the sale of pre-packed food otherwise than by retail15. Special Requirements where presence of vitamins or minerals, essential amino acids,essential fatty acids claimed.16 Exemption from labelling of food17. Defacing of labels18. Labelling of milk and milk products19. Manner in which articles of food may be manufactured, sold or kept for sale20. Special provision for milk and dairy produce—21. Restriction on the employment on person suffering from communicable disease__(22. Special conditions for the manufacture of Pasteurised/ Sterilized/UHT Milk23.Conditions for appproval Pasteurisatoin / Sterlisation/ UHT Plants__24. Mode of marking of packages containing Banaspati, Refined Vegetable Oil/ refined blendedvegetable oil, Margarine or Fat Spread, Animal Fat (Halal)—(27. Licensing of food trades businesses and premises—28. Licences—29. special conditions for Butter, Desi Ghee,Cream or Khoa Factory—(
    • 30 Special condition for Banaspati, Vegetable oil, Margarine, charbi and Animal Fat (Halal)-31. Special condition for all licensed premises---34. Power to deal with person engaged in food business suffering from communicable diseaseWhereas a whole Separate Chapter called Appendix I and Appendix II deals with milk and milkproducts.Appendix I to Rule 12 Turbidity testAppendix II to Rule 12 Standards of nature, substance or quality of food 93Milk and Milk Products.12.1.01 Milk12.1.02 Milk Product12.1.03 Homogenized milk12.1.04 Pasteurisation, pasteurized12.1.05 Sterilisation, sterilized12.1.06 Ultra High Temperature milk or UHT milk12.1.07 Cow’s milk12.1.08 Buffalo’s milk12.1.09 Goat’s milk12.1.010 Sheep’s milk12.1.011 Camel’s milk12.1.012 Standardised milk12.1.013 Skimmed (Separated ) milk12.1.014 (i) Milk(ii) Mixed milk12.1.015 Condensed milk (Evaporated) Un-sweetened12.1.016 Condensed milk (Evaporated) Sweetened12.1.017 Condensed skimmed milk (Evaporated skimmed milk) Unsweetened12.1.018 Condensed skimmed milk (Evaporated skimmed milk) sweetened12.1.019 Flavoured milk12.1.020 (i)Reconstituted/Recombined milk(ii) Liquid milk for making tea / Liquid tea whitener(iii) Dried milk powder for making tea/ dried tea whitener12.1.021 Cream / Raw Cream12.1.022 Homogenized / Pasteurized / Sterilized / UHT Cream12.1.023 Khoa12.1.024 Barfi, pera, kalakand12.1.025 Dried milk, milk powder or whole milk powder12.1.25 (a) Whey powder12.1.026 Partly skimmed milk powder12.1.027 Dried skimmed milk or Non-fat skimmed dry milk solids or Skimmed milk powder. 9812.1.028 Dahi or Curd12.1.029 Skimmed milk dahi or curd
    • 12.1.030 Cheese (Hard)12.1.031 Processed cheese(a) Mozzarella Cheese(b) Feta Cheese12.1.032 Processed cheese spread12.1.033 Cottage cheese12.1.034 Un-named cheese12.1.035 Ice cream, fruit ice cream, sunde ice cream, malai-ki-baraf, khoa-ki-baraf, malai-ki-kulfi,khoa-ki-kulfi, milk kulfi, kulfa, cone ice cream12.1.036 Frozen desserts12.1.037 Desi Ghee12.1.038 Butter12.1.039 Milk fat, butter oil, anhydrous milk fat and anhydrous butter oil12.1.040 Yogurt12.1.041 Skimmed milk yogurt or Non-fat yogurt12.1.042 Fruit yogurt12.1.043 . Infant Formula12.1.044 . Infant Food12.1.045 Infant milk formula12.2.71 “Animal Fat (Halal)”Then there is a separate section for Meat and Meat Products12.8 Meat And Meat Products.12.8.256 Meat or fresh meat12.8.257 Chilled meat12.8.258 Frozen meat12.8.259 Minced meat or ground meat12.8.260 Meat product12.8.261 Meat or meat product12.8.262 Meat paste12.8.263 Sausages12.8.264 Meat with other food12.8.265 Shami Kabab12.8.266 Kabab, Seekh Kabab, Qeema tikka, Qeema ki tikki12.8.267 Burger, chicken burger, mutton burger, beef burger, fish burger12.8.268 Meat extracts, meat essences and meat juices12.8.269 Hunter beef12.8.270 Meat cubes (chicken, mutton, beef)12.8.271 Canned meat12.8.272 Meat canned with other food12.8.273 Particular labeling requirements of meat and meat products
    • THE MILK AND MEAT SAFETY ACT, 2011Whereas it is necessary to address physical, chemical and biological hazards in the production of milk,meat and other animal products and to provide an effective enforcement framework for the purpose itis hereby enacted as follows:Chapter 1: PreliminaryShort Title and CommencementThis Act may be called the Milk and Meat Safety Act, 2011It shall extend to the whole of the province of PunjabIt shall come into force at onceDefinitions‘Agency’ means the Milk and Meat Safety Agency established under section 3 of the Act‘Animal’ means livestock, fish, poultry, duck, goose, deer and horses‘Animal produce’ includes meat, bones, milk and eggs‘Butcher’ means a person who undertakes slaughter of animals.‘Carcass’ means the slaughtered de-skinned body of an animalCertification or certificate’ means certificate or certification issued by the Agency that an animalor animal produce complies with some or all of the provisions of this Act or regulations issuedthere under‘Contagious disease’ means a disease which may be transmitted to humans through blood orany human secretion‘Government’ means the Government of Punjab‘Gradation’ means division of meat byConformation of animalFinish of carcassAge of animalTexture of meat.Color of meatOdour‘Home slaughter’ means the slaughter of a livestock or poultry animal by its owner on hisproperty for his consumption or that of his immediate family members. Home Slaughter cannottake place in a slaughterhouseLocal Government means a Local Government established under the Local Government Law forthe time being enforced.‘Meat shop’ means any premises, from which meat, bones, or other parts of an animal excepthide or skin are sold.‘Regulations’ means regulations issued under this Act‘Zeotic disease’ means any disease which is easily transmitted from human beings to animals
    • ‘Zoonotic disease’ means any disease which is easily transmitted to human beings throughconsumption of animal produceChapter 2: Establishment of Milk and Meat Safety AgencyConstitution of Milk and Meat Safety Agency: As soon as may be after the commencement of this Act,Government shall establish a Milk and Meat Safety Agency to be comprised of a Director General andsuch number of other officers as may be deemed appropriate.Agency to be body corporate: The Agency shall be a body corporate and may sue and be sued in itsname.Agency to appoint/authorize persons as inspectors:The Agency shall appoint such number of inspectors as may be necessary to undertakeenforcement of this Act and regulations made there under.Where the Agency entrusts a local government with the enforcement of one or more provisionsof this ActThe concerned local government may appoint such number of inspectors as may be necessaryafter approval of the Agency.The Agency may authorize such number of offices of Local Government to perform the functionsof inspectors as may be requiredDirector General: The Director General shall be the Chief Executive officer of the Agency and shall beappointed by the Government for a period of three years.Board:There shall be a Board to provide strategic guidance, oversee working and ensure achievementof objectives.The Board shall comprise of the following:Secretary Livestock and Dairy Development Department- ChairmanVice Chancellor University of Animal and Health Sciences- MemberDirector General / CEO of the Agency-Member/SecretaryRepresentative of the Finance Department-MemberRepresentative of the Food Department- MemberRepresentative of the Forest and Wildlife Department – MemberDirector General (Extension) L&DD Department- MemberDeputy Secretary (Technical) L&DD Department-MemberThree members of the provincial assembly –MembersDirector Disease Surveillance and Control, L&DD Punjab, Lahore-MemberThe Board shall meet at least twice a yearThe decisions of the Board shall be taken by majority of members presentA vacancy in the Board shall not invalidate proceedings of the Board
    • A Department on the Board may be represented by an officer not below the rank of AdditionalSecretaryChapter 3: Milk and Meat Safety RegulationsPower to prescribe farm management regulations:Power to prescribe regulations to eliminate disease:Power to prescribe slaughtering regulations:Power to prescribe standards:Power to prescribe regulations for animal produce businesses:Power to prescribe storage regulations:Power to prescribe transport regulationsSpecial regulations concerning Fish:Power to prescribe health regulations for animal handlers and persons undertaking slaughter:Registration of animal farmsIdentification of AnimalsMeat business operators not to sell unstamped meat:Butchers to obtain licenses:Health of butchersChapter 4: Certification and disclosuresDisclosure of origin of meat and its characteristics at the point of sale:Halal animal producePower to provide for certification of animal characteristics:Power of Government to certify FarmsChapter 5: EnforcementDuties of Local Governments
    • Power of Inspectors:Rendering meat unsafe and injurious by transmitting contagious disease:Bringing into commerce unsafe and injurious animal produce:Factors to be taken into consideration by courts in arriving at verdict and sentence:Unstamped Meat:Misleading Advertisement:Punishment for Obstructing or impersonating an Inspector:Punishment for carrying out Animal Produce Business without LicenseSelling Meat of Dead Animal:Causing injury by violating regulations:Ordinary violations:Power of court to order confiscation of animal produce:Chapter 6: MiscellaneousJurisdiction of other courts barredManner of making regulations:Regulations to be in accord with International Hazard Control Standards:Coming into effect of orders issued under this ActPower to make Rules / Regulation: Government may by notification make rules for putting into effectany provision of this Act.
    • Public and/or Private Initiatives for Food Safety orFood Quality in PakistanThere have been a number of initiatives taken up in the past regarding food quality in the past, both atpublic and private forums. Some of them are mentioned below,1. National Institute of Helath (NIH)The Directorate of Nutrition Survey and Research working in Karachi was shifted to National HealthLaboratories (NHL) in 1967, and was re-named as Nutrition Division in 1971, on partition of the East andWest Pakistan. Nutrition Division has been assigned the duty of monitoring and surveillance of nutritionsituation in the country. It undertakes research and specific nutrition programs for the control ofmalnutrition and acts as advisory body to the Federal Government for food and nutrition policies andfuture planning. Its main objective is to “Reduce malnutrition and burden of food borne illnessesthrough strengthening of food quality control system in the country.”The Division is comprised of the following laboratories: It include 21 technical professionals with supportof 20 personnel. Laboratories are provided with advance equipment / computers and trained manpowerfor use:1. Public Analyst Laboratory2. Biochemical Food Laboratory3. Chemical Water Testing Laboratory4. Microbiological Laboratory:5. Iodine Laboratory6. Reference Laboratory for Fortified Wheat Flour7. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points Techniques Laboratory8. Applied Nutrition Section (Nutrition Education and Diet Therapy)Following are the activities and Targets set for the year 2009- 2011Islamabad Capital Territory Pure Food Act – 2009Document on Food Safety Management System through application of ISO 22000:2005 Standardfor Small and Medium EnterprisesRevision of Pure Food Rules, 19652. Consumer Rights Commission of Pakistan (CRCP)Consumer Rights Commission of Pakistan (CRCP) is a rights-based civil initiative registered under theTrust Act, 1882. Established in 1998, CRCP is an independent, non-profit, and non-governmentalorganization. It largely works through local fund-raising and engaging volunteers. It is not supported byany industry or commercial sector. It is the first national consumer organization in the country, whichapproaches the issue of consumer protection in comprehensive and holistic terms. Its vision andstrategies have significant cross linkages with both market practices and issues of governance.
    • 4. Milk and Meat Safety Agency (Punjab)As part of its effort to increase domestic and international marketability of milk and meat products andto keep unsafe milk and meat out of the consumer market the Livestock and Dairy DevelopmentDepartment, Punjab has launched a project for establishment of a Milk and Meat Safety Agency. TheAgency would be responsible for ensuring adherence to standards throughout the Food chain. Whiledetailed regulations and rules for dealing with different aspects will be developed by the Project thisdocument presents a broad framework for the establishment, working and regulation of milk and meatin the province.5. Punjab Agriculture & Meat CompanyPunjab Agriculture & Meat Company (former Lahore Meat Company) is a Government of the Punjabowned, non-profit R&D organization, duly incorporated and registered under section 42 of CompaniesOrdinance, 1984. The company has been aimed at formalizing horticulture and meat sector throughinterventions at each tier of value chain i.e. production, processing and marketing (inland & export)under compliance of international quality standards through public / private channels.State of the art meat processing plant is being built at Shahpur Kanjaran, Lahore. This would bePakistans biggest automated processing plant complying with international standards. Currently thecompany is integrating backwards to ensure animal supply fattened through natural feeding by helpingfarmers establish fattening farms under the project called "Save the Calf". Registered farmers would getfree consultancy, training and subsidies under this project. Planning is underway for integrating forwardinto retail to the local market.6. Plan Milk Value Chain Project (PMVCP) VehariPlan is an international, humanitarian, child focused development organization without any religious,political or governmental affiliations. Plan Pakistan with the collaboration of Inter cooperation Pakistanconducted the study in District Vehari related to Milk value chain. Based on the study plan Pakistan withthe financial assistance of European Union, has initiated “Plan Milk Value Chain Project” in VehariDistrict. Overall financial layout of the project is 2.18 million euro, 10% of the cost is being shared byPlan. The project is focused at poverty reduction of poor farmers, who depend largely on livestock. Themain objective of the project is to mitigate the effects of increases in food prices and increase householdfood security through improved productivity and quality in the dairy sector. Small livestock farmers,along with women and children, are the target beneficiary of the project
    • Halal Products in Punjab
    • Technical inputs / Analysis of the situationAn Overview of the Food Sector in PakistanDespite experiencing phenomenal industrial development, Agriculture is an important element in thesocial fabric of Pakistani society and plays an essential role in the formation of its cultural identity.Whatever the economic structure has been in the past or is today, unquestionably Pakistan’s economyis, and will continue to be, based on agriculture in the foreseeable years. A vibrant agriculture inPakistan is central to the wellbeing of the largest and most rapidly growing section of the populationliving in approximately 45,000 rural villages, as well as for the welfare of the urban population and thoseworking in agro-industrial enterprises.Major products of the Pakistani food processing industry include dairy products (milk, butter, yoghurt,cheese, ice cream, etc.), edible oils (cooking oils, hydrogenated vegetable oils), fruits and vegetableproducts (fruit juices, fruit juice drinks, canned fruits, etc.), carbonated beverages, sugar, flour, snackfoods (potato crisps, salted nuts, extruded products from rice flakes and corn grits, lentil and gramsnacks), processed chicken, jams, jellies, squashes, sauces, pickles, cereals (corn flakes, rice cereal,porridge, etc.), fish, meat, biscuits, breads, confectionery (toffee, bubble gum and chocolate), and spices(pepper, coriander, turmeric, ginger).Food Safety Systems / RegulationsFood safety systems in developed countries have evolved over time through the incorporation of manydiverse scientific, technological, legal and societal advances. In the developing countries, food safetysystems are still extremely diverse and tend to be far less organized, comprehensive and effective. Mostfood safety systems in developing countries are challenged by problems of rapidly growing populations,urbanization and natural environments that expose consumers to a wide range of potential food safetyrisks. The informal sector is often a significant producer and distributor of fresh and processed foodproducts (including ‘street’ foods) for direct consumption. Self-provisioning occurs in rural and urbanareas and is correspondingly important in terms of food supply. All of these factors make effective foodsafety regulation and control much more difficult to achieve.Even when food standards in developing countries like Pakistan are aligned with recognizedinternational standards, the lack of technical and institutional capacity to control and ensure complianceessentially makes the improvements in regulation and standards less effective. Inadequate technicalinfrastructure - in terms of food laboratories, human and financial resources, national legislative andregulatory frameworks, enforcement capacity, management and coordination - weakens the ability toconfront these challenges. Such systemic weaknesses may not only threaten public health but will alsoresult in reduced trade access to global food markets.According to the Government officials at National level, Pakistan Standards and Quality ControlAuthority (PSQCA) and Pakistan National Accreditation Council (PNAC) are responsible for assessingquality and supervise certification agencies, laboratories, provide training and personnel in the relevant
    • fields. At provincial level food standards are adopted from Pure Food Rules 1965 and are governed byProvincial Health and Food Departments, and District Governments. A food inspector is a key person inthe enforcement of pure food rule 1965. Public Analyst institution works under pure food rules 1965following the prescribed standards. Pakistan generally follows Codex rules and guidelines regarding theimportation of bulk food items as well as food ingredients. Currently, 13-14 international bodies areoperating in private sector, providing quality and environment certificates to local companies.Specific Issues of Developing Countries related to Food safety1. Food SystemsFood production, processing, and marketing systems are complex. In many developing countries theyare also highly fragmented and dependent upon a large number of small producers. While this may havesocioeconomic benefits, as large quantities of food pass through a multitude of food handlers andmiddlemen, the risk of exposing food to unhygienic environments, contamination and adulterationincreases. Problems occur as a result of poor postharvest handling, processing and storage of food andalso due to inadequate facilities and infrastructure such as the absence or shortage of safe water supply,electricity, storage facilities including cold stores, and transport facilities and networks, etc.Furthermore, a majority of food producers and handlers lack appropriate knowledge and expertise inthe application of modern agricultural practices, food hygiene, and good food handling practices. Thisdoes not mean that all food from such sources is unsafe. Many traditional food production and handlingpractices have in-built food safety margins based on years of experience. Problems arise because of theinability to cope with the introduction of emerging intensive agricultural practices, increasingurbanization, stress on natural resources, and new food safety risks.2. Food Processing IndustryThe food processing industry in developing countries ranges from sophisticated state-of-the art facilitiesto small artisanal operations producing traditional foods for the local community. The size of theseprocessing units is quite variable – from a few large plants to a majority of small and cottage scale unitswith very limited resources for effective technological inputs. At the least developed end of thiscontinuum, these premises are ill equipped to deal with the maintenance of food safety and quality in ascientific and sustained manner. Governments often support these small units as they provideemployment and generate income for their operators. The challenge for developing countries is toprovide incentives for the effective expansion of these small units so they may absorb bettertechnology. Food processors in developing countries also face problems with the reliability and timelydelivery of raw material, as well as variations in overall quality. Smallholders usually produce rawmaterials, and a lack of infrastructure in the producing areas results in variability in the quality of thesematerials. This calls for greater vigilance by the food processing units and for food control activity to beimplemented at all stages along the food supply chain.3. Street FoodsStudies in developing countries have shown that up to 20-25% of household food expenditure isincurred outside the home, and some segments of the population depend entirely on street foods. Thishas been one of the consequences of rapid urbanization, with millions of people having no access to a
    • kitchen or other cooking facilities. There are millions of single workers without families and a largefloating population who move in and out of the city for work, and these people largely depend uponstreet foods for their daily sustenance. In many developing countries, street food vendors are animportant component of the food supply chain. Being reasonably priced and conveniently available,street food satisfies a vital need of the urban population. These ready-to-eat foods and beverages areprepared and/or sold by vendors or hawkers mainly in streets or other convenient public places such asaround places of work, schools, hospitals, railway stations, and bus terminals. Food safety is a majorconcern with street foods. These foods are generally prepared and sold under unhygienic conditions,with limited access to safe water, sanitary services, or garbage disposal facilities. Hence street foodspose a high risk of food poisoning due to microbial contamination, as well as improper use of foodadditives, adulteration and environmental contamination.4. Food Control Infrastructure and ResourcesFood control infrastructure in many developing countries tends to be inadequate, due to limitedresources and often poor management. Food control laboratories are frequently poorly equipped andlack suitably trained analytical staff. This is accentuated where multiple agencies are involved in foodcontrol. A lack of overall strategic direction means that limited resources are not properly utilized. Foodcontrol systems may also suffer from poorly or inadequately developed compliance policies. Modernfood control systems call for science-based and transparent decision-making processes, and requireaccess to qualified and trained personnel in disciplines such as food science and technology, chemistry,biochemistry, microbiology, veterinary science, medicine, epidemiology, agricultural sciences, qualityassurance, auditing and food law. Food control authorities need to better appreciate the role of sciencein the risk-based approach, and to take advantage of scientific resources in the international community.Summary of Foods Safety related Issues in Pakistan1. Out-dated and incomplete Food Safety legislation with poor enforcement capacity.2. Absence of a “competent authority” recognized by the importing country to implement andcertify basic Food Safety requirements.3. Under-funded regulatory agencies (MINFAL, PSQCA) lacking skilled staff, appropriateinfrastructure and adequate inspection, monitoring and certification capabilities.4. Insufficient public-private dialogue and cooperation in standards development, implementation,domestic enforcement and export market strategy.5. Lack of technical capacity and available resources to engage in standards development and toassess the technical justification and economic implications of new standards and theirapplication domestically or by export partners.6. Absence of national strategy on food safety, animal and plant health combined with ad hocmechanisms for resource allocation.7. Lack of information on export market Food Safety requirements in both the public and privatesector.
    • 8. Inability to monitor, manage and report data on plant pests and animal diseases. Weakinstitutional capacity to respond to requests for information on disease and pest prevalence.9. Inability to control plant and animal pests and diseases through initiatives such as surveillance,eradication or zoning. Problems in securing international recognition of disease free areas ofproduction.10. Problems in sharing responsibilities between the public and private sector11. Insufficient awareness of international food standards and poor institutional capacity toimplement and enforce these standards, e.g. Codex general standard on food hygiene andrelated hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) and to apply good agriculturalpractice (GAP), good manufacturing practices (GMP), etc.12. Weak private sector technological capability, shortage of trained staff, outdated processing,quality and safety systems, poor management of coordinated supply-chains (especially thoseinvolving smallholders).13. Lack of institutional capacity to engage in market access negotiations, provide data forimporting country risk assessments and to exercise rights and obligations under the WTO SPSAgreement.
    • Sources of Information / Study / ReferencesPeopleContact Person Designation DepartmentDr Iftikhar Deputy Secretary (Tech) LDDB PunjabDr Rasheed Livestock Consultant MMSADr Iqbal Shahid Deputy Secretary (Tech) Planning DepartementDr Maqbool Ahmed Quarantine officer Animal Quarantine departmentMr Jawad Paasha Legal Expert in Food lawsMr Arshad Shah Food DepartmentDr Asif Sahi CEO PAMCODr Naeem PAMCODr Navid NiaziGeneral Manager(Field Servicesand Capacity Building) LDDBCEO PDDCDr Tajamal DLO District Livestock OfficersDr Rahat Munir Food security officer Local Food InspectorsDr Tahir Yaqoob Director WTO LabDr Yasin Tipu WTO LabDr Abdullah Dean UVASDr Asif Suleman Senior Manager Slaughetr House (PAMCO)Asif Ghayas CEO ZenithNawaz Dogar CEO AbideenBill Stewon HMCDD NestleAmir Khawas GM-MPD EngroMalik Tasawar GM-Plant MillacLiterature Codex “GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR USE OF THE TERM “HALAL” CAC/GL 24-1997 Halal Food “A Complete Book” by Mian N. Riaz, Muhammad M. Chaudry © 2004 by CRC PressLLC Prefeasibility Study of Milk Processing Plant, May 2006 by Mascon Associates (Pvt) Ltd. FAO Dairy development in Pakistan “Dairy Report” by Umm e Zia FAO WHO Guideline Food control “Food Safety Legislation in Pakistan: Identifying Entry Points for Public Intervention” by MazharSiraj Research Fellow CRCP Research Paper The State of Food Security in Pakistan: Future Challenges and Coping Strategies”By Munir Ahmad Chief of Research and Director, Food Security Centre of the Pakistan Instituteof Development Economics, Islamabad
    •  PC1 of Agribusiness Development and Diversification Project MINISTRY OF FOOD, AGRICULTUREAND LIVESTOCK GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN FEBRUARY 2005Web Sites http://www.codexalimentarius.net/web/index_en.jsp http://www.hircpakistan.org/default.html http://www.crcp.org.pk/index.htm http://www.starfarmcc.com/default.php http://www.pamco.bz/index.php http://www.asianfoodreg.com/index.php http://www.brecorder.com/ http://www.lawyer.com.pk/ http://tribune.com.pk/ http://www.disknet.com/indiana_biolab/default.htm http://lahoremeatcompany.org/about/
    • Appendix